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Title: SU-F-T-45: Dosimetric Effects of Saline Filled Balloons During IORT Using Xoft Electronic Brachytherapy

Abstract

Purpose: The portability of Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy (EBx) System has made it a viable option for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) treatment of early-stage breast cancer. The low energy (50kVp) of the X-ray source makes the shielding easy, but also means its dose distribution is sensitive to the medium’s composition. Current treatment planning systems (TPS) typically assume homogenous water for brachytherapy dose calculations, including the pre-calculated atlas plans for the Xoft IORT cases. However, Xoft recommends using saline to fill the balloon applicator. This study investigates the dosimetric difference due to the increased effective atomic number (Zeff) from water (7.42) to saline (7.56). Methods: The diameter of the balloon applicators ranges from 3–6cm, with 4cm being most frequently used. For the 4-cm and 6-cm diameter applicators, MCNP Monte Carlo program was used to calculate the dose at the surface (Ds) of the middle section of the balloon and 1 cm away (D1cm) for water- and saline-filled balloons: one plan with a single dwell at the center and another with multiple dwells as in the atlas plans. The single dwell plan is a simple estimation of the dosimetry, while the atlas plan is representative of the actual dose distribution. Results: Themore » single-dwell plan showed a 5.1% and 6.1% decrease in Ds for the 4- and 6-cm applicators, respectively, due to the saline. The atlas plan showed similar Results: 4.8% and 6.4% decrease, respectively. The decrease in D1cm is 4.3%–5.2% and 3.3%–5.3s% in the single-dwell and atlas plans, respectively, for the 4- and 6-cm applicator. Conclusion: The dosimetric effect introduced by saline is on the order of 5%. This effect should be taken into account during both treatment planning and patient outcome studies.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642294
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BRACHYTHERAPY; DOSIMETRY; MAMMARY GLANDS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION SOURCE IMPLANTS; SHIELDING; X-RAY SOURCES

Citation Formats

Redler, G, Templeton, A, Turian, J, Chu, J, Bernard, D, Zhen, H, and Liao, Y. SU-F-T-45: Dosimetric Effects of Saline Filled Balloons During IORT Using Xoft Electronic Brachytherapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956180.
Redler, G, Templeton, A, Turian, J, Chu, J, Bernard, D, Zhen, H, & Liao, Y. SU-F-T-45: Dosimetric Effects of Saline Filled Balloons During IORT Using Xoft Electronic Brachytherapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956180.
Redler, G, Templeton, A, Turian, J, Chu, J, Bernard, D, Zhen, H, and Liao, Y. 2016. "SU-F-T-45: Dosimetric Effects of Saline Filled Balloons During IORT Using Xoft Electronic Brachytherapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956180.
@article{osti_22642294,
title = {SU-F-T-45: Dosimetric Effects of Saline Filled Balloons During IORT Using Xoft Electronic Brachytherapy},
author = {Redler, G and Templeton, A and Turian, J and Chu, J and Bernard, D and Zhen, H and Liao, Y},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The portability of Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy (EBx) System has made it a viable option for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) treatment of early-stage breast cancer. The low energy (50kVp) of the X-ray source makes the shielding easy, but also means its dose distribution is sensitive to the medium’s composition. Current treatment planning systems (TPS) typically assume homogenous water for brachytherapy dose calculations, including the pre-calculated atlas plans for the Xoft IORT cases. However, Xoft recommends using saline to fill the balloon applicator. This study investigates the dosimetric difference due to the increased effective atomic number (Zeff) from water (7.42) to saline (7.56). Methods: The diameter of the balloon applicators ranges from 3–6cm, with 4cm being most frequently used. For the 4-cm and 6-cm diameter applicators, MCNP Monte Carlo program was used to calculate the dose at the surface (Ds) of the middle section of the balloon and 1 cm away (D1cm) for water- and saline-filled balloons: one plan with a single dwell at the center and another with multiple dwells as in the atlas plans. The single dwell plan is a simple estimation of the dosimetry, while the atlas plan is representative of the actual dose distribution. Results: The single-dwell plan showed a 5.1% and 6.1% decrease in Ds for the 4- and 6-cm applicators, respectively, due to the saline. The atlas plan showed similar Results: 4.8% and 6.4% decrease, respectively. The decrease in D1cm is 4.3%–5.2% and 3.3%–5.3s% in the single-dwell and atlas plans, respectively, for the 4- and 6-cm applicator. Conclusion: The dosimetric effect introduced by saline is on the order of 5%. This effect should be taken into account during both treatment planning and patient outcome studies.