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Title: SU-F-J-147: Magnetic Field Dose Response Considerations for a Linac Monitor Chamber

Abstract

Purpose: The impact of magnetic fields on the readings of a linac monitor chamber have not yet been investigated. Herein we examine the total dose response as well as any deviations in the beam parameters of flatness and symmetry when a Varian monitor chamber is irradiated within an applied magnetic field. This work has direct application to the development of Linac-MR systems worldwide. Methods: A Varian monitor chamber was modeled in the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and irradiated in the presence of a magnetic field with a phase space generated from a model of a Linac-MR prototype system. The magnetic field strength was stepped from 0 to 3.0T in both parallel and perpendicular directions with respect to the normal surface of the phase space. Dose to each of the four regions in the monitor chamber were scored separately for every magnetic field adaptation to evaluate the effect of the magnetic field on flatness and symmetry. Results: When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the phase space normal we see a change in dose response with a maximal deviation (10–25% depending on the chamber region) near 0.75T. In the direction of electron deflection we expectedly see opposite responses in chamber regionsmore » leading to a measured asymmetry. With a magnetic field parallel to the phase space normal we see no measured asymmetries, however there is a monotonic rise in dose response leveling off at about +12% near 2.5T. Conclusion: Attention must be given to correct for the strength and direction of the magnetic field at the location of the linac monitor chamber in hybrid Linac-MR devices. Elsewise the dose sampled by these chambers may not represent the actual dose expected at isocentre; additionally there may be a need to correct for the symmetry of the beam recorded by the monitor chamber. Fallone is a co-founder and CEO of MagnetTx Oncology Solutions (under discussions to license Alberta bi-planar linac MR for commercialization).« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22634750
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ASYMMETRY; BEAM MONITORS; COMMERCIALIZATION; EQUIPMENT; HYBRIDIZATION; IRRADIATION; LICENSES; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHASE SPACE; RADIATION DOSES

