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Title: SU-F-T-26: A Study of the Consistency of Brachytherapy Treatments for Vaginal Cuff

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate to treatment consistency over the total number of fractions when treatment what HDR brachytherapy using the ML cylinders. At the same time the dosimetric impact on the critical organs is monitored over the total number of fractions. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 10 patients treated with Cylinder applicators, from 2015–2016 were considered for this study. The CT scans of these patients, taken before each treatment were separately imported in to the treatment planning system and paired with the initial CT scan after completing the contouring. Two sets of CT images were fused together with respective to the applicator, using landmark registration. The doses of each plan were imported as well and a cumulative dosimetric analysis was made for bladder, bowels, and rectum and PTV. Results: No contour of any of the OAR was exactly similar when CT images were fused on each other. The PTV volumes vary from fraction to fraction. There was always a difference between the doses received by the OARs between treatments. The maximum dose varied between 5% and 30% in rectum and bladder. The minimum dose varied between 5% and 8% in rectum and bladder. The average dose varied between 15% and 20%more » in rectum and bladder. Deviation in placement were noticed between fractions. Conclusion: The variation in volumes of OARs and isodoses near the OARs, indicate that the estimated doses to OARs on the planning system may not be the same dose delivered to the patient in all the fractions. There are no major differences between the prescribed dose and the delivered dose over the total number of fractions. In some cases the critical organs will benefit if the consecutive plans will made after the CT scans will be registered with the initial scan and then planned.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. 21st Century Oncology, Boca Raton, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642276
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BLADDER; BRACHYTHERAPY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; CRITICAL ORGANS; IMAGE PROCESSING; PATIENTS; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSES; RECTUM

