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Title: SU-F-J-219: Predicting Ventilation Change Due to Radiation Therapy: Dependency On Pre-RT Ventilation and Effort Correction

Abstract

Purpose: Ventilation change caused by radiation therapy (RT) can be predicted using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and image registration. This study tested the dependency of predicted post-RT ventilation on effort correction and pre-RT lung function. Methods: Pre-RT and 3 month post-RT 4DCT images were obtained for 13 patients. The 4DCT images were used to create ventilation maps using a deformable image registration based Jacobian expansion calculation. The post-RT ventilation maps were predicted in four different ways using the dose delivered, pre-RT ventilation, and effort correction. The pre-RT ventilation and effort correction were toggled to determine dependency. The four different predicted ventilation maps were compared to the post-RT ventilation map calculated from image registration to establish the best prediction method. Gamma pass rates were used to compare the different maps with the criteria of 2mm distance-to-agreement and 6% ventilation difference. Paired t-tests of gamma pass rates were used to determine significant differences between the maps. Additional gamma pass rates were calculated using only voxels receiving over 20 Gy. Results: The predicted post-RT ventilation maps were in agreement with the actual post-RT maps in the following percentage of voxels averaged over all subjects: 71% with pre-RT ventilation and effort correction, 69% withmore » no pre-RT ventilation and effort correction, 60% with pre-RT ventilation and no effort correction, and 58% with no pre-RT ventilation and no effort correction. When analyzing only voxels receiving over 20 Gy, the gamma pass rates were respectively 74%, 69%, 65%, and 55%. The prediction including both pre- RT ventilation and effort correction was the only prediction with significant improvement over using no prediction (p<0.02). Conclusion: Post-RT ventilation is best predicted using both pre-RT ventilation and effort correction. This is the only prediction that provided a significant improvement on agreement. Research support from NIH grants CA166119 and CA166703, a gift from Roger Koch, and a Pilot Grant from University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642246
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; CORRECTIONS; DRUGS; IMAGES; LUNGS; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Patton, T, Du, K, Bayouth, J, Christensen, G, and Reinhardt, J. SU-F-J-219: Predicting Ventilation Change Due to Radiation Therapy: Dependency On Pre-RT Ventilation and Effort Correction. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956127.
Patton, T, Du, K, Bayouth, J, Christensen, G, & Reinhardt, J. SU-F-J-219: Predicting Ventilation Change Due to Radiation Therapy: Dependency On Pre-RT Ventilation and Effort Correction. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956127.
Patton, T, Du, K, Bayouth, J, Christensen, G, and Reinhardt, J. Wed . "SU-F-J-219: Predicting Ventilation Change Due to Radiation Therapy: Dependency On Pre-RT Ventilation and Effort Correction". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956127.
@article{osti_22642246,
title = {SU-F-J-219: Predicting Ventilation Change Due to Radiation Therapy: Dependency On Pre-RT Ventilation and Effort Correction},
author = {Patton, T and Du, K and Bayouth, J and Christensen, G and Reinhardt, J},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Ventilation change caused by radiation therapy (RT) can be predicted using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and image registration. This study tested the dependency of predicted post-RT ventilation on effort correction and pre-RT lung function. Methods: Pre-RT and 3 month post-RT 4DCT images were obtained for 13 patients. The 4DCT images were used to create ventilation maps using a deformable image registration based Jacobian expansion calculation. The post-RT ventilation maps were predicted in four different ways using the dose delivered, pre-RT ventilation, and effort correction. The pre-RT ventilation and effort correction were toggled to determine dependency. The four different predicted ventilation maps were compared to the post-RT ventilation map calculated from image registration to establish the best prediction method. Gamma pass rates were used to compare the different maps with the criteria of 2mm distance-to-agreement and 6% ventilation difference. Paired t-tests of gamma pass rates were used to determine significant differences between the maps. Additional gamma pass rates were calculated using only voxels receiving over 20 Gy. Results: The predicted post-RT ventilation maps were in agreement with the actual post-RT maps in the following percentage of voxels averaged over all subjects: 71% with pre-RT ventilation and effort correction, 69% with no pre-RT ventilation and effort correction, 60% with pre-RT ventilation and no effort correction, and 58% with no pre-RT ventilation and no effort correction. When analyzing only voxels receiving over 20 Gy, the gamma pass rates were respectively 74%, 69%, 65%, and 55%. The prediction including both pre- RT ventilation and effort correction was the only prediction with significant improvement over using no prediction (p<0.02). Conclusion: Post-RT ventilation is best predicted using both pre-RT ventilation and effort correction. This is the only prediction that provided a significant