skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-F-J-194: Development of Dose-Based Image Guided Proton Therapy Workflow

Abstract

Purpose: To implement image-guided proton therapy (IGPT) based on daily proton dose distribution. Methods: Unlike x-ray therapy, simple alignment based on anatomy cannot ensure proper dose coverage in proton therapy. Anatomy changes along the beam path may lead to underdosing the target, or overdosing the organ-at-risk (OAR). With an in-room mobile computed tomography (CT) system, we are developing a dose-based IGPT software tool that allows patient positioning and treatment adaption based on daily dose distributions. During an IGPT treatment, daily CT images are acquired in treatment position. After initial positioning based on rigid image registration, proton dose distribution is calculated on daily CT images. The target and OARs are automatically delineated via deformable image registration. Dose distributions are evaluated to decide if repositioning or plan adaptation is necessary in order to achieve proper coverage of the target and sparing of OARs. Besides online dose-based image guidance, the software tool can also map daily treatment doses to the treatment planning CT images for offline adaptive treatment. Results: An in-room helical CT system is commissioned for IGPT purposes. It produces accurate CT numbers that allow proton dose calculation. GPU-based deformable image registration algorithms are developed and evaluated for automatic ROI-delineation and dosemore » mapping. The online and offline IGPT functionalities are evaluated with daily CT images of the proton patients. Conclusion: The online and offline IGPT software tool may improve the safety and quality of proton treatment by allowing dose-based IGPT and adaptive proton treatments. Research is partially supported by Mevion Medical Systems.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22634790
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ALGORITHMS; ALIGNMENT; ANATOMY; COMPUTER CODES; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; HAZARDS; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; ORGANS; PATIENTS; POSITIONING; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Pham, R, Sun, B, Zhao, T, Li, H, Yang, D, Grantham, K, Goddu, S, Santanam, L, Bradley, J, Mutic, S, Kandlakunta, P, and Zhang, T. SU-F-J-194: Development of Dose-Based Image Guided Proton Therapy Workflow. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956102.
Pham, R, Sun, B, Zhao, T, Li, H, Yang, D, Grantham, K, Goddu, S, Santanam, L, Bradley, J, Mutic, S, Kandlakunta, P, & Zhang, T. SU-F-J-194: Development of Dose-Based Image Guided Proton Therapy Workflow. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956102.
Pham, R, Sun, B, Zhao, T, Li, H, Yang, D, Grantham, K, Goddu, S, Santanam, L, Bradley, J, Mutic, S, Kandlakunta, P, and Zhang, T. 2016. "SU-F-J-194: Development of Dose-Based Image Guided Proton Therapy Workflow". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956102.
@article{osti_22634790,
title = {SU-F-J-194: Development of Dose-Based Image Guided Proton Therapy Workflow},
author = {Pham, R and Sun, B and Zhao, T and Li, H and Yang, D and Grantham, K and Goddu, S and Santanam, L and Bradley, J and Mutic, S and Kandlakunta, P and Zhang, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To implement image-guided proton therapy (IGPT) based on daily proton dose distribution. Methods: Unlike x-ray therapy, simple alignment based on anatomy cannot ensure proper dose coverage in proton therapy. Anatomy changes along the beam path may lead to underdosing the target, or overdosing the organ-at-risk (OAR). With an in-room mobile computed tomography (CT) system, we are developing a dose-based IGPT software tool that allows patient positioning and treatment adaption based on daily dose distributions. During an IGPT treatment, daily CT images are acquired in treatment position. After initial positioning based on rigid image registration, proton dose distribution is calculated on daily CT images. The target and OARs are automatically delineated via deformable image registration. Dose distributions are evaluated to decide if repositioning or plan adaptation is necessary in order to achieve proper coverage of the target and sparing of OARs. Besides online dose-based image guidance, the software tool can also map daily treatment doses to the treatment planning CT images for offline adaptive treatment. Results: An in-room helical CT system is commissioned for IGPT purposes. It produces accurate CT numbers that allow proton dose calculation. GPU-based deformable image registration algorithms are developed and evaluated for automatic ROI-delineation and dose mapping. The online and offline IGPT functionalities are evaluated with daily CT images of the proton patients. Conclusion: The online and offline IGPT software tool may improve the safety and quality of proton treatment by allowing dose-based IGPT and adaptive proton treatments. Research is partially supported by Mevion Medical Systems.