skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-F-J-209: Quantification of Image-Guidance Benefit in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers

Abstract

Purpose: Image-guidance has been widely used in radiation oncology for accurate radiotherapy. The goal of this study is to quantify the benefit of image-guidance in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of cancers. Methods: In this study, a new index termed image-guidance benefit (IGB), was proposed to quantify the benefit of image-guidance in cancer radiotherapy. It is calculated as a ratio of the square sum of dose differences between planning dose matrix and actual delivery dose matrix post image-guidance to the square sum of dose summation between the two matrixes, summing over all dose scoring voxels. Ranging from 0 to 1, larger IGB values indicate larger benefit out of image-guidance. With IRB approval, the DICOM RT files and 3D couch shifts applied during IGRT of 2219 patients were collected, based on which patient-specific IGB values were calculated with an in-house MATLAB code. Results: In this study, the mean IGB value was found to be 0.0398 (0.000583–0.999) with a positive correlation between IGB value and 3D couch shift vector at 0.0435 per cm (P<0.0001). With 2 mm shift as a threshold above which an image-guidance is deemed clinically necessary, the corresponding mean IGB value was 0.00457, much less than 0.0398 (P<0.001). However, the IGBmore » values of 56 cases based on couch shifts were less than those based on 2 mm shift. Conclusion: The IGB values were patient-specific and site-dependent. Using 2 mm shifts as criterion for applying image-guidance, the applied image-guidance procedures were found clinically necessary and highly beneficial in 97.5% of cancer patients. However, image-guidance procedures were found over-used in about 2.5% of cancer patients in our current practices of IGRT, which should be avoided as they added no benefit in improving delivery accuracy while increasing cancer risk.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Division of Radiation Physics, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)
  2. (United States)
  3. Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642237
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; CORRELATIONS; IMAGES; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Zhou, L, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, and Deng, J. SU-F-J-209: Quantification of Image-Guidance Benefit in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956117.
Zhou, L, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, & Deng, J. SU-F-J-209: Quantification of Image-Guidance Benefit in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956117.
Zhou, L, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, and Deng, J. 2016. "SU-F-J-209: Quantification of Image-Guidance Benefit in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956117.
@article{osti_22642237,
title = {SU-F-J-209: Quantification of Image-Guidance Benefit in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers},
author = {Zhou, L and Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT and Deng, J},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Image-guidance has been widely used in radiation oncology for accurate radiotherapy. The goal of this study is to quantify the benefit of image-guidance in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of cancers. Methods: In this study, a new index termed image-guidance benefit (IGB), was proposed to quantify the benefit of image-guidance in cancer radiotherapy. It is calculated as a ratio of the square sum of dose differences between planning dose matrix and actual delivery dose matrix post image-guidance to the square sum of dose summation between the two matrixes, summing over all dose scoring voxels. Ranging from 0 to 1, larger IGB values indicate larger benefit out of image-guidance. With IRB approval, the DICOM RT files and 3D couch shifts applied during IGRT of 2219 patients were collected, based on which patient-specific IGB values were calculated with an in-house MATLAB code. Results: In this study, the mean IGB value was found to be 0.0398 (0.000583–0.999) with a positive correlation between IGB value and 3D couch shift vector at 0.0435 per cm (P<0.0001). With 2 mm shift as a threshold above which an image-guidance is deemed clinically necessary, the corresponding mean IGB value was 0.00457, much less than 0.0398 (P<0.001). However, the IGB values of 56 cases based on couch shifts were less than those based on 2 mm shift. Conclusion: The IGB values were patient-specific and site-dependent. Using 2 mm shifts as criterion for applying image-guidance, the applied image-guidance procedures were found clinically necessary and highly beneficial in 97.5% of cancer patients. However, image-guidance procedures were found over-used in about 2.5% of cancer patients in our current practices of IGRT, which should be avoided as they added no benefit in improving delivery accuracy while increasing cancer risk.