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Title: SU-F-J-214: Dose Reduction by Spatially Optimized Image Quality Via Fluence Modulated Proton CT (FMpCT)

Abstract

Purpose: Proton CT (pCT) is a promising imaging modality for reducing range uncertainty in image-guided proton therapy. Range uncertainties partially originate from X-ray CT number conversion to stopping power ratio (SPR) and are limiting the exploitation of the full potential of proton therapy. In this study we explore the concept of spatially dependent fluence modulated proton CT (FMpCT), for achieving optimal image quality in a clinical region of interest (ROI), while reducing significantly the imaging dose to the patient. Methods: The study was based on simulated ideal pCT using pencil beam (PB) scanning. A set of 250 MeV protons PBs was used to create 360 projections of a cylindrical water phantom and a head and neck cancer patient. The tomographic images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection (FBP) as well as an iterative algorithm (ITR). Different fluence modulation levels were investigated and their impact on the image was quantified in terms of SPR accuracy as well as noise within and outside selected ROIs, as a function of imaging dose. The unmodulated image served as reference. Results: Both FBP reconstruction and ITR without total variation (TV) yielded image quality in the ROIs similar to the reference images, for modulation down tomore » 0.1 of the full proton fluence. The average dose was reduced by 75% for the water phantom and by 40% for the patient. FMpCT does not improve the noise for ITR with TV and modulation 0.1. Conclusion: This is the first work proposing and investigating FMpCT for producing optimal image quality for treatment planning and image guidance, while simultaneously reducing imaging dose. Future work will address spatial resolution effects and the impact of FMpCT on the quality of proton treatment plans for a prototype pCT scanner capable of list mode data acquisition. Acknowledgement: DFG-MAP DFG - Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (LMU Munich), Garching b. Muenchen (Germany)
  2. Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Jutland (Denmark)
  3. University Lyon, Lyon, Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes (France)
  4. LMU Munich, Munich (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642242
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DATA ACQUISITION; IMAGES; ITERATIVE METHODS; MODULATION; PATIENTS; PHANTOMS; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

De Angelis, L, Landry, G, Dedes, G, Parodi, K, Hansen, D, Rit, S, and Belka, C. SU-F-J-214: Dose Reduction by Spatially Optimized Image Quality Via Fluence Modulated Proton CT (FMpCT). United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956122.
De Angelis, L, Landry, G, Dedes, G, Parodi, K, Hansen, D, Rit, S, & Belka, C. SU-F-J-214: Dose Reduction by Spatially Optimized Image Quality Via Fluence Modulated Proton CT (FMpCT). United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956122.
De Angelis, L, Landry, G, Dedes, G, Parodi, K, Hansen, D, Rit, S, and Belka, C. Wed . "SU-F-J-214: Dose Reduction by Spatially Optimized Image Quality Via Fluence Modulated Proton CT (FMpCT)". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956122.
@article{osti_22642242,
title = {SU-F-J-214: Dose Reduction by Spatially Optimized Image Quality Via Fluence Modulated Proton CT (FMpCT)},
author = {De Angelis, L and Landry, G and Dedes, G and Parodi, K and Hansen, D and Rit, S and Belka, C},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Proton CT (pCT) is a promising imaging modality for reducing range uncertainty in image-guided proton therapy. Range uncertainties partially originate from X-ray CT number conversion to stopping power ratio (SPR) and are limiting the exploitation of the full potential of proton therapy. In this study we explore the concept of spatially dependent fluence modulated proton CT (FMpCT), for achieving optimal image quality in a clinical region of interest (ROI), while reducing significantly the imaging dose to the patient. Methods: The study was based on simulated ideal pCT using pencil beam (PB) scanning. A set of 250 MeV protons PBs was used to create 360 projections of a cylindrical water phantom and a head and neck cancer patient. The tomographic images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection (FBP) as well as an iterative algorithm (ITR). Different fluence modulation levels were investigated and their impact on the image was quantified in terms of SPR accuracy as well as noise within and outside selected ROIs, as a function of imaging dose. The unmodulated image served as reference. Results: Both FBP reconstruction and ITR without total variation (TV) yielded image quality in the ROIs similar to the reference images, for modulation down to 0.1 of