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Title: SU-F-T-59: The Effect of Radiotherapy Dose On Immunoadjuvants

Abstract

Purpose: Combining radiotherapy with immunotherapy is a promising approach to enhance treatment outcomes for cancer patients. This in-vitro study investigated which radiotherapy doses could adversely affect the function of anti-CD40 mAb, which is one of the key immunoadjuvants under investigations for priming such combination therapy. Methods: Human monocyte derived THP-1 cells were treated with 100ng/mL of PMA in chamber slides to differentiate into macrophage. The THP-1 differentiated macrophages were treated with 2uL/ml of the anti-CD40 mAb and incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 24 hours. Anti-CD40 mAb treated cells were then irradiated at different doses of x-rays: (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12) Gy using the Small Animal Radiotherapy Research Platform (SARRP). After radiation, the cells were left at 4°C for 2 hours followed by immunofluorescence assay. A Nikon inverted live-cell imaging system with fluorescence microscope was used to image the cells mounted on a slide fixed with Dapi. For comparison, an ELISA assay was performed with the antibody added to 3mL of PBS in multiple 10mm dishes. The 10mm dishes were irradiated at different x-ray dose: (0, 2, 4, 6, 8. 10, 12, and 15) Gy using the SARRP. Results: The anti-CD40 mAb activating the macrophages startsmore » to lose their viability due to radiation dose between 8Gy to 12Gy as indicated by the immunofluorescence assay. The ELISA assay, also indicated that such high doses could lead to loss of the mAb’s viability. Conclusion: This work suggests that high doses like those employed during Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy may affect the viability of immunoadjuvants such as anti-CD 40. This study avails in-vivo experiments combining radiotherapy with anti-cd40 to get synergistic outcomes, including in the treatment of metastatic disease.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)
  2. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)
  3. University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States)
  4. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642307
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANIMALS; ANTIBODIES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CARBON DIOXIDE; ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY; FLUORESCENCE; IMAGES; IMMUNOTHERAPY; IN VITRO; IN VIVO; MACROPHAGES; METASTASES; MONOCYTES; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Moreau, M, Yasmin-Karim, S, Hao, Y, and Ngwa, W. SU-F-T-59: The Effect of Radiotherapy Dose On Immunoadjuvants. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956194.
Moreau, M, Yasmin-Karim, S, Hao, Y, & Ngwa, W. SU-F-T-59: The Effect of Radiotherapy Dose On Immunoadjuvants. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956194.
Moreau, M, Yasmin-Karim, S, Hao, Y, and Ngwa, W. Wed . "SU-F-T-59: The Effect of Radiotherapy Dose On Immunoadjuvants". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956194.
@article{osti_22642307,
title = {SU-F-T-59: The Effect of Radiotherapy Dose On Immunoadjuvants},
author = {Moreau, M and Yasmin-Karim, S and Hao, Y and Ngwa, W},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Combining radiotherapy with immunotherapy is a promising approach to enhance treatment outcomes for cancer patients. This in-vitro study investigated which radiotherapy doses could adversely affect the function of anti-CD40 mAb, which is one of the key immunoadjuvants under investigations for priming such combination therapy. Methods: Human monocyte derived THP-1 cells were treated with 100ng/mL of PMA in chamber slides to differentiate into macrophage. The THP-1 differentiated macrophages were treated with 2uL/ml of the anti-CD40 mAb and incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 24 hours. Anti-CD40 mAb treated cells were then irradiated at different doses of x-rays: (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12) Gy using the Small Animal Radiotherapy Research Platform (SARRP). After radiation, the cells were left at 4°C for 2 hours followed by immunofluorescence assay. A Nikon inverted live-cell imaging system with fluorescence microscope was used to image the cells mounted on a slide fixed with Dapi. For comparison, an ELISA assay was performed with the antibody added to 3mL of PBS in multiple 10mm dishes. The 10mm dishes were irradiated at different x-ray dose: (0, 2, 4, 6, 8. 10, 12, and 15) Gy using the SARRP. Results: The anti-CD40 mAb activating the macrophages starts to lose their viability due to radiation dose between 8Gy to 12Gy as indicated by the immunofluorescence assay. The ELISA assay, also indicated that such high doses could lead to loss of the mAb’s viability. Conclusion: This work suggests that high doses like those employed during Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy may affect the viability of immunoadjuvants such as anti-CD 40. This study avails in-vivo experiments combining radiotherapy with anti-cd40 to get synergistic outcomes, including in the treatment of metastatic disease.