Citation Formats

Reynolds, M, and Fallone, B. SU-F-J-147: Magnetic Field Dose Response Considerations for a Linac Monitor Chamber. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956055.
Reynolds, M, & Fallone, B. SU-F-J-147: Magnetic Field Dose Response Considerations for a Linac Monitor Chamber. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956055.
Reynolds, M, and Fallone, B. 2016. "SU-F-J-147: Magnetic Field Dose Response Considerations for a Linac Monitor Chamber". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956055.
@article{osti_22634750,
title = {SU-F-J-147: Magnetic Field Dose Response Considerations for a Linac Monitor Chamber},
author = {Reynolds, M and Fallone, B},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The impact of magnetic fields on the readings of a linac monitor chamber have not yet been investigated. Herein we examine the total dose response as well as any deviations in the beam parameters of flatness and symmetry when a Varian monitor chamber is irradiated within an applied magnetic field. This work has direct application to the development of Linac-MR systems worldwide. Methods: A Varian monitor chamber was modeled in the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and irradiated in the presence of a magnetic field with a phase space generated from a model of a Linac-MR prototype system. The magnetic field strength was stepped from 0 to 3.0T in both parallel and perpendicular directions with respect to the normal surface of the phase space. Dose to each of the four regions in the monitor chamber were scored separately for every magnetic field adaptation to evaluate the effect of the magnetic field on flatness and symmetry. Results: When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the phase space normal we see a change in dose response with a maximal deviation (10–25% depending on the chamber region) near 0.75T. In the direction of electron deflection we expectedly see opposite responses in chamber regions leading to a measured asymmetry. With a magnetic field parallel to the phase space normal we see no measured asymmetries, however there is a monotonic rise in dose response leveling off at about +12% near 2.5T. Conclusion: Attention must be given to correct for the strength and direction of the magnetic field at the location of the linac monitor chamber in hybrid Linac-MR devices. Elsewise the dose sampled by these chambers may not represent the actual dose expected at isocentre; additionally there may be a need to correct for the symmetry of the beam recorded by the monitor chamber. Fallone is a co-founder and CEO of MagnetTx Oncology Solutions (under discussions to license Alberta bi-planar linac MR for commercialization).},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956055},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To simulate and measure radiation backscattered into the monitor chamber of a TrueBeam linac; establish a rigorous framework for absolute dose calculations for TrueBeam Monte Carlo (MC) simulations through a novel approach, taking into account the backscattered radiation and the actual machine output during beam delivery; improve agreement between measured and simulated relative output factors. Methods: The ‘monitor backscatter factor’ is an essential ingredient of a well-established MC absolute dose formalism (the MC equivalent of the TG-51 protocol). This quantity was determined for the 6 MV, 6X FFF, and 10X FFF beams by two independent Methods: (1) MC simulationsmore » in the monitor chamber of the TrueBeam linac; (2) linac-generated beam record data for target current, logged for each beam delivery. Upper head MC simulations used a freelyavailable manufacturer-provided interface to a cloud-based platform, allowing use of the same head model as that used to generate the publicly-available TrueBeam phase spaces, without revealing the upper head design. The MC absolute dose formalism was expanded to allow direct use of target current data. Results: The relation between backscatter, number of electrons incident on the target for one monitor unit, and MC absolute dose was analyzed for open fields, as well as a jaw-tracking VMAT plan. The agreement between the two methods was better than 0.15%. It was demonstrated that the agreement between measured and simulated relative output factors improves across all field sizes when backscatter is taken into account. Conclusion: For the first time, simulated monitor chamber dose and measured target current for an actual TrueBeam linac were incorporated in the MC absolute dose formalism. In conjunction with the use of MC inputs generated from post-delivery trajectory-log files, the present method allows accurate MC dose calculations, without resorting to any of the simplifying assumptions previously made in the TrueBeam MC literature. This work has been partially funded by Varian Medical Systems.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the improvement in dose distribution in tangential breast radiotherapy using a reversible transverse magnetic field that maintains the same direction of Lorentz force between two fields. The investigation has a potential application in future Linac-MR units. Methods: Computed tomography images of four patients and magnetic fields of 0.25–1.5 Tesla (T) were used for Monte Carlo simulation. Two patients had intact breast while the other two had mastectomy. Simulations of planning and chest wall irradiation were similar to the actual clinical process. The direction of superior-inferior magnetic field for the medial treatment beam was reversed for the lateralmore » beam. Results: For the ipsilateral lung and heart mean doses were reduced by a mean (range) of 45.8% (27.6%–58.6%) and 26.0% (20.2%–38.9%), respectively, depending on various treatment plan setups. The mean V{sub 20} for ipsilateral lung was reduced by 55.0% (43.6%–77.3%). In addition acceptable results were shown after simulation of 0.25 T magnetic field demonstrated in dose-volume reductions of the heart, ipsilateral lung, and noninvolved skin. Conclusions: Applying a reversible magnetic field during breast radiotherapy, not only reduces the dose to the lung and heart but also produces a sharp drop dose volume histogram for planning target volume, because of bending of the path of secondary charged particles toward the chest wall by the Lorentz force. The simulations have shown that use of the magnetic field at 1.5 T is not feasible for clinical applications due to the increase of ipsilateral chest wall skin dose in comparison to the conventional planning while 0.25 T is suitable for all patients due to dose reduction to the chest wall skin.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the improvement in dose distribution in tangential breast radiotherapy using a reversible transverse magnetic field that maintains the same direction of Lorentz force between two fields. The investigation has a potential application in future Linac-MR units. Methods: Computed tomography images of four patients and magnetic fields of 0.25–1.5 Tesla (T) were used for Monte Carlo simulation. Two patients had intact breast while the other two had mastectomy. Simulations of planning and chest wall irradiation were similar to the actual clinical process. The direction of superior-inferior magnetic field for the medial treatment beam was reversed for the lateralmore » beam. Results: For the ipsilateral lung and heart mean doses were reduced by a mean (range) of 45.8% (27.6%–58.6%) and 26.0% (20.2%–38.9%), respectively, depending on various treatment plan setups. The mean V{sub 20} for ipsilateral lung was reduced by 55.0% (43.6%–77.3%). In addition acceptable results were shown after simulation of 0.25 T magnetic field demonstrated in dose-volume reductions of the heart, ipsilateral lung, and noninvolved skin. Conclusions: Applying a reversible magnetic field during breast radiotherapy, not only reduces the dose to the lung and heart but also produces a sharp drop dose volume histogram for planning target volume, because of bending of the path of secondary charged particles toward the chest wall by the Lorentz force. The simulations have shown that use of the magnetic field at 1.5 T is not feasible for clinical applications due to the increase of ipsilateral chest wall skin dose in comparison to the conventional planning while 0.25 T is suitable for all patients due to dose reduction to the chest wall skin.« less
  • Purpose: In considering the continued development of synergetic MRI-radiation therapy machines, we seek to quantify the variability of ion chamber response per unit dose in the presence of magnetic fields of varying strength as a function of incident photon beam quality and geometric configuration. Methods: To account for the effect of magnetic fields on the trajectory of charged particles a new algorithm was introduced into the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. In the egs-chamber user code the dose to the cavity of an NE2571 ion chamber is calculated in two configurations, in 0 to 2 T magnetic fields, with an incomingmore » parallel 10×10 cm{sup 2} photon beam with energies ranging between 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV. In the first, the photon beam is incident on the long-axis of the ion chamber (config-1), and in the second the beam is parallel to the long-axis and incident from the conical end of the chamber (config-2). For both, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of the beam and the long axis of the chamber. Results: The ion chamber response per unit dose to water at the same point is determined as a function of magnetic field and is normalized to the 0T case for each of incoming photon energies. For both configurations, accurate modeling of the ion chamber yielded closer agreement with the experimental results obtained by Meijsing et. al (2009). Config-1 yields a gradual increase in response with increasing field strength to a maximum of 13.4% and 1.4% for 1 MeV and 8 MeV photon beams, respectively. Config-2 produced a decrease in response of up to 6% and 13% for 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV beams, respectively. Conclusion: These results provide further support for ion chamber calibration in MRI-radiotherapy coupled systems and demonstrates noticeable energy dependence for clinically relevant fields.« less
  • The result of a comparison of single and fractionated irradiation at high dose rate with continuous irradiation at low dose rate on pig skin is discussed from a radiobiological point of view. A short review is given of other fractionation and dose-rate investigations. Some dose-rate experiments have resulted in an increased therapeutic gain for continuous irradiation at low dose rate, compared to single acute irradiation. However, there is a lack of data comparing fractionated high dose-rate irradiation with continuous low dose-rate irradiation on normal tissues as well as malignant tumors.