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956102},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To present a practical image-guided method to position an endorectal balloon that improves in vivo thermoluminiscent dosimeter (TLD) measurements of rectal doses in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods: TLDs were combined with endorectal balloons to measure dose at the anterior rectal wall during daily proton treatment delivery. Radiopaque metallic markers were employed as surrogates for balloon position reproducibility in rotation and translation. The markers were utilized to guide the balloon orientation during daily treatment employing orthogonal x-ray image-guided patient positioning. TLDs were placed at the 12 o'clock position on the anterior balloon surface at the midprostatic plane. Markersmore » were placed at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions on the balloon to align it with respect to the planned orientation. The balloon rotation along its stem axis, referred to as roll, causes TLD displacement along the anterior-posterior direction. The magnitude of TLD displacement is revealed by the separation distance between markers at opposite sides of the balloon on sagittal x-ray images. Results: A total of 81 in vivo TLD measurements were performed on six patients. Eighty-three percent of all measurements (65 TLD readings) were within +5% and -10% of the planning dose with a mean of -2.1% and a standard deviation of 3.5%. Examination of marker positions with in-room x-ray images of measured doses between -10% and -20% of the planned dose revealed a strong correlation between balloon roll and TLD displacement posteriorly from the planned position. The magnitude of the roll was confirmed by separations of 10-20 mm between the markers which could be corrected by manually adjusting the balloon position and verified by a repeat x-ray image prior to proton delivery. This approach could properly correct the balloon roll, resulting in TLD positioning within 2 mm along the anterior-posterior direction. Conclusions: Our results show that image-guided TLD-based in vivo dosimetry for rectal dose verification can be perfomed reliably and reproducibly for proton therapy in prostate cancer.« less
  • Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging may enable image- and dose-guided proton therapy, but is challenged by image artefacts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the general applicability of a previously developed a priori scatter correction algorithm to allow CBCT-based proton dose calculations. Methods: The a priori scatter correction algorithm used a plan CT (pCT) and raw cone-beam projections acquired with the Varian On-Board Imager. The projections were initially corrected for bow-tie filtering and beam hardening and subsequently reconstructed using the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm (rawCBCT). The rawCBCTs were intensity normalised before a rigid and deformable registration were applied on themore » pCTs to the rawCBCTs. The resulting images were forward projected onto the same angles as the raw CB projections. The two projections were subtracted from each other, Gaussian and median filtered, and then subtracted from the raw projections and finally reconstructed to the scatter-corrected CBCTs. For evaluation, water equivalent path length (WEPL) maps (from anterior to posterior) were calculated on different reconstructions of three data sets (CB projections and pCT) of three parts of an Alderson phantom. Finally, single beam spot scanning proton plans (0–360 deg gantry angle in steps of 5 deg; using PyTRiP) treating a 5 cm central spherical target in the pCT were re-calculated on scatter-corrected CBCTs with identical targets. Results: The scatter-corrected CBCTs resulted in sub-mm mean WEPL differences relative to the rigid registration of the pCT for all three data sets. These differences were considerably smaller than what was achieved with the regular Varian CBCT reconstruction algorithm (1–9 mm mean WEPL differences). Target coverage in the re-calculated plans was generally improved using the scatter-corrected CBCTs compared to the Varian CBCT reconstruction. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the general applicability of a priori CBCT scatter correction, potentially opening for CBCT-based image/dose-guided proton therapy, including adaptive strategies. Research agreement with Varian Medical Systems, not connected to the present project.« less
  • Purpose: To report clinical outcomes in patients treated with image guided proton therapy (PT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 1327 men were reviewed. Each man was enrolled on an outcomes tracking study. Dual enrollment on a prospective clinical trial was allowed. Each patient was treated for localized prostate cancer with PT at our institution between 2006 and 2010. Ninety-eight percent of patients received 78 Gy (radiobiological equivalent [RBE]) or higher; 18% received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The 5-year freedom from biochemical progression (FFBP), distant metastasis-free survival, and cause-specific survival rates are reported for each risk group. Datamore » on patient-reported quality of life and high-grade toxicities were prospectively collected and reported. