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Title: SU-F-J-180: A Reference Data Set for Testing Two Dimension Registration Algorithms

Abstract

Purpose: To create and characterize a reference data set for testing image registration algorithms that transform portal image (PI) to digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR). Methods: Anterior-posterior (AP) and Lateral (LAT) projection and DRR image pairs from nine cases representing four different anatomical sites (head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, and pelvis) were selected for this study. Five experts will perform manual registration by placing landmarks points (LMPs) on the DRR and finding their corresponding points on the PI using computer assisted manual point selection tool (CAMPST), a custom-made MATLAB software tool developed in house. The landmark selection process will be repeated on both the PI and the DRR in order to characterize inter- and -intra observer variations associated with the point selection process. Inter and an intra observer variation in LMPs was done using Bland-Altman (B&A) analysis and one-way analysis of variance. We set our limit such that the absolute value of the mean difference between the readings should not exceed 3mm. Later on in this project we will test different two dimension (2D) image registration algorithms and quantify the uncertainty associated with their registration. Results: Using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) there was no variations within the readers. When Bland-Altmanmore » analysis was used the variation within the readers was acceptable. The variation was higher in the PI compared to the DRR.ConclusionThe variation seen for the PI is because although the PI has a much better spatial resolution the poor resolution on the DRR makes it difficult to locate the actual corresponding anatomical feature on the PI. We hope this becomes more evident when all the readers complete the point selection. The reason for quantifying inter- and -intra observer variation tells us to what degree of accuracy a manual registration can be done. Research supported by William Beaumont Hospital Research Start Up Fund.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. William Beaumont Hospital, Rochester Hills, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22634777
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; ALGORITHMS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTER CODES; HEAD; HOSPITALS; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; NECK; PELVIS; SPATIAL RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

Dankwa, A, Castillo, E, and Guerrero, T. SU-F-J-180: A Reference Data Set for Testing Two Dimension Registration Algorithms. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956088.
Dankwa, A, Castillo, E, & Guerrero, T. SU-F-J-180: A Reference Data Set for Testing Two Dimension Registration Algorithms. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956088.
Dankwa, A, Castillo, E, and Guerrero, T. Wed . "SU-F-J-180: A Reference Data Set for Testing Two Dimension Registration Algorithms". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956088.
@article{osti_22634777,
title = {SU-F-J-180: A Reference Data Set for Testing Two Dimension Registration Algorithms},
author = {Dankwa, A and Castillo, E and Guerrero, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To create and characterize a reference data set for testing image registration algorithms that transform portal image (PI) to digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR). Methods: Anterior-posterior (AP) and Lateral (LAT) projection and DRR image pairs from nine cases representing four different anatomical sites (head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, and pelvis) were selected for this study. Five experts will perform manual registration by placing landmarks points (LMPs) on the DRR and finding their corresponding points on the PI using computer assisted manual point selection tool (CAMPST), a custom-made MATLAB software tool developed in house. The landmark selection process will be repeated on both the PI and the DRR in order to characterize inter- and -intra observer variations associated with the point selection process. Inter and an intra observer variation in LMPs was done using Bland-Altman (B&A) analysis and one-way analysis of variance. We set our limit such that the absolute value of the mean difference between the readings should not exceed 3mm. Later on in this project we will test different two dimension (2D) image registration algorithms and quantify the uncertainty associated with their registration. Results: Using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) there was no variations within the readers. When Bland-Altman analysis was used the variation within the readers was acceptable. The variation was higher in the PI compared to the DRR.ConclusionThe variation seen for the PI is because although the PI has a much better spatial resolution the poor resolution on the DRR makes it difficult to locate the actual corresponding anatomical feature on the PI. We hope this becomes more evident when all the readers complete the point selection. The reason for quantifying inter- and -intra observer variation tells us to what degree of accuracy a manual registration can be done. Research supported by William Beaumont Hospital Research Start Up Fund.