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956180},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: A full TG-43 dosimetric characterization has not been performed for the Xoft Axxent ® electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft, a subsidiary of iCAD, San Jose, CA) within the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. Currently, dose calculations are performed using the bare-source TG-43 parameters and do not account for the presence of the applicator. This work focuses on determining the difference between the bare-source and sourcein- applicator TG-43 parameters. Both the radial dose function (RDF) and polar anisotropy function (PAF) were computationally determined for the source-in-applicator and bare-source models to determine the impact of using the bare-source dosimetry data. Methods:more » MCNP5 was used to model the source and the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. All simulations were performed using 0.84p and 0.03e cross section libraries. All models were developed based on specifications provided by Xoft. The applicator is made of a proprietary polymer material and simulations were performed using the most conservative chemical composition. An F6 collision-kerma tally was used to determine the RDF and PAF values in water at various dwell positions. The RDF values were normalized to 2.0 cm from the source to accommodate the applicator radius. Source-in-applicator results were compared with bare-source results from this work as well as published baresource results. Results: For a 0 mm source pullback distance, the updated bare-source model and source-in-applicator RDF values differ by 2% at 3 cm and 4% at 5 cm. The largest PAF disagreements were observed at the distal end of the source and applicator with up to 17% disagreement at 2 cm and 8% at 8 cm. The bare-source model had RDF values within 2.6% of the published TG-43 data and PAF results within 7.2% at 2 cm. Conclusion: Results indicate that notable differences exist between the bare-source and source-in-applicator TG-43 simulated parameters. Xoft Inc. provided partial funding for this work.« less
  • Purpose: Xoft provides a set of 316L Stainless Steel Rigid Shields to be used with their 50 kV X-ray source for Breast IORT treatments. Modeling the different shield sizes in MCNP provides information to help make clinical decisions for selecting the appropriate shield size. Methods: The Xoft Axxent 50 kV Electronic Brachytherapy System has several applications in radiation therapy, one of which is treating cancer of the breast intraoperatively by placing the miniaturized X-ray tube inside an applicator balloon that is expanded to fill the lumpectomy bed immediately following tumor removal. The ribs, lung, and muscular chest wall are allmore » regions at risk to receive undesired dose during the treatment. A Xoft 316L Stainless Steel Rigid Shield can be placed between the intracostal muscles of the chest wall and the remaining breast tissue near the balloon to attenuate the beam and protect these organs. These shields are provided in 5 different sizes, and the effects on dose to the surrounding tissues vary with shield size. MCNP was used to model this environment and tally dose rate to certain regions of interest. Results: The average rib dose rate calculated using 0cm (i.e., no shield), 3cm, and 5cm diameter shields were 26.89, 15.43, and 8.91 Gy/hr respectively. The maximum dose rates within the rib reached 94.74 Gy/hr, 53.56 Gy/hr, and 31.44 Gy/hr for the 0cm, 3cm, and 5cm cases respectively. The shadowing effect caused by the steel shields was seen in the 3-D meshes and line profiles. Conclusion: This model predicts a higher dose rate to the underlying rib region with the 3cm shield compared to the 5cm shield; it may be useful to select the largest possible diameter when choosing a shield size for a particular IORT patient. The ability to attenuate the beam to reduce rib dose was also confirmed. Research sponsored by Xoft Inc, a subsidiary of iCAD.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric change of eBx plan due to Flexishield. Methods: To simulate a clinically difficult case (skin spacing < 1 cm and touching chest wall), prostheses breast tissue phantom overlaid Xoft spherical balloon applicator. To minimize significant metal streak artifact, megavoltage CT (MVCT) scan was acquired using helical TomoTherapy HiART. Two sets of MVCT images were taken with/without FlexiShield for 15 cases: 4 for small (3–4 cm), 4 for medium (4–5 cm) and 7 for large (5–6 cm) balloon. Total 30 MVCT scans were obtained with 50 % contrast to improve image contrast of balloon relative to breastmore » tissue phantom. Balloon deformation was measured in anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) dimensions in the middle of balloon. Skin spacing was also evaluated. Treatment plan was made based on each MVCT scan and two balloon surface doses (AP and LAT directions) and skin dose were compared between plans with/without FlexiShield. Results: The balloon was deformed due to pressure from both