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Title: SU-F-J-172: Hybrid MR/CT Compatible Phantom for MR-Only Based Radiotherapy

Abstract

Purpose: Development of hybrid MR/CT compatible phantom was introduced to fully establish MR image only radiation treatment and this suggested technique using in-house developed hybrid MR/CT compatible phantom image would utilize to generate radiation treatment planning and perform dose calculation without multi-modal registration process or generation of pseudo CT. Methods: Fundamental characteristics for “hybrid MR/CT compatible phantom” was established: Relaxation times equivalent to human tissue, dielectric properties, homogeneous relaxation times, sufficient strength to fabricate a torso, ease of handling, a wide variety of density material for calibration, chemical and physical stability over an extended time. For this requirements, chemical component in each tested plug which would be tissue equivalent to human tissue on MR and CT image and production of phantom body and plug was performed. Chemical component has described below: Agaros, GdCl{sub 3}, NaN{sub 3}, NaCl, K{sub 2}Co{sub 3}, deionized-distilled water. Various mixture of chemical component to simulate human tissue on both MR and CT image was tested by measuring T1, T2 relaxation time and signal intensity (SI) on MR image and Hounsfield unit (HU) on CT and each value was compared. The hybrid MR/CT compatible phantom with 14 plugs was designed and has made. Total height and externalmore » diameter was decided by internal size of 32 channel MR head-coil. Results: Tissue-equivalent chemical component materials and hybrid MR/CT compatible phantom was developed. The range of T1, T2 relaxation time and SI on MR image, HU on CT was acquired and could be adjusted to correspond to simulated human tissue. Conclusion: Current result shows its possibility for MR-only based radiotherapy and the best mixing rate of chemical component for tissue-equivalent image on MR and CT was founded. However, additional technical issues remain to be overcome. Conversion of SI on MR image into HU and dose calculation based on converted MRI will be progressing.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22634769
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANIMAL TISSUES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DIELECTRIC MATERIALS; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; NMR IMAGING; PHANTOMS; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Kim, M, Lee, S, Song, K, Park, S, and Suh, T. SU-F-J-172: Hybrid MR/CT Compatible Phantom for MR-Only Based Radiotherapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956080.
Kim, M, Lee, S, Song, K, Park, S, & Suh, T. SU-F-J-172: Hybrid MR/CT Compatible Phantom for MR-Only Based Radiotherapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956080.
Kim, M, Lee, S, Song, K, Park, S, and Suh, T. 2016. "SU-F-J-172: Hybrid MR/CT Compatible Phantom for MR-Only Based Radiotherapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956080.
@article{osti_22634769,
title = {SU-F-J-172: Hybrid MR/CT Compatible Phantom for MR-Only Based Radiotherapy},
author = {Kim, M and Lee, S and Song, K and Park, S and Suh, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Development of hybrid MR/CT compatible phantom was introduced to fully establish MR image only radiation treatment and this suggested technique using in-house developed hybrid MR/CT compatible phantom image would utilize to generate radiation treatment planning and perform dose calculation without multi-modal registration process or generation of pseudo CT. Methods: Fundamental characteristics for “hybrid MR/CT compatible phantom” was established: Relaxation times equivalent to human tissue, dielectric properties, homogeneous relaxation times, sufficient strength to fabricate a torso, ease of handling, a wide variety of density material for calibration, chemical and physical stability over an extended time. For this requirements, chemical component in each tested plug which would be tissue equivalent to human tissue on MR and CT image and production of phantom body and plug was performed. Chemical component has described below: Agaros, GdCl{sub 3}, NaN{sub 3}, NaCl, K{sub 2}Co{sub 3}, deionized-distilled water. Various mixture of chemical component to simulate human tissue on both MR and CT image was tested by measuring T1, T2 relaxation time and signal intensity (SI) on MR image and Hounsfield unit (HU) on CT and each value was compared. The hybrid MR/CT compatible phantom with 14 plugs was designed and has made. Total height and external diameter was decided by internal size of 32 channel MR head-coil. Results: Tissue-equivalent chemical component materials and hybrid MR/CT compatible phantom was developed. The range of T1, T2 relaxation time and SI on MR image, HU on CT was acquired and could be adjusted to correspond to simulated human tissue. Conclusion: Current result shows its possibility for MR-only based radiotherapy and the best mixing rate of chemical component for tissue-equivalent image on MR and CT was founded. However, additional technical issues remain to be overcome. Conversion of SI on MR image into HU and dose calculation based on converted MRI will be progressing.