the full proton fluence. The average dose was reduced by 75% for the water phantom and by 40% for the patient. FMpCT does not improve the noise for ITR with TV and modulation 0.1. Conclusion: This is the first work proposing and investigating FMpCT for producing optimal image quality for treatment planning and image guidance, while simultaneously reducing imaging dose. Future work will address spatial resolution effects and the impact of FMpCT on the quality of proton treatment plans for a prototype pCT scanner capable of list mode data acquisition. Acknowledgement: DFG-MAP DFG - Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956122},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To optimize adult head CT protocol by reducing dose to an appropriate level while providing CT images of diagnostic quality. Methods: Five cadavers were scanned from the skull base to the vertex using a routine adult head CT protocol (120 kVp, 270 mA, 0.75 s rotation, 0.5 mm × 32 detectors, 70.8 mGy CTDIvol) followed by seven reduced-dose protocols with varying combinations of reduced tube current, reduced rotation time, and increased detectors with CTDIvol ranging from 38.2 to 65.6 mGy. Organ doses were directly measured with 21 OSL dosimeters placed on the surface and implanted in the head bymore » a neurosurgeon. Two neuroradiologists assessed grey-white matter differentiation, fluid space, ventricular size, midline shift, brain mass, edema, ischemia, and skull fractures on a three point scale: (1) Unacceptable, (2) Borderline Acceptable, and (3) Acceptable. Results: For the standard scan, doses to the skin, lens of the eye, salivary glands, thyroid, and brain were 37.55 mGy, 49.65 mGy, 40.67 mGy, 4.63 mGy, and 27.33 mGy, respectively. Two cadavers had cerebral edema due to changing dynamics of postmortem effects, causing the grey-white matter differentiation to appear less distinct. Two cadavers with preserved grey-white matter received acceptable scores for all image quality features for the protocol with a CTDIvol of 57.3 mGy, allowing organ dose savings ranging from 34% to 45%. One cadaver allowed for greater dose reduction for the protocol with a CTDIvol of 42 mGy. Conclusion: Efforts to optimize scan protocol should consider both dose and clinical image quality. This is made possible with postmortem subjects, whose brains are similar to patients, allowing for an investigation of ideal scan parameters. Radiologists at our institution accepted scan protocols acquired with lower scan parameters, with CTDIvol values closer to the American College of Radiology’s (ACR) Achievable Dose level of 57 mGy.« less
  • Purpose: Recurrent chordomas are difficult to control locally. This dosimetric study investigates the feasibility of dose escalation to hypoxic regions, visualized on FMISO-PET, while respecting the dose constraints to the neighboring normal tissues/organs. We propose to deliver a higher dose to the areas of hypoxia (84.5Gy) using IMPT with the goal of improving local control. Methods: We currently have four patients with hypoxic subvolumes (HSV) greater than 10cc from the FMISO-PET image. The HSV was delineated based on the standardized uptake values of greater than 1.4 times of the muscle mean. Gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated using planning CTmore » with the assistance of MRI fusion. The dose scheme is 50.4Gy RBE to CTV in 1.8Gy fractions, followed by an integrated boost of 27.0Gy RBE to GTV in 1.8Gy fractions and 34.5Gy RBE to HSV in 2.3Gy fractions. IMPT integrated boost plans were optimized with multi-criteria optimization (MCO). Posterior-anterior beam angles were used for these plans. We also propose using two posterior oblique fields to boost HSV to spare the skin folding. A medium spot size with 8mm to 15 mm (σ) in air at isocenter with energies from 220 MeV down to 90 MeV was used. Aperture was used for the medium spot size. A small spot size of 2.5 mm to 4.5 mm (σ) in air at isocenter with energies from 240 MeV down to 70 MeV was also proposed. Target coverage and dose to OARs were evaluated. Results: For the sacral chordoma patient that has been planned, the target homogeneity index is 3.2% for HSV, 55.9% for CTV and 11.9% for GTV. The max dose is 77GyRBE to rectum, 86.2GyRBE to sacral nerves and 73.9GyRBE to cauda equina. Conclusion: IMPT with integrated high dose boost to HSV determined from FMISO PET image is feasible. OAR dose constraints were met.« less