FlexiShield (skin side) and FlexiShield mini (chest wall side). Mean ± standard deviation (maximum) value was 1.5 ± 1.0 mm (3.3 mm) for AP compression and 0.4 ± 0.3 mm (1.1 mm) for LAT expansion. Balloon surface dose was increased by 1.8 ± 1.2 Gy (4.9 Gy) at AP point and decreased by 0.4 ± 0.4 Gy (1.3 Gy) at LAT point. Skin spacing was constantly reduced by 1.1 ± 0.8 mm (3 mm). Skin surface dose was increased by 1.5 ± 0.8 Gy (3.3 Gy) and its relative increase was 17.9 ± 9.3% (39.6%). Conclusion: FlexiShield deforms the balloon and reduces skin spacing, thereby resulting in higher dose in AP direction, lower dose in LAT direction, and elevated skin dose compared to the plan without FlexiShield. In the clinic, this balloon deformation and corresponding dose variation should be considered.« less
  • Purpose: To perform a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of the process for treating superficial skin cancers with the Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy (eBx) system, given the recent introduction of expanded quality control (QC) initiatives at our institution. Methods: A process map was developed listing all steps in superficial treatments with Xoft eBx, from the initial patient consult to the completion of the treatment course. The process map guided the FMEA to identify the failure modes for each step in the treatment workflow and assign Risk Priority Numbers (RPN), calculated as the product of the failure mode’s probability ofmore » occurrence (O), severity (S) and lack of detectability (D). FMEA was done with and without the inclusion of recent QC initiatives such as increased staffing, physics oversight, standardized source calibration, treatment planning and documentation. The failure modes with the highest RPNs were identified and contrasted before and after introduction of the QC initiatives. Results: Based on the FMEA, the failure modes with the highest RPN were related to source calibration, treatment planning, and patient setup/treatment delivery (Fig. 1). The introduction of additional physics oversight, standardized planning and safety initiatives such as checklists and time-outs reduced the RPNs of these failure modes. High-risk failure modes that could be mitigated with improved hardware and software interlocks were identified. Conclusion: The FMEA analysis identified the steps in the treatment process presenting the highest risk. The introduction of enhanced QC initiatives mitigated the risk of some of these failure modes by decreasing their probability of occurrence and increasing their detectability. This analysis demonstrates the importance of well-designed QC policies, procedures and oversight in a Xoft eBx programme for treatment of superficial skin cancers. Unresolved high risk failure modes highlight the need for non-procedural quality initiatives such as improved planning software and more robust hardware interlock systems.« less
  • Purpose: To characterize the Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy source using PRESAGE™ dosimeters to obtain independent confirmation of TG-43U1 dosimetry values from previous studies and ascertain its reproducibility in HDR brachytherapy. Methods: PRESAGE™ dosimeters are solid, polyurethane-based dosimeters doped with radiochromic leucodyes that produce a linear optical-density response when exposed to radiation. Eight 1-kg dosimeters were scanned prior to irradiation on an optical-CT scanner to eliminate background signal and any optical imperfections from each dosimeter. To quantify potential imaging artifacts due to oversaturated responses in the immediate range of the source, half of the eight dosimeters were cast with a smallermore » channel diameter of 5.4 mm, and the other half were cast with a larger channel diameter of 15mm. During irradiation, the catheters were placed in the center of each channel. Catheters fit the 5.4mm diameters channels whereas polyurethane plugs were inserted into the larger channels to create a sturdy, immobile catheter which allowed uniform dose distributions. Two dosimeters of each 5.4mm and 15mm were irradiated at either 1517.3 cGy or 2017.5 cGy. Post-irradiation scans were performed within 48 hours of irradiation. A 3D reconstruction based on subtraction of these two images and the relative dose measurements were made using in-house software. Results: Comparing measured radial dose rates with previous results revealed smaller percent errors when PRESAGE™ irradiations were at lower maximum dose. The dosimeters showed small deviations in radial dose function, g{sub p} (r), from previous studies. Among the dosimeters irradiated at 1517.3 cGy, the g{sub p}(r) compared to previous studies fluctuated from 0.0043 to 0.3922. This suggests small fluctuations can drastically change radial dose calculations. Conclusion: The subtraction of pre-irradiation and post-irradiation scans of PRESAGE™ dosimeters using an optical-CT scanner shows promising results in determining 3D dosimetry for Xoft Axxent devices; however, further research is recommended. NIH Grant#: 5-U24-CA081647-13; ROI Grant#: 5R01CA100835.« less