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956194},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: In this project, we compared the conventional tangent pair technique to IMRT technique by analyzing the dose distribution. We also investigated the effect of respiration on planning target volume (PTV) dose coverage in both techniques. Methods: In order to implement IMRT technique a template based planning protocol, dose constrains and treatment process was developed. Two open fields with optimized field weights were combined with two beamlet optimization fields in IMRT plans. We compared the dose distribution between standard tangential pair and IMRT. The improvement in dose distribution was measured by parameters such as conformity index, homogeneity index and coveragemore » index. Another end point was the IMRT technique will reduce the planning time for staff. The effect of patient’s respiration on dose distribution was also estimated. The four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) for different phase of breathing cycle was used to evaluate the effect of respiration on IMRT planned dose distribution. Results: We have accumulated 10 patients that acquired 4DCT and planned by both techniques. Based on the preliminary analysis, the dose distribution in IMRT technique was better than conventional tangent pair technique. Furthermore, the effect of respiration in IMRT plan was not significant as evident from the 95% isodose line coverage of PTV drawn on all phases of 4DCT. Conclusion: Based on the 4DCT images, the breathing effect on dose distribution was smaller than what we expected. We suspect that there are two reasons. First, the PTV movement due to respiration was not significant. It might be because we used a tilted breast board to setup patients. Second, the open fields with optimized field weights in IMRT technique might reduce the breathing effect on dose distribution. A further investigation is necessary.« less
  • Purpose: To use the Attila deterministic solver as a supplement to Monte Carlo for calculating out-of-field organ dose in support of epidemiological studies looking at the risks of second cancers. Supplemental dosimetry tools are needed to speed up dose calculations for studies involving large-scale patient cohorts. Methods: Attila is a multi-group discrete ordinates code which can solve the 3D photon-electron coupled linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation on a finite-element mesh. Dose is computed by multiplying the calculated particle flux in each mesh element by a medium-specific energy deposition cross-section. The out-of-field dosimetry capability of Attila is investigated by comparing averagemore » organ dose to that which is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The test scenario consists of a 6 MV external beam treatment of a female patient with a tumor in the left breast. The patient is simulated by a whole-body adult reference female computational phantom. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using MCNP6 and XVMC. Attila can export a tetrahedral mesh for MCNP6, allowing for a direct comparison between the two codes. The Attila and Monte Carlo methods were also compared in terms of calculation speed and complexity of simulation setup. A key perquisite for this work was the modeling of a Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator. Results: The solid mesh of the torso part of the adult female phantom for the Attila calculation was prepared using the CAD software SpaceClaim. Preliminary calculations suggest that Attila is a user-friendly software which shows great promise for our intended application. Computational performance is related to the number of tetrahedral elements included in the Attila calculation. Conclusion: Attila is being explored as a supplement to the conventional Monte Carlo radiation transport approach for performing retrospective patient dosimetry. The goal is for the dosimetry to be sufficiently accurate for use in retrospective epidemiological investigations.« less
  • Purpose: Recent advances in cancer treatments have greatly increased the likelihood of post-treatment patient survival. Secondary malignancies, however, have become a growing concern. Epidemiological studies determining secondary effects in radiotherapy patients require assessment of organ-specific dose both inside and outside the treatment field. An essential input for Monte Carlo modeling of particle transport is radiological images showing full patient anatomy. However, in retrospective studies it is typical to only have partial anatomy from CT scans used during treatment planning. In this study, we developed a multi-step method to extend such limited patient anatomy to full body anatomy for estimating dosemore » to normal tissues located outside the CT scan coverage. Methods: The first step identified a phantom from a library of body size-dependent computational human phantoms by matching the height and