  • Purpose: To compare and quantify respiratory motion artifacts in images from free breathing 4D-CT-on-Rails(CTOR) and those from MV-Cone-beam-CT(MVCB) and facilitate respiratory motion guided radiation therapy. Methods: 4D-CTOR: Siemens Somatom CT-on-Rails system with Anzai belt loaded with pressure sensor load cells. 4D scans were performed in helical mode, pitch 0.1, gantry rotation time 0.5s, 1.5mm slice thickness, 120kVp, 400 mAs. Normal and fast breathing (>12rpm) scanning protocols were investigated. Helical scan, AIP(average intensity projection) and MIP(maximum intensity projection) were generated from 4D-CTOR scans with amplitude sorting into 10 phases.MVCB: Siemens Artiste diamond view(1MV)MVCB was performed with 5MU thorax protocol with 60more » second of full rotation.Phantom: Anzai AZ-733V respiratory phantom. The settings were set to normal and resp. modes with repetition rates at 15 rpm and 10 rpm. Surgical clips, acrylic, wooden, rubber and lung density, total six mock-ups were scanned and compared in this study.Signal-to-noise ratio(SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR) and reconstructed motion volume were compared to different respiratory setups for the mock-ups. Results: Reconstructed motion volume was compared to the real object volume for the six test mock-ups. It shows that free breathing helical in all instances underestimates the object excursions largest to −67.4% and least −6.3%. Under normal breathing settings, MIP can predict very precise motion volume with minimum 0.4% and largest −13.9%. MVCB shows underestimate of the motion volume with −1.11% minimum and −18.0% maximum. With fast breathing, AIP provides bad representation of the object motion; however, the MIP can predict the motion volume with −2.0% to −11.4% underestimate. Conclusion: Respiratory motion guided radiation therapy requires good motion recording. This study shows that regular CTOR helical scans provides bad guidance, 4D CTOR AIP cannot represent the fast breathing pattern, MIP can represent the best motion volume, MVCBCT can only be used for normal breathing with acceptable uncertainties.« less
  • Purpose: Daily CT-based three-dimensional image-guided and adaptive (CTIGRT-ART) proton therapy system was designed and developed. We also evaluated the effectiveness of the CTIGRT-ART. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed in three lung cancer patients: Proton treatment planning was performed using CT image datasets acquired by Toshiba Aquilion ONE. Planning target volume and surrounding organs were contoured by a well-trained radiation oncologist. Dose distribution was optimized using 180-deg. and 270-deg. two fields in passive scattering proton therapy. Well commissioned Simplified Monte Carlo algorithm was used as dose calculation engine. Daily consecutive CT image datasets was acquired by an in-room CT (Toshiba Aquilionmore » LB). In our in-house program, two image registrations for bone and tumor were performed to shift the isocenter using treatment CT image dataset. Subsequently, dose recalculation was performed after the shift of the isocenter. When the dose distribution after the tumor registration exhibits change of dosimetric parameter of CTV D90% compared to the initial plan, an additional process of was performed that the range shifter thickness was optimized. Dose distribution with CTV D90% for the bone registration, the tumor registration only and adaptive plan with the tumor registration was compared to the initial plan. Results: In the bone registration, tumor dose coverage was decreased by 16% on average (Maximum: 56%). The tumor registration shows better coverage than the bone registration, however the coverage was also decreased by 9% (Maximum: 22%) The adaptive plan shows similar dose coverage of the tumor (Average: 2%, Maximum: 7%). Conclusion: There is a high possibility that only image registration for bone and tumor may reduce tumor coverage. Thus, our proposed methodology of image guidance and adaptive planning using the range adaptation after tumor registration would be effective for proton therapy. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).« less
  • Purpose: To implement soft-tissue image-guided proton therapy using inroom mobile CT. Methods: Anthropomorphic phantom was first used to determine the setup accuracy using in- room mobile CT. Laser and bbs were used for the initial setup (marked isocenter). CT data was then acquired with in-room mobile CT (daily CT). The shift between the marked isocenter and the planned isocenter (final isocenter) was determined from the daily CT using in-house Computer Assisted Targeting (CAT) software. Orthogonal DRRs of the day was also generated from the daily CT. The phantom was then transferred on the treatment couch top to the treatment machinemore » using a transportation system, and again aligned to the marked isocenter. Couch shifts were made to align the phantom to the final isocenter using the shifts as determined using the CAT software, and verified using orthogonal X-ray images with the daily DRRs. Results: Phantom data suggests that following the setup procedure as described above, targeting accuracy could be within 1 mm. Patient data are being acquired and analyzed. Conclusion: In-room mobile CT is capable of providing soft-tissue image-guided proton therapy.« less