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956080},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • A self-contained microfluidic-based device was designed and fabricated for in situ imaging of aqueous surfaces using vacuum techniques. The device is a hybrid between a microfluidic PDMS block and external accessories, all portable on a small platform (10 cm-8 cm). The key feature is that a small aperture with a diameter of 2-3 micrometers is opened to the vacuum, which serves as a detection window for in situ imaging of aqueous surfaces. Vacuum compatibility and temperature drop due to water vaporization are the two most important challenges in this invention. Theoretical calculations and fabrication strategies are presented from multiple designmore » aspects. In addition, results from the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) of aqueous surfaces are presented.« less
  • Purpose: In radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, the information on electron density must be derived from the MRI scan by creating a so-called pseudo computed tomography (pCT). This is a nontrivial task, since the voxel-intensities in an MRI scan are not uniquely related to electron density. To solve the task, voxel-based or atlas-based models have typically been used. The voxel-based models require a specialized dual ultrashort echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization and the atlas-based models require deformable registrations of conventional MRI scans. In this study, we investigate the potential of amore » patch-based method for creating a pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI scans without using deformable registrations. We compare this method against two state-of-the-art methods within the voxel-based and atlas-based categories. Methods: The data consisted of CT and MRI scans of five cranial RT patients. To compare the performance of the different methods, a nested cross validation was done to find optimal model parameters for all the methods. Voxel-wise and geometric evaluations of the pCTs were done. Furthermore, a radiologic evaluation based on water equivalent path lengths was carried out, comparing the upper hemisphere of the head in the pCT and the real CT. Finally, the dosimetric accuracy was tested and compared for a photon treatment plan. Results: The pCTs produced with the patch-based method had the best voxel-wise, geometric, and radiologic agreement with the real CT, closely followed by the atlas-based method. In terms of the dosimetric accuracy, the patch-based method had average deviations of less than 0.5% in measures related to target coverage. Conclusions: We showed that a patch-based method could generate an accurate pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI sequences and without deformable registrations. In our evaluations, the method performed better than existing voxel-based and atlas-based methods and showed a promising potential for RT of the brain based only on MRI.« less
  • Purpose: To develop an image processing method for MRI-based generation of electron density maps, known as pseudo-CT (pCT), without usage of model- or atlas-based segmentation, and to evaluate the method in the pelvic and head-neck region against CT. Methods: CT and MRI scans were obtained from the pelvic region of four patients in supine position using a flat table top only for CT. Stratified CT maps were generated by classifying each voxel based on HU ranges into one of four classes: air, adipose tissue, soft tissue or bone.A hierarchical region-selective algorithm, based on automatic thresholding and clustering, was used tomore » classify tissues from MR Dixon reconstructed fat, In-Phase (IP) and Opposed-Phase (OP) images. First, a body mask was obtained by thresholding the IP image. Subsequently, an automatic threshold on the Dixon fat image differentiated soft and adipose tissue. K-means clustering on IP and OP images resulted in a mask that, via a connected neighborhood analysis, allowing the user to select the components corresponding to bone structures.The pCT was estimated through assignment of bulk HU to the tissue classes. Bone-only Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR) were generated as well. The pCT images were rigidly registered to the stratified CT to allow a volumetric and voxelwise comparison. Moreover, pCTs were also calculated within the head-neck region in two volunteers using the same pipeline. Results: The volumetric comparison resulted in differences <1% for each tissue class. A voxelwise comparison showed a good classification, ranging from 64% to 98%. The primary misclassified classes were adipose/soft tissue and bone/soft tissue. As the patients have been imaged on different table tops, part of the misclassification error can be explained by misregistration. Conclusion: The proposed approach does not rely on an anatomy model providing the flexibility to successfully generate the pCT in two different body sites. This research is founded by ZonMw IMDI Programme, project name: “RASOR sharp: MRI based radiotherapy planning using a single MRI sequence”, project number: 10-104003010.« less
