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Title: SU-F-T-68: Characterizes of Microdetectors in Electron Beam Dosimetry

Abstract

Purpose: Electron beam dosimetry requires high resolution data due to finite range that can be accomplished with small volume detectors. The small-field used in advance technologies in photon beam has created a market for microdetectors, however characteristics are significantly variable in photon beams and relatively unknown in electron beam that is investigated in this study. Methods: Among nearly 2 dozen microdetectors that have been investigated in small fields of photon beam, two popular detectors (microDiamond 60019 (PTW)) and W1 plastic scintillator detector (Standard Imaging)) that are tissue equivalent and have very small sensitive volume are selected. Electron beams from Varian linear accelerators were used to investigate dose linearity dose rate dependence, energy dependence, depth dose and profiles in a reference condition in a water phantom. For W1 that has its own Supermax electrometer point by point measurements were performed. For microDiamond, a PTW-scanning tank was used for both scanning and point dose measurements. Results: W1 detector showed excellent dose linearity (r{sup 2} =1.0) from 5–500 MU either with variation of dose rate or beam energy. Similar findings were also observed for microdiamond with r{sup 2}=1.0. Percent variations in dose/MU for W1 and microDiamond were 0.2–1.1% and 0.4–1.2%, respectively among dosemore » rate and beam energy. This variation was random for microDiamond, whereas it decreased with beam energy and dose rate for W1. The depth dose and profiles were within ±1 mm for both detectors. Both detectors did not show any energy dependence in electron beams. Conclusion: Both microDiamond and W1 detectors provided superior characteristics of beam parameters in electron beam including dose, dose rate linearity and energy independence. Both can be used in electron beam except W1 require point by point measurements and microdiamond requires 1500 MU for initial quenching.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Indiana University- School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)
  2. Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642316
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; DOSE RATES; DOSIMETRY; ELECTROMETERS; ELECTRON BEAMS; ENERGY DEPENDENCE; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; PHANTOMS; PHOTON BEAMS; PLASTIC SCINTILLATORS; RADIATION DOSES; SCINTILLATION COUNTERS

Citation Formats

Das, I, Andersen, A, and Akino, Y. SU-F-T-68: Characterizes of Microdetectors in Electron Beam Dosimetry. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956203.
Das, I, Andersen, A, & Akino, Y. SU-F-T-68: Characterizes of Microdetectors in Electron Beam Dosimetry. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956203.
Das, I, Andersen, A, and Akino, Y. Wed . "SU-F-T-68: Characterizes of Microdetectors in Electron Beam Dosimetry". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956203.
@article{osti_22642316,
title = {SU-F-T-68: Characterizes of Microdetectors in Electron Beam Dosimetry},
author = {Das, I and Andersen, A and Akino, Y},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Electron beam dosimetry requires high resolution data due to finite range that can be accomplished with small volume detectors. The small-field used in advance technologies in photon beam has created a market for microdetectors, however characteristics are significantly variable in photon beams and relatively unknown in electron beam that is investigated in this study. Methods: Among nearly 2 dozen microdetectors that have been investigated in small fields of photon beam, two popular detectors (microDiamond 60019 (PTW)) and W1 plastic scintillator detector (Standard Imaging)) that are tissue equivalent and have very small sensitive volume are selected. Electron beams from Varian linear accelerators were used to investigate dose linearity dose rate dependence, energy dependence, depth dose and profiles in a reference condition in a water phantom. For W1 that has its own Supermax electrometer point by point measurements were performed. For microDiamond, a PTW-scanning tank was used for both scanning and point dose measurements. Results: W1 detector showed excellent dose linearity (r{sup 2} =1.0) from 5–500 MU either with variation of dose rate or beam energy. Similar findings were also observed for microdiamond with r{sup 2}=1.0. Percent variations in dose/MU for W1 and microDiamond were 0.2–1.1% and 0.4–1.2%, respectively among dose rate and beam energy. This variation was random for microDiamond, whereas it decreased with beam energy and dose rate for W1. The depth dose and profiles were within ±1 mm for both detectors. Both detectors did not show any energy dependence in electron beams. Conclusion: Both microDiamond and W1 detectors provided superior characteristics of beam parameters in electron beam including dose, dose rate linearity and energy independence. Both can be used in electron beam except W1 require point by point measurements and microdiamond requires 1500 MU for initial quenching.