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956117},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To systematically evaluate the imaging doses and cancer risks associated with various imaging procedures involving ionizing radiation during image-guided radiotherapy of an increasingly large number of cancer patients. Methods: 141 patients (52 brain cases, 47 thoracic cases, 42 abdominal cases, aged 3 to 91 years old) treated between October 2009 and March 2010 were included in this IRB-approved retrospective study. During the whole radiotherapy course, each patient underwent at least one type of imaging procedures, i.e., kV portal, MV portal and kVCBCT, besides CT simulations. Based on Monte Carlo modeling and particle transport in human anatomy of various dimensions,more » the correlations between the radiation doses to the various organs-at-risk (OARs) at the head, the thoracic and the abdominal regions and one's weight, circumference, scan mAs and kVp have been obtained and used to estimate the radiation dose from a specific imaging procedure. The radiation-induced excess relative risk (ERR) was then estimated with BEIR VII formulism based on one's gender, age and radiation dose. 1+ ERR was reported in this study as relative cancer risk. Results: For the whole cohort of 141 patients, the mean imaging doses from various imaging procedures were 8.3 cGy to the brain, 10.5 cGy to the lungs and 19.2 cGy to the red bone marrow, respectively. Accordingly, the cancer risks were 1.140, 1.369 and 2.671, respectively. In comparison, MV portal deposited largest doses to the lungs while kVCBCT delivered the highest doses to the red bone marrow. Conclusion: The compiled imaging doses to a patient during his/her treatment course were patient-specific and site-dependent, varying from 1.2 to 263.5 cGy on average, which were clinically significant and should be included in the treatment planning and overall decision-making. Our results indicated the necessity of personalized imaging to maximize its clinical benefits while reducing the associated cancer risks. Sichuan University Scholarship.« less
  • Purpose: To systematically evaluate imaging doses and cancer risks to organs-at-risk as a Result of cumulative doses from various radiological imaging procedures in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in a large cohort of cancer patients. Methods: With IRB approval, imaging procedures (computed tomography, kilo-voltage portal imaging, megavoltage portal imaging and kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography) of 4832 cancer patients treated during 4.5 years were collected with their gender, age and circumference. Correlations between patient’s circumference and Monte Carlo simulated-organ dose were applied to estimate organ doses while the cancer risks were reported as 1+ERR using BEIR VII models. Results: 80 cGy or moremore » doses were deposited to brain, lungs and RBM in 273 patients (maximum 136, 278 and 267 cGy, respectively), due largely to repetitive imaging procedures and non-personalized imaging settings. Regardless of gender, relative cancer risk estimates for brain, lungs, and RBM were 3.4 (n = 55), 2.6 (n = 49), 1.8 (n = 25) for age group of 0–19; 1.2 (n = 87), 1.4 (n = 98), 1.3 (n = 51) for age group of 20–39; 1.0 (n = 457), 1.1 (n = 880), 1.8 (n=360) for age group of 40–59; 1.0 (n = 646), 1.1 (n = 1400), 2.3 (n = 716) for age group of 60–79 and 1.0 (n = 108),1.1 (n = 305),1.6 (n = 147) for age group of 80–99. Conclusion: The cumulative imaging doses and associated cancer risks from multi-imaging procedures were patient-specific and site-dependent, with up to 2.7 Gy imaging dose deposited to critical structures in some pediatric patients. The associated cancer risks in brain and lungs for children of age 0 to 19 were 2–3 times larger than those for adults. This study indicated a pressing need for personalized imaging protocol to maximize its clinical benefits while reducing associated cancer risks. Sichuan University Scholarship.« less
  • Purpose: Dual-function fiducials loaded with radiosensitizers, like gold nanoparticles (GNP), offer an innovative approach for ensuring geometric accuracy during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and significantly increasing therapeutic efficacy due to controlled in-situ release of the radiosensitizers. This study retrospectively investigates the dosimetric benefit of using up to two such dual-function fiducial markers instead of traditional single function fiducials during IGRT. Methods: A computational code was developed to investigate the dosimetric benefit for 10 real patient tumor volumes of up to 6.5 cm diameter. The intra-tumoral space-time biodistribution of the GNP was modeled as in previous studies based on Fick’s