improvement on agreement. Research support from NIH grants CA166119 and CA166703, a gift from Roger Koch, and a Pilot Grant from University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956127},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: The use of respiratory gating for management of breathing motion during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) relies on a consistent relationship between the breathing signal and the actual position of the internal target. This relationship was investigated in patients treated for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Four patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing SBRT that had implanted fiducials in the tumor were included in this study. Treatment plans were generated based on the exhale phases (30–70%) from the pre-treatment 4DCT. The margin between the internal target volume (ITV) and the planning target volume was three mm. After patient setup using cone-beam CT,more » simultaneous fluoroscopic imaging and breathing motion monitoring were used during at least three breathing cycles to verify the fiducial position and to optimize the gating window. After treatment, fluoroscopic images were acquired for verification purposes and exported for retrospective analyses. Fiducial positions were determined using a template-matching algorithm. For each dataset, we established a linear relationship between the fiducial position and the anterior-posterior (AP) breathing signal. The relationships before and after treatment were compared and the dose distribution impact evaluated. Results: Seven pre- and post-treatment fluoroscopic pairs were available for fiducial position analyses in the superior-inferior (SI) and left-right (LR) directions, and five in the AP direction. Time between image acquisitions was typically six to eight minutes. An average absolute change of 1.2±0.7 mm (range: 0.1–1.7) of the SI fiducial position relative to the external signal was found. Corresponding numbers for the LR and AP fiducial positions were 0.9±1.0 mm (range: 0.2–3.0) and 0.5±0.4 mm (range: 0.2–1.2), respectively. The dose distribution impact was small in both the ITV and organs-at-risk. Conclusion: The relationship change between fiducial position and external breathing signal has been observed to be about 1 mm in four pancreas SBRT patients, leading to small dose distribution impact. Pettersson and Cervino are funded by a Varian Medical Systems grant.« less
  • Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging may enable image- and dose-guided proton therapy, but is challenged by image artefacts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the general applicability of a previously developed a priori scatter correction algorithm to allow CBCT-based proton dose calculations. Methods: The a priori scatter correction algorithm used a plan CT (pCT) and raw cone-beam projections acquired with the Varian On-Board Imager. The projections were initially corrected for bow-tie filtering and beam hardening and subsequently reconstructed using the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm (rawCBCT). The rawCBCTs were intensity normalised before a rigid and deformable registration were applied on themore » pCTs to the rawCBCTs. The resulting images were forward projected onto the same angles as the raw CB projections. The two projections were subtracted from each other, Gaussian and median filtered, and then subtracted from the raw projections and finally reconstructed to the scatter-corrected CBCTs. For evaluation, water equivalent path length (WEPL) maps (from anterior to posterior) were calculated on different reconstructions of three data sets (CB projections and pCT) of three parts of an Alderson phantom. Finally, single beam spot scanning proton plans (0–360 deg gantry angle in steps of 5 deg; using PyTRiP) treating a 5 cm central spherical target in the pCT were re-calculated on scatter-corrected CBCTs with identical targets. Results: The scatter-corrected CBCTs resulted in sub-mm mean WEPL differences relative to the rigid registration of the pCT for all three data sets. These differences were considerably smaller than what was achieved with the regular Varian CBCT reconstruction algorithm (1–9 mm mean WEPL differences). Target coverage in the re-calculated plans was generally improved using the scatter-corrected CBCTs compared to the Varian CBCT reconstruction. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the general applicability of a priori CBCT scatter correction, potentially opening for CBCT-based image/dose-guided proton therapy, including adaptive strategies. Research agreement with Varian Medical Systems, not connected to the present project.