Citation Formats

Shojaei, M, Pella, S, and Dumitru, N. SU-F-T-26: A Study of the Consistency of Brachytherapy Treatments for Vaginal Cuff. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956161.
Shojaei, M, Pella, S, & Dumitru, N. SU-F-T-26: A Study of the Consistency of Brachytherapy Treatments for Vaginal Cuff. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956161.
Shojaei, M, Pella, S, and Dumitru, N. 2016. "SU-F-T-26: A Study of the Consistency of Brachytherapy Treatments for Vaginal Cuff". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956161.
@article{osti_22642276,
title = {SU-F-T-26: A Study of the Consistency of Brachytherapy Treatments for Vaginal Cuff},
author = {Shojaei, M and Pella, S and Dumitru, N},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To evaluate to treatment consistency over the total number of fractions when treatment what HDR brachytherapy using the ML cylinders. At the same time the dosimetric impact on the critical organs is monitored over the total number of fractions. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 10 patients treated with Cylinder applicators, from 2015–2016 were considered for this study. The CT scans of these patients, taken before each treatment were separately imported in to the treatment planning system and paired with the initial CT scan after completing the contouring. Two sets of CT images were fused together with respective to the applicator, using landmark registration. The doses of each plan were imported as well and a cumulative dosimetric analysis was made for bladder, bowels, and rectum and PTV. Results: No contour of any of the OAR was exactly similar when CT images were fused on each other. The PTV volumes vary from fraction to fraction. There was always a difference between the doses received by the OARs between treatments. The maximum dose varied between 5% and 30% in rectum and bladder. The minimum dose varied between 5% and 8% in rectum and bladder. The average dose varied between 15% and 20% in rectum and bladder. Deviation in placement were noticed between fractions. Conclusion: The variation in volumes of OARs and isodoses near the OARs, indicate that the estimated doses to OARs on the planning system may not be the same dose delivered to the patient in all the fractions. There are no major differences between the prescribed dose and the delivered dose over the total number of fractions. In some cases the critical organs will benefit if the consecutive plans will made after the CT scans will be registered with the initial scan and then planned.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956161},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: High dose rate brachytherapy is a highly localized radiation therapy that has a very high dose gradient. Thus one of the most important parts of the treatment is the immobilization. The smallest movement of the patient or applicator can result in dose variation to the surrounding tissues as well as to the tumor to be treated. We will revise the ML Cylinder treatments and their localization challenges. Methods: A retrospective study of 25 patients with 5 treatments each looking into the applicator’s placement in regard to the organs at risk. Motion possibilities for each applicator intra and inter fractionationmore » with their dosimetric implications were covered and measured in regard with their dose variance. The localization immobilization devices used were assessed for the capability to prevent motion before and during the treatment delivery. Results: We focused on the 100% isodose on central axis and a 15 degree displacement due to possible rotation analyzing the dose variations to the bladder and rectum walls. The average dose variation for bladder was 15% of the accepted tolerance, with a minimum variance of 11.1% and a maximum one of 23.14% on the central axis. For the off axis measurements we found an average variation of 16.84% of the accepted tolerance, with a minimum variance of 11.47% and a maximum one of 27.69%. For the rectum we focused on the rectum wall closest to the 120% isodose line. The average dose variation was 19.4%, minimum 11.3% and a maximum of 34.02% from the accepted tolerance values Conclusion: Improved immobilization devices are recommended. For inter-fractionation, localization devices are recommended in place with consistent planning in regards with the initial fraction. Many of the present immobilization devices produced for external radiotherapy can be used to improve the localization of HDR applicators during transportation of the patient and during treatment.« less
  • Purpose: The optimal adjuvant radiation treatment for endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains controversial. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VB) has emerged as an increasingly common treatment modality. However, the time trends for using VB, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), or combined therapy (VB+EBRT) have not been well characterized. We therefore examined the utilization trends of VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT for adjuvant RT in International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology (FIGO) stage I and II EC over time. Methods and Materials: We evaluated treatment patterns for 48,122 patients with EC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2005, using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology,more » and End Results (SEER) public use database. Chi-squared tests were used to assess differences by radiation type (VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT) and various demographic and clinical variables. Results: Analyses were limited to 9,815 patients (20.4%) with EC who met the inclusion criteria. Among women who received adjuvant RT, the proportion receiving VB increased yearly (12.9% in 1995 compared to 32.8% in 2005 (p < 0.0001). The increasing use of VB was proportional to the decreasing use of EBRT (56.1% in 1995 to 45.8% in 2005; p < 0.0001) and VB+EBRT (31.0% in 1995 to 21.4% in 2005; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This population-based report demonstrates an increasing trend in the use of VB in the adjuvant setting after hysterectomy for treatment of women with FIGO stage I-II EC. VB alone appears to be replacing pelvic EBRT and VB+EBRT therapy in the management of stage I-II EC.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the effect of bladder filling on dosimetry and to determine the best bladder dosimetric parameter for vaginal cuff brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: In this prospective clinical trial, a total of 20 women underwent vaginal cylinder high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The bladder was full for Fraction 2 and empty for Fraction 3. Dose-volume histogram and dose-surface histogram values were generated for the bladder, rectum, and urethra. The midline maximal bladder point (MBP) and the midline maximal rectal point were recorded. Paired t tests, Pearson correlations, and regression analyses were performed. Results: The volume and surface area of the irradiated bladdermore » were significantly smaller when the bladder was empty than when full. Of the several dose-volume histogram and dose-surface histogram parameters evaluated, the bladder maximal dose received by 2 cm{sup 3} of tissue, volume of bladder receiving {>=}50% of the dose, volume of bladder receiving {>=}70% of the dose, and surface area of bladder receiving {>=}50% of the dose significantly predicted for the difference between the empty vs. full filling state. The volume of bladder receiving {>=}70% of the dose and the maximal dose received by 2 cm{sup 3} of tissue correlated significantly with the MBP. Bladder filling did not alter the volume or surface area of the rectum irradiated. However, an empty bladder did result in the nearest point of bowel being significantly closer to the vaginal cylinder than when the bladder was full. Conclusions: Patients undergoing vaginal cuff brachytherapy treated with an empty bladder have a lower bladder dose than those treated with a full bladder. The MBP correlated well with the volumetric assessments of bladder dose and provided a noninvasive method for reporting the MBP dose using three-dimensional imaging. The MBP can therefore be used as a surrogate for complex dosimetry in the clinic.« less
  • Purpose: The multichannel cylindrical vaginal applicator is a variation of traditional single channel cylindrical vaginal applicator. The multichannel applicator has additional peripheral channels that provide more flexibility in the planning process. The dosimetric advantage is to reduce dose to adjacent organ at risk (OAR) such as bladder and rectum while maintaining target coverage with the dose optimization from additional channels. Methods: Vaginal HDR brachytherapy plans are all CT based. CT images were acquired in 2 mm thickness to keep integrity of cylinder contouring. The CTV of 5mm Rind with prescribed treatment length was reconstructed from 5mm expansion of inserted cylinder.more » The goal was 95% of CTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose in both single channel planning (SCP)and multichannel planning (MCP) before proceeding any further optimization for dose reduction to critical structures with emphasis on D2cc and V2Gy . Results: This study demonstrated noticeable dose reduction to OAR was apparent in multichannel plans. The D2cc of the rectum and bladder were showing the reduced dose for multichannel versus single channel. The V2Gy of the rectum was 93.72% and 83.79% (p=0.007) for single channel and multichannel respectively (Figure 1 and Table 1). To assure adequate coverage to target while reducing the dose to the OAR without any compromise is the main goal in using multichannel vaginal applicator in HDR brachytherapy. Conclusion: Multichannel plans were optimized using anatomical based inverse optimization algorithm of inverse planning simulation annealing. The optimization solution of the algorithm was to improve the clinical target volume dose coverage while reducing the dose to critical organs such as bladder, rectum and bowels. The comparison between SCP and MCP demonstrated MCP is superior to SCP where the dwell positions were based on geometric array only. It concluded that MCP is preferable and is able to provide certain features superior to SCP.« less
  • Purpose: As an alternative to cylindrical applicators, air inflated balloon applicators have been introduced into HDR vaginal cuff brachytherapy treatment to achieve sufficient dose to vagina mucosa as well as to spare rectum and bladder. In general, TG43 formulae based treatment planning systems do not take into account tissue inhomogeneity, and air in the balloon applicator can cause higher delivered dose to mucosa than treatment plan reported. We investigated dosimetric effect of air in balloon applicator using the Monte Carlo method. Methods: The thirteen-catheter Capri applicator with a Nucletron Ir-192 seed was modeled for various balloon diameters (2cm to 3.5cm)more » using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. Ir-192 seed was placed in both central and peripheral catheters to replicate real patient situations. Existence of charged particle equilibrium (CPE) with air balloon was evaluated by comparing kerma and dose at various distances (1mm to 70mm) from surface of air-filled applicator. Also mucosa dose by an air-filled applicator was compared with by a water-filled applicator to evaluate dosimetry accuracy of planning system without tissue inhomogeneity correction. Results: Beyond 1mm from air/tissue interface, the difference between kerma and dose was within 2%. CPE (or transient CPE) condition was deemed existent, and in this region no electron transport was necessary in Monte Carlo simulations. At 1mm or less, the deviation of dose from kerma became more apparent. Increase of dose to mucosa depended on diameter of air balloon. The increment of dose to mucosa was 2.5% and 4.3% on average for 2cm and 3.5cm applicators, respectively. Conclusion: After introduction of air balloon applicator, CPE fails only at the proximity of air/tissue interface. Although dose to mucosa is increased, there is no significant dosimetric difference (<5%) between air and water filled applicators. Tissue inhomogeneity correction is not necessary for air-filled applicators.« less