second law.more » The corresponding dose-enhancement for each tumor voxel due to the GNP was also calculated for clinical 6MV beam configurations. Various loading concentrations (25–50 mg/g) were studied, as a function of GNP size, to determine potential for clinically significant dose enhancement. The time between initial implantation of dual-function fiducials to the beginning of radiotherapy was assumed to be 14 days as typical for many clinics. Results: A single dual-function fiducial could achieve at least a DEF of 1.2 for patients with tumors less than 1.4 cm diameter after 14 days. Replacing two single function fiducials with dual-function ones at the same locations achieved at least the required minimal DEF for tumors that are 2 cm diameter in 3 patients. The results also revealed dosimetrically better fiducial locations which could enable significant DEF when using one or two dual function fiducials. 2 nm sizes showed the most feasibility. Conclusion: The results highlight the potential of tumor sub-volume radiation boosting using GNP released from fiducials, and the ability to customize the DEF throughout the tumor by using two dual-function fiducials, varying the initial concentration and nanoparticle size. The results demonstrate potential for employing dual-function fiducials in the development of GNP-aided radiotherapy.« less
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the residual setup error of different image-guidance (IG) protocols in the alignment of patients with head and neck cancer. The protocols differ in the percentage of treatment fractions that are associated with image guidance. Using data from patients who were treated with daily IG, the residual setup errors for several different protocols are retrospectively calculated. Methods and Materials: Alignment data from 24 patients (802 fractions) treated with daily IG on a helical tomotherapy unit were analyzed. The difference between the daily setup correction and the setup correction that would have beenmore » made according to a specific protocol was used to calculate the residual setup errors for each protocol. Results: The different protocols are generally effective in reducing systematic setup errors. Random setup errors are generally not reduced for fractions that are not image guided. As a consequence, if every other treatment is image guided, still about 11% of all treatments (IG and not IG) are subject to three-dimensional setup errors of at least 5 mm. This frequency increases to about 29% if setup errors >3 mm are scored. For various protocols that require 15% to 31% of the treatments to be image guided, from 50% to 60% and from 26% to 31% of all fractions are subject to setup errors >3 mm and >5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Residual setup errors reduce with increasing frequency of IG during the course of external-beam radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer patients. The inability to reduce random setup errors for fractions that are not image guided results in notable residual setup errors.« less
  • Purpose: To compare the geometric alignments of soft-tissue implanted markers to the traditional bony-based alignments in head-and-neck cancers, on the basis of daily image guidance. Dosimetric impact of the two alignment techniques on target coverage is presented. Methods and Materials: A total of 330 retrospective alignments (5 patients) were performed on daily megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image sets using both alignment techniques. Intermarker distances were tracked for all fractions to assess marker interfractional stability. Using a deformable image registration algorithm, target cumulative doses were calculated according to generated shifts on daily MVCT image sets. Target D95 was used as amore » dosimetric endpoint to evaluate each alignment technique. Results: Intermarker distances overall were stable, with a standard deviation of <1.5 mm for all fractions and no observed temporal trends. Differences in shift magnitudes between both alignment techniques were found to be statistically significant, with a maximum observed difference of 8 mm in a given direction. Evaluation of technique-specific dose coverage based on D95 of target clinical target volume and planning target volume shows small differences (within +-5%) compared with the kilovoltage CT plan. Conclusion: The use of daily MVCT imaging demonstrates that implanted markers in oral tongue and soft-palate cancers are stable localization surrogates. Alignments based on implanted markers generate shifts comparable overall to the traditional bony-based alignment, with no observed systematic difference in magnitude or direction. The cumulative dosimetric impact on target clinical target volume and planning target volume coverage was found to be similar, despite large observed differences in daily alignment shifts between the two techniques.« less