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the functional planning using CT-pulmonary ventilation imaging for conformal SBRT. Methods: The CT-pulmonary ventilation image was generated using the Jacobian metric in the in-house program with the NiftyReg software package. Using the ventilation image, the normal lung was split into three lung regions for functionality (high, moderate and low). The anatomical plan (AP) and functional plan (FP) were made for ten lung SBRT patients. For the AP, the beam angles were optimized with the dose-volume constraints for the normal lung sparing and the PTV coverage. For the FP, the gantry angles were also optimized with the additionalmore » constraint for high functional lung. The MLC aperture shapes were adjusted to the PTV with the additional 5 mm margin. The dosimetric parameters for PTV, the functional volumes, spinal cord and so on were compared in both plans. Results: Compared to the AP, the FP showed better dose sparing for high- and moderate-functional lungs with similar PTV coverage while not taking care of the low functional lung (High:−12.9±9.26% Moderate: −2.0±7.09%, Low: +4.1±12.2%). For the other normal organs, the FP and AP showed similar dose sparing in the eight patients. However, the FP showed that the maximum doses for spinal cord were increased with the significant increment of 16.4Gy and 21.0Gy in other two patients, respectively. Because the beam direction optimizer chose the unexpected directions passing through the spinal cord. Conclusion: Even the functional conformal SBRT can selectively reduce high- and moderatefunctional lung while keeping the PTV coverage. However, it would be careful that the optimizer would choose unexpected beam angles and the dose sparing for the other normal organs can be worse. Therefore, the planner needs to control the dose-volume constraints and also limit the beam angles in order to achieve the expected dose sparing and coverage.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop an accurate and effective technique to predict and monitor volume changes of the tumor and organs at risk (OARs) from daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). Methods: While CBCT is typically used to minimize the patient setup error, its poor image quality impedes accurate monitoring of daily anatomical changes in radiotherapy. Reconstruction artifacts in CBCT often cause undesirable errors in registration-based contour propagation from the planning CT, a conventional way to estimate anatomical changes. To improve the registration and segmentation accuracy, we developed a new deformable image registration (DIR) that iteratively corrects CBCTmore » intensities using slice-based histogram matching during the registration process. Three popular DIR algorithms (hierarchical B-spline, demons, optical flow) augmented by the intensity correction were implemented on a graphics processing unit for efficient computation, and their performances were evaluated on six head and neck (HN) cancer cases. Four trained scientists manually contoured nodal gross tumor volume (GTV) on the planning CT and every other fraction CBCTs for each case, to which the propagated GTV contours by DIR were compared. The performance was also compared with commercial software, VelocityAI (Varian Medical Systems Inc.). Results: Manual contouring showed significant variations, [-76, +141]% from the mean of all four sets of contours. The volume differences (mean±std in cc) between the average manual segmentation and four automatic segmentations are 3.70±2.30(B-spline), 1.25±1.78(demons), 0.93±1.14(optical flow), and 4.39±3.86 (VelocityAI). In comparison to the average volume of the manual segmentations, the proposed approach significantly reduced the estimation error by 9%(B-spline), 38%(demons), and 51%(optical flow) over the conventional mutual information based method (VelocityAI). Conclusion: The proposed CT-CBCT registration with local CBCT intensity correction can accurately predict the tumor volume change with reduced errors. Although demonstrated only on HN nodal GTVs, the results imply improved accuracy for other critical structures. This work was supported by NIH/NCI under grant R42CA137886.« less
  • Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and image registration can be used to determine regional lung ventilation changes after radiation therapy (RT). This study aimed to determine if lung ventilation change following radiation therapy was affected by the pre-RT ventilation of the lung. Methods: 13 subjects had three 4DCT scans: two repeat scans acquired before RT and one three months after RT. Regional ventilation was computed using Jacobian determinant calculations on the registered 4DCT images. The post-RT ventilation map was divided by the pre-RT ventilation map to get a voxel-by-voxel Jacobian ratio map depicting ventilation change over the course of RT.more » Jacobian ratio change was compared over the range of delivered doses. The first pre-RT ventilation image was divided by the second to establish a control for Jacobian ratio change without radiation delivered. The functional change between scans was assessed using histograms of the Jacobian ratios. Results: There were significantly (p < 0.05) more voxels that had a large decrease in Jacobian ratio in the post-RT divided by pre-RT map (15.6%) than the control (13.2%). There were also significantly (p < .01) more voxels that had a large increase in Jacobian ratio (16.2%) when compared to control (13.3%). Lung regions with low function (<10% expansion by Jacobian) showed a slight linear reduction in expansion (0.2%/10 Gy delivered), while high function regions (>10% expansion) showed a greater response (1.2% reduction/10 Gy). Contiguous high function regions > 1 liter occurred in 11 of 13 subjects. Conclusion: There is a significant change in regional ventilation following a course of radiation therapy. The change in Jacobian following RT is dependent both on the delivered dose and the initial ventilation of the lung tissue: high functioning lung has greater ventilation loss for equivalent radiation doses. Substantial regions of high function lung tissue are prevalent. Research support from NIH grants CA166119 and CA166703, a gift from Roger Koch, and a Pilot Grant from University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine.« less