weight of patients. Second, a Python algorithm matched the patient CT coverage location in relation to the whole body phantom. Third, an algorithm cut the whole body phantom and scaled them to match the size of the patient. Then, merged the two anatomies into one whole body. We entitled this new approach, Anatomically Predictive Extension (APE). Results: The APE method was examined by comparing the original chest-abdomen-pelvis CT images of the five patients with the APE phantoms developed from only the chest part of the CAP images and whole body phantoms. We achieved average percent differences of tissue volumes of 25.7%, 34.2%, 16.5%, 26.8%, and 31.6% with an average of 27% across all patients. Conclusion: Our APE method extends the limited CT patient anatomy to whole body anatomy by using image processing and computational human phantoms. Our ongoing work includes evaluating the accuracy of these APE phantoms by comparing normal tissue doses in the APE phantoms and doses calculated for the original full CAP images under generic radiotherapy simulations. This research was supported by the NIH Intramural Research Program.« less
  • Purpose: Epidemiological studies of second cancer risks in breast cancer radiotherapy patients often use generic patient anatomy to reconstruct normal tissue doses when CT images of patients are not available. To evaluate the uncertainty involved in the dosimetry approach, we evaluated the esophagus dose in five sample patients by simulating breast cancer treatments. Methods: We obtained the diagnostic CT images of five anonymized adult female patients in different Body Mass Index (BMI) categories (16– 36kg/m2) from National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. We contoured the esophagus on the CT images and imported them into a Treatment Planning System (TPS) tomore » create treatment plans and calculate esophagus doses. Esophagus dose was calculated once again via experimentally-validated Monte Carlo (MC) transport code, XVMC under the same geometries. We compared the esophagus doses from TPS and the MC method. We also investigated the degree of variation in the esophagus dose across the five patients and also the relationship between the patient characteristics and the esophagus doses. Results: Eclipse TPS using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) significantly underestimates the esophagus dose in breast cancer radiotherapy compared to MC. In the worst case, the esophagus dose from AAA was only 40% of the MC dose. The Coefficient of Variation across the patients was 48%. We found that the maximum esophagus dose was up to 2.7 times greater than the minimum. We finally observed linear relationship (Dose = 0.0218 × BMI – 0.1, R2=0.54) between patient’s BMI and the esophagus doses. Conclusion: We quantified the degree of uncertainty in the esophagus dose in five sample breast radiotherapy patients. The results of the study underscore the importance of individualized dose reconstruction for the study cohort to avoid misclassification in the risk analysis of second cancer. We are currently extending the number of patients up to 30.« less
  • Purpose: To assess individual variation in heart volume and location in order to develop a prediction model of the heart. This heart prediction model will be used to calculate individualized heart doses for radiotherapy patients in epidemiological studies. Methods: Chest CT images for 30 adult male and 30 adult female patients were obtained from NIH Clinical Center. Image-analysis computer programs were used to segment the whole heart and 8 sub-regions and to measure the volume of each sub- region and the dimension of the whole heart. An analytical dosimetry method was used for the 30 adult female patients to estimatemore » mean heart dose during conventional left breast radiotherapy. Results: The average volumes of the whole heart were 803.37 cm{sup 3} (COV 18.8%) and 570.19 cm{sup 3} (COV 18.8%) for adult male and female patients, respectively, which are comparable with the international reference volumes of 807.69 cm{sup 3} for males and 596.15 cm{sup 3} for females. Some patient characteristics were strongly correlated (R{sup 2}>0.5) with heart volume and heart dimensions (e.g., Body Mass Index vs. heart depth in males: R{sup 2}=0.54; weight vs. heart width in the adult females: R{sup 2}=0.63). We found that the mean heart dose 3.805 Gy (assuming prescribed dose of 50 Gy) in the breast radiotherapy simulations of the 30 adult females could be an underestimate (up to 1.6-fold) or overestimate (up to 1.8-fold) of the patient-specific heart dose. Conclusion: The study showed the significant variation in patient heart volumes and dimensions, resulting in substantial dose errors when a single average heart model is used for retrospective dose reconstruction. We are completing a multivariate analysis to develop a prediction model of the heart. This model will increase accuracy in dose reconstruction for radiotherapy patients and allow us to individualize heart dose calculations for patients whose CT images are not available.« less