  • Purpose: To develop and validate a 4 class tissue segmentation approach (air cavities, background, bone and soft-tissue) on T1 -weighted brain MRI and to create a pseudo-CT for MRI-only radiation therapy verification. Methods: Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted fast-spin-echo sequences (TR = 756ms, TE= 7.152ms), acquired on a 1.5T GE MRI-Simulator, are used.MRIs are firstly pre-processed to correct for non uniformity using the non parametric, non uniformity intensity normalization algorithm. Subsequently, a logarithmic inverse scaling log(1/image) is applied, prior to segmentation, to better differentiate bone and air from soft-tissues. Finally, the following method is enrolled to classify intensities into air cavities, background, bonemore » and soft-tissue:Thresholded region growing with seed points in image corners is applied to get a mask of Air+Bone+Background. The background is, afterward, separated by the scan-line filling algorithm. The air mask is extracted by morphological opening followed by a post-processing based on knowledge about air regions geometry. The remaining rough bone pre-segmentation is refined by applying 3D geodesic active contours; bone segmentation evolves by the sum of internal forces from contour geometry and external force derived from image gradient magnitude.Pseudo-CT is obtained by assigning −1000HU to air and background voxels, performing linear mapping of soft-tissue MR intensities in [-400HU, 200HU] and inverse linear mapping of bone MR intensities in [200HU, 1000HU]. Results: Three brain patients having registered MRI and CT are used for validation. CT intensities classification into 4 classes is performed by thresholding. Dice and misclassification errors are quantified. Correct classifications for soft-tissue, bone, and air are respectively 89.67%, 77.8%, and 64.5%. Dice indices are acceptable for bone (0.74) and soft-tissue (0.91) but low for air regions (0.48). Pseudo-CT produces DRRs with acceptable clinical visual agreement to CT-based DRR. Conclusion: The proposed approach makes it possible to use T1-weighted MRI to generate accurate pseudo-CT from 4-class segmentation.« less
  • Purpose: This study is to use plan parameters optimization (Dose rate, collimator angle, couch angle, initial starting phase) to improve the performance of conformal arc radiotherapy plans with motion tracking by increasing the plan performance score (PPS). Methods: Two types of 3D conformal arc plans were created based on QUASAR respiratory motion phantom with spherical and cylindrical targets. Sinusoidal model was applied to the MLC leaves to generate motion tracking plans. A MATLAB program was developed to calculate PPS of each plan (ranges from 0–1) and optimize plan parameters. We first selected the dose rate for motion tracking plans andmore » then used simulated annealing algorithm to search for the combination of the other parameters that resulted in the plan of the maximal PPS. The optimized motion tracking plan was delivered by Varian Truebeam Linac. In-room cameras and stopwatch were used for starting phase selection and synchronization between phantom motion and plan delivery. Gaf-EBT2 dosimetry films were used to measure the dose delivered to the target in QUASAR phantom. Dose profiles and Truebeam trajectory log files were used for plan delivery performance evaluation. Results: For spherical target, the maximal PPS (PPSsph) of the optimized plan was 0.79: (Dose rate: 500MU/min, Collimator: 90°, Couch: +10°, starting phase: 0.83π). For cylindrical target, the maximal PPScyl was 0.75 (Dose rate: 300MU/min, Collimator: 87°, starting phase: 0.97π) with couch at 0°. Differences of dose profiles between motion tracking plans (with the maximal and the minimal PPS) and 3D conformal plans were as follows: PPSsph=0.79: %ΔFWHM: 8.9%, %Dmax: 3.1%; PPSsph=0.52: %ΔFWHM: 10.4%, %Dmax: 6.1%. PPScyl=0.75: %ΔFWHM: 4.7%, %Dmax: 3.6%; PPScyl=0.42: %ΔFWHM: 12.5%, %Dmax: 9.6%. Conclusion: By achieving high plan performance score through parameters optimization, we can improve target dose conformity of motion tracking plan by decreasing total MLC leaf travel distance and leaf speed.« less