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956203},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: Advances in radiation treatment especially with smaller fields used in SRS, Gamma knife, Tomotherapy, Cyberknife, and IMRT, require a high degree of precision especially with microdetectors for small field dosimetry (Das et al, Med Ph, 35, 206, 2008; Alfonso et al, Med Phys, 35, 5179, 2008). Due to small signal, the triaxial cable becomes critical in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR) which is studied with microdetectors. Methods: Six high quality triaxial cables, 9.1 meters long from different manufacturers without any defects were acquired along with 5 most popular microdetectors (microdiamond, plastic scintillators, SRS-diode, edge-diode and pinpoint). Amore » dedicated electrometer was used for each combination except W1 which has its own supermax electrometer. A 6MV photon beam from Varian True beam with 100 MU at a 600 MU/min was used. Measurements were made at a depth of 5 cm in water phantom. Field sizes were varied from 0.5 cm to 10 cm square fields. Readings were taken with combination of cables and microdetectors. Results: Signal is dependent on the quality of the connectors, cables and types of microdetector. The readings varied from nC to pC depending on the type of microdetector. The net signal, S, (Sc-Sn), where Sc is signal with chamber and Sn is without chamber is a linear function of sensitive volume, v; (S = α+β•V), where α and β are constants. The standard deviation (SD) in 3 sets of reading with each combination of cable-detector was extremely low <0.02%. As expected the SD is higher in small fields (<3cm). Maximum estimated error was only ±0.2% in cables-detector combinations. Conclusion: The choice of cables has relatively small effect (±0.2%) with microdosimeter and should be accounted in overall error estimation in k value that is needed to convert ratio of reading to dose in small field dosimetry.« less
  • Purpose: Total skin electron beam therapy (TSET) is used in the treatment of rare skin diseases such as mycosis fungoides, the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We report our experience with clinical implementation of TSET. Methods: A modified six-dual-field irradiation technique was chosen to deliver TSET. A Varian Trilogy linear accelerator with a nominal 6 MeV beam using high dose rate total skin electron mode (HDTSe) was employed. The recommendations of AAPM task group report 23 were followed for the commissioning. An acrylic plate (energy degrader) of 3.2 mm depth was mounted on the HDTSe applicator. The nominalmore » source to skin distance was set at 450 cm. The optimum tilt angle of the gantry was determined using NACP-02 ionization chamber embedded in certified therapy grade solid water. Percent depth dose measurements were performed using ionization chamber and radiochromic films embedded in solid water and anthropomorphic phantom. For absolute dose measurements, TG-51 formalism was employed. The dose distribution on the entire skin was measured by irradiating the anthropomorphic phantom, with TLDs attached, mimicking the real treatment. Results: The 3.2 mm acrylic plate mounted on the HDTSe applicator degraded the energy of the electron beam to 4.1 MeV in the treatment plane, located at an SSD of 450 cm. The optimum tilt angle was found to be ±20°. A single-dual field had a longitudinal uniformity, measured at a depth of dose maximum, of ±7% over a length of about 200 cm. For the entire treatment the multiplication factor was found to be 2.86. On the surface of the phantom, the dose varied from 108% to 93% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: We have successfully commissioned TSET meeting the guidelines of the TG report 23, and treated our first patient on February 25, 2014.« less