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify clinical predictors of biochemical failure and urologic toxicity. Results: The median follow-up time was 5.5 years. The 5-year FFBP rates were 99%, 94%, and 74% in low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients, respectively. The actuarial 5-year rates of late grade 3+ Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity were 0.6% and 2.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between grade 3+ GU toxicity and pretreatment prostate reductive procedures (P<.0001), prostate volume (P=.0085), pretreatment α-blockers (P=.0067), diabetes (P=.0195), and dose–volume histogram parameters (P=.0208). The median International Prostate Symptom Scores pretreatment scores and scores at 5 years after treatment were 7 and 7, respectively. The mean Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) scores significantly declined for sexual summary for patients not receiving ADT (from 67 to 53) between baseline and 5 years. Conclusions: Image guided PT provided excellent biochemical control rates for patients with localized prostate cancer. The actuarial rates of high-grade toxicity were low after PT. From pretreatment to 5 years of follow-up, a significant decline was found only in mean EPIC sexual summary scores. Prospective clinical studies are needed to determine the comparative effectiveness of PT and other radiation treatment strategies.« less
  • Purpose: The aims of this work are to describe the workflow and initial clinical experience treating patients with an MRI-guided radiotherapy (MRIGRT) system. Methods: Patient treatments with a novel MR-IGRT system started at our institution in mid-January. The system consists of an on-board 0.35-T MRI, with IMRT-capable delivery via doubly-focused MLCs on three {sup 60} Co heads. In addition to volumetric MR-imaging, real-time planar imaging is performed during treatment. So far, eleven patients started treatment (six finished), ranging from bladder to lung SBRT. While the system is capable of online adaptive radiotherapy and gating, a conventional workflow was used tomore » start, consisting of volumetric imaging for patient setup using visible tumor, evaluation of tumor motion outside of PTV on cine images, and real-time imaging. Workflow times were collected and evaluated to increase efficiency and evaluate feasibility of adding the adaptive and gating features while maintaining a reasonable patient throughput. Results: For the first month, physicians attended every fraction to provide guidance on identifying the tumor and an acceptable level of positioning and anatomical deviation. Average total treatment times (including setup) were reduced from 55 to 45 min after physician presence was no longer required and the therapists had learned to align patients based on soft-tissue imaging. Presently, the source strengths were at half maximum (7.7K Ci each), therefore beam-on times will be reduced after source replacement. Current patient load is 10 per day, with increase to 25 anticipated in the near future. Conclusion: On-board, real-time MRI-guided RT has been incorporated into clinical use. Treatment times were kept to reasonable lengths while including volumetric imaging, previews of tumor movement, and physician evaluation. Workflow and timing is being continuously evaluated to increase efficiency. In near future, adaptive and gating capabilities of the system will be implemented.« less
  • Purpose: To survey image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) practice patterns, as well as IGRT's impact on clinical workflow and planning treatment volumes (PTVs). Methods and Materials: A sample of 5979 treatment site–specific surveys was e-mailed to the membership of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), with questions pertaining to IGRT modality/frequency, PTV expansions, method of image verification, and perceived utility/value of IGRT. On-line image verification was defined as images obtained and reviewed by the physician before treatment. Off-line image verification was defined as images obtained before treatment and then reviewed by the physician before the next treatment. Results: Of 601 evaluablemore » responses, 95% reported IGRT capabilities other than portal imaging. The majority (92%) used volumetric imaging (cone-beam CT [CBCT] or megavoltage CT), with volumetric imaging being the most commonly used modality for all sites except breast. The majority of respondents obtained daily CBCTs for head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), lung 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or IMRT, anus or pelvis IMRT, prostate IMRT, and prostatic fossa IMRT. For all sites, on-line image verification was most frequently performed during the first few fractions only. No association was seen between IGRT frequency or CBCT utilization and clinical treatment volume to PTV expansions. Of the 208 academic radiation oncologists who reported working with residents, only 41% reported trainee involvement in IGRT verification processes. Conclusion: Consensus guidelines, further evidence-based approaches for PTV margin selection, and greater resident involvement are needed for standardized use of IGRT practices.« less