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956088},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To compare the contour propagation accuracy of two deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms in the Raystation treatment planning system – the “Hybrid” algorithm based on image intensities and anatomical information; and the “Biomechanical” algorithm based on linear anatomical elasticity and finite element modeling. Methods: Both DIR algorithms were used for CT-to-CT deformation for 20 lung radiation therapy patients that underwent treatment plan revisions. Deformation accuracy was evaluated using landmark tracking to measure the target registration error (TRE) and inverse consistency error (ICE). The deformed contours were also evaluated against physician drawn contours using Dice similarity coefficients (DSC). Contour propagationmore » was qualitatively assessed using a visual quality score assigned by physicians, and a refinement quality score (0 0.9 for lungs, > 0.85 for heart, > 0.8 for liver) and similar qualitative assessments (VQS < 0.35, RQS > 0.75 for lungs). When anatomical structures were used to control the deformation, the DSC improved more significantly for the biomechanical DIR compared to the hybrid DIR, while the VQS and RQS improved only for the controlling structures. However, while the inclusion of controlling structures improved the TRE for the hybrid DIR, it increased the TRE for the biomechanical DIR. Conclusion: The hybrid DIR was found to perform slightly better than the biomechanical DIR based on lower TRE while the DSC, VQS, and RQS studies yielded comparable results for both. The use of controlling structures showed considerable improvement in the hybrid DIR results and is recommended for clinical use in contour propagation.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate quantitatively the performance of different deformable-image-registration algorithms (DIR) with helical (HCT), axial (ACT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) by evaluating the variations in the CT-numbers and lengths of targets moving with controlled motion-patterns. Methods: Four DIR-algorithms including demons, fast-demons, Horn-Schunk and Locas-Kanade from the DIRART-software are used to register CT-images of a mobile-phantom. A mobile-phantom is scanned with different imaging techniques that include helical, axial and cone-beam CT. The phantom includes three targets with different lengths that are made from water-equivalent material and inserted in low-density-foam which is moved with adjustable motion-amplitudes and frequencies. Results: Most of themore » DIR-algorithms are able to produce the lengths of the stationary-targets, however, they do not produce the CT-number values in CBCT. The image-artifacts induced by motion are more regular in CBCT imaging where the mobile-target elongation increases linearly with motion-amplitude. In ACT and HCT, the motion-artifacts are irregular where some mobile -targets are elongated or shrunk depending on the motion-phase during imaging. The DIR-algorithms are successful in deforming the images of the mobile-targets to the images of the stationary-targets producing the CT-number values and length of the target for motion-amplitudes < 20 mm. Similarly in ACT, all DIR-algorithms produced the actual CT-number and length of the stationary-targets for motion-amplitudes < 15 mm. As stronger motion-artifacts are induced in HCT and ACT, DIR-algorithms fail to produce CT-values and shape of the stationary-targets and fast-demons-algorithm has worst performance. Conclusion: Most of DIR-algorithms produce the CT-number values and lengths of the stationary-targets in HCT and ACT images that has motion-artifacts induced by small motion-amplitudes. As motion-amplitudes increase, the DIR-algorithms fail to deform mobile-target images to the stationary-images in HCT and ACT. In CBCT, DIR-algorithms are successful in producing length and shape of the stationary-targets, however, they fail to produce the accurate CT-number level.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate quantitatively the displacement-vector-fields (DVF) obtained from different deformable image registration algorithms (DIR) in helical (HCT), axial (ACT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) to register CT images of a mobile phantom and its correlation with motion amplitudes and frequencies. Methods: HCT, ACT and CBCT are used to image a mobile phantom which includes three targets with different sizes that are manufactured from water-equivalent material and embedded in low density foam. The phantom is moved with controlled motion patterns where a range of motion amplitudes (0–40mm) and frequencies (0.125–0.5Hz) are used. The CT images obtained from scanning of the mobilemore » phantom are registered with the stationary CT-images using four deformable image registration algorithms including demons, fast-demons, Horn-Schunk and Locas-Kanade from