  • Purpose: Optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) are increasingly utilized for in vivo dosimetry of complex radiation delivery techniques. Measured doses, however, underestimate planned doses for plans that utilize thermoplastic mask immobilization. The purpose of this work was to quantify the effect of beam obliquity and air gap span between the mask and backscatter material, on measured-to-planned OSLD dose agreement. Methods: A previously-used thermoplastic mask was cut, reheated, and flattened to form a 33 by 9 cm{sup 2} stage approximately 2 mm thick. Two OSLDs were placed on the stage on 5 cm of solid water, covered with 50 by 50 bymore » 5 mm{sup 3} square of bolus, and scanned in the CT simulator. Plans were created with 10 by 10 cm{sup 2} open fields using 4, 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams at 0°, 45°, and 90° incidence. The isocenter was placed between the OSLDs at 5 mm depth. Dose was calculated and averaged for two OSLDs. Artificial air gaps of 3, 5, 10, and 20 mm were introduced in the plan and dose was recalculated for each energy/angle/gap combination. The experimental setup was replicated on a linear accelerator and air gaps were introduced by “bridging” the thermoplastic stage across solid water plastic of varying thickness. Fields were delivered as planned. OSLDs were read 12–15 hours after irradiation. Results: Measured-toplanned percent differences were constant with increasing gap thickness for 0° and 45° beam angles. At 90° and 0 cm gap, planned dose underestimated measured dose by 10–23% for all energies. This discrepancy decreased linearly to 0% with a 20 mm gap. OSLD signal did not decrease more than 6% for any gap span and energy. Conclusion: With the exception of parallel beam incidence, beam obliquity and air gap thickness did not have a substantial effect on measured-to-planned dose agreement.« less
  • Purpose: A retrospective comparison of dose distributions achievable by High dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT), Helical TomoTherapy (TOMO), CyberKnife (CK) and RapidArc (RA) in locally advanced inoperable cervical cancer patients is presented. Methods: Five patients with advanced stage cervical carcinoma were selected for this study after a full course of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), chemotherapy and HDR Brachytherapy. To highlight any significant similarities/differences in dose distributions, high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) coverage, organs at risk (OAR) sparing, and machine specific delivery limitations, we used D90 (dose received by 90% of the volume) as the parameter for HRCTV coverage as recommended bymore » the GEC-ESTRO Working Group. We also compared both integral and differential dose volume histograms (DVH) between different dose distributions treatment modalities for HRCTV and OAR. Results: TOMO and RA provided the most conformal dose distributions to HRCTV. Median doses (in Gy) to organs at risk were; for rectal wall: 1.7±0.6, 2.5±0.6,1.2±0.3, and 1.5±0.6, and for bladder wall: 1.6±0.1, 2.4±0.4, 0.8±0.6, and 1.5±0.5, for HDRBT, TOMO, CK, and RA, respectively. Conclusion: Contemporary EBRT modalities might be able to replace brachytherapy treatments for cervix cancer. While brachytherapy dose distributions feature high dose gradients, EBRT modalities provide highly conformal dose distributions to the target. However, it is still not clear whether a highly conformal dose or high gradient dose is more clinically relevant for the HRCTV in cervix cancer patients.« less
  • Purpose: To design and construct a second generation optical computed tomography (OCT) system using a fan-beam with a CMOS array detector for the 3D dosimetry with polymer gel and radiochromic solid dosimeters. The system was specifically designed for the small field dosimetry. Methods: The optical scanner used a fan-beam laser, which was produced from a collimated red laser beam (λ=620 nm) with a 15-degree laser-line generating lens. The fan-beam was sent through an index-matching bath which holds the sample stage and a sample. The emerging laser light was detected with a 2.54 cm-long CMOS array detector (512 elements). The samplemore » stage rotated through the full 360 degree projection angles at 0.9-degree increments. Each projection was normalized to the unirradiated sample at the projection angle to correct for imperfections in the dosimeter. A larger sample could be scanned by using a motorized mirror and linearly translating the CMOS detector. The height of the sample stage was varied for a full 3D scanning. The image acquisition and motor motion was controlled by a computer. The 3D image reconstruction was accomplished by a fan-beam reconstruction algorithm. All the software was developed inhouse with MATLAB. Results: The scanner was used on both PRESAGE and PAGAT gel dosimeters. Irreconcilable refraction errors were seen with PAGAT because the fan beam laser line refracted away from the detector when the field was highly varying in 3D. With PRESAGE, this type of error was not seen. Conclusion: We could acquire tomographic images of dose distributions by the new OCT system with both polymer gel and radiochromic solid dosimeters. Preliminary results showed that the system was more suited for radiochromic solid dosimeters since the radiochromic dosimeters exhibited minimal refraction and scattering errors. We are currently working on improving the image quality by thorough characterization of the OCT system.« less