DIRART software. Results: The DVF calculated by the different algorithms correlate well with the motion amplitudes that are applied on the mobile phantom where maximal DVF increase linearly with the motion amplitudes of the mobile phantom in CBCT. Similarly in HCT, DVF increase linearly with motion amplitude, however, its correlation is weaker than CBCT. In ACT, the DVF’s do not correlate well with the motion amplitudes where motion induces strong image artifacts and DIR algorithms are not able to deform the ACT image of the mobile targets to the stationary targets. Three DIR-algorithms produce comparable values and patterns of the DVF for certain CT imaging modality. However, DVF from fast-demons deviated strongly from other algorithms at large motion amplitudes. Conclusion: In CBCT and HCT, the DVF correlate well with the motion amplitude of the mobile phantom. However, in ACT, DVF do not correlate with motion amplitudes. Correlations of DVF with motion amplitude as in CBCT and HCT imaging techniques can provide information about unknown motion parameters of the mobile organs in real patients as demonstrated in this phantom visibility study.« less
  • Purpose: Spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) involves highly conformal dose distributions and steep dose gradients due to the proximity of the spinal cord to the treatment volume. To achieve the planning goals while limiting the spinal cord dose, patients are setup using kV cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) with 6 degree corrections. The kV-CBCT registration with the reference CT is dependent on a user selected region of interest (ROI). The objective of this work is to determine the dosimetric impact of ROI selection. Methods: Twenty patients were selected for this study. For each patient, the kV-CBCT was registered to the reference CTmore » using three ROIs including: 1) the external body, 2) a large anatomic region, and 3) a small region focused in the target volume. Following each registration, the aligned CBCTs and contours were input to the treatment planning system for dose evaluation. The minimum dose, dose to 99% and 90% of the tumor volume (D99%, D90%), dose to 0.03cc and the dose to 10% of the spinal cord subvolume (V10Gy) were compared to the planned values. Results: The average deviations in the tumor minimum dose were 2.68%±1.7%, 4.6%±4.0%, 14.82%±9.9% for small, large and the external ROIs, respectively. The average deviations in tumor D99% were 1.15%±0.7%, 3.18%±1.7%, 10.0%±6.6%, respectively. The average deviations in tumor D90% were 1.00%±0.96%, 1.14%±1.05%, 3.19%±4.77% respectively. The average deviations in the maximum dose to the spinal cord were 2.80%±2.56%, 7.58%±8.28%, 13.35%±13.14%, respectively. The average deviation in V10Gy to the spinal cord were 1.69%±0.88%, 1.98%±2.79%, 2.71%±5.63%. Conclusion: When using automated registration algorithms for CBCT-Reference alignment, a small target-focused ROI results in the least dosimetric deviation from the plan. It is recommended to focus narrowly on the target volume to keep the spinal cord dose below tolerance.« less
  • Purpose: To generate virtual phantoms with clinically relevant deformation and use them to objectively evaluate geometric and dosimetric uncertainties of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms. Methods: Ten lung cancer patients undergoing adaptive 3DCRT planning were selected. For each patient, a pair of planning CT (pCT) and replanning CT (rCT) were used as the basis for virtual phantom generation. Manually adjusted meshes were created for selected ROIs (e.g. PTV, lungs, spinal cord, esophagus, and heart) on pCT and rCT. The mesh vertices were input into a thin-plate spline algorithm to generate a reference displacement vector field (DVF). The reference DVF wasmore » used to deform pCT to generate a simulated replanning CT (srCT) that was closely matched to rCT. Three DIR algorithms (Demons, B-Spline, and intensity-based) were applied to these ten virtual phantoms. The images, ROIs, and doses were mapped from pCT to srCT using the DVFs computed by these three DIRs and compared to those mapped using the reference DVF. Results: The average Dice coefficients for selected ROIs were from 0.85 to 0.96 for Demons, from 0.86 to 0.97 for intensity-based, and from 0.76 to 0.95 for B-Spline. The average Hausdorff distances for selected ROIs were from 2.2 to 5.4 mm for Demons, from 2.3 to 6.8 mm for intensity-based, and from 2.4 to 11.4 mm for B-Spline. The average absolute dose errors for selected ROIs were from 0.2 to 0.6 Gy for Demons, from 0.1 to 0.5 Gy for intensity-based, and from 0.5 to 1.5 Gy for B-Spline. Conclusion: Virtual phantoms were modeled after patients with lung cancer and were clinically relevant for adaptive radiotherapy treatment replanning. Virtual phantoms with known DVFs serve as references and can provide a fair comparison when evaluating different DIRs. Demons and intensity-based DIRs were shown to have smaller geometric and dosimetric uncertainties than B-Spline. Z Shen: None; K Bzdusek: an employee of Philips Healthcare; J Greskovich: None; P Xia: received research grants from Philips Healthcare and Siemens Healthcare.« less