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Title: SU-F-J-97: A Joint Registration and Segmentation Approach for Large Bladder Deformations in Adaptive Radiotherapy

Abstract

Purpose: To improve results of deformable image registration (DIR) in adaptive radiotherapy for large bladder deformations in CT/CBCT pelvis imaging. Methods: A variational multi-modal DIR algorithm is incorporated in a joint iterative scheme, alternating between segmentation based bladder matching and registration. Using an initial DIR to propagate the bladder contour to the CBCT, in a segmentation step the contour is improved by discrete image gradient sampling along all surface normals and adapting the delineation to match the location of each maximum (with a search range of +−5/2mm at the superior/inferior bladder side and step size of 0.5mm). An additional graph-cut based constraint limits the maximum difference between neighboring points. This improved contour is utilized in a subsequent DIR with a surface matching constraint. By calculating an euclidean distance map of the improved contour surface, the new constraint enforces the DIR to map each point of the original contour onto the improved contour. The resulting deformation is then used as a starting guess to compute a deformation update, which can again be used for the next segmentation step. The result is a dense deformation, able to capture much larger bladder deformations. The new method is evaluated on ten CT/CBCT male pelvismore » datasets, calculating Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) between the final propagated bladder contour and a manually delineated gold standard on the CBCT image. Results: Over all ten cases, an average DSC of 0.93±0.03 is achieved on the bladder. Compared with the initial DIR (0.88±0.05), the DSC is equal (2 cases) or improved (8 cases). Additionally, DSC accuracy of femoral bones (0.94±0.02) was not affected. Conclusion: The new approach shows that using the presented alternating segmentation/registration approach, the results of bladder DIR in the pelvis region can be greatly improved, especially for cases with large variations in bladder volume. Fraunhofer MEVIS received funding from a research grant by Varian Medical Systems.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Fraunhofer MEVIS, Luebeck (Germany)
  2. Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22634706
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; ALGORITHMS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BLADDER; CALORIMETRY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DATASETS; EUCLIDEAN SPACE; IMAGES; ITERATIVE METHODS; PELVIS; RADIOTHERAPY; SKELETON

Citation Formats

Derksen, A, Koenig, L, Heldmann, S, and Meine, H. SU-F-J-97: A Joint Registration and Segmentation Approach for Large Bladder Deformations in Adaptive Radiotherapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956005.
Derksen, A, Koenig, L, Heldmann, S, & Meine, H. SU-F-J-97: A Joint Registration and Segmentation Approach for Large Bladder Deformations in Adaptive Radiotherapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956005.
Derksen, A, Koenig, L, Heldmann, S, and Meine, H. Wed . "SU-F-J-97: A Joint Registration and Segmentation Approach for Large Bladder Deformations in Adaptive Radiotherapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956005.
@article{osti_22634706,
title = {SU-F-J-97: A Joint Registration and Segmentation Approach for Large Bladder Deformations in Adaptive Radiotherapy},
author = {Derksen, A and Koenig, L and Heldmann, S and Meine, H},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To improve results of deformable image registration (DIR) in adaptive radiotherapy for large bladder deformations in CT/CBCT pelvis imaging. Methods: A variational multi-modal DIR algorithm is incorporated in a joint iterative scheme, alternating between segmentation based bladder matching and registration. Using an initial DIR to propagate the bladder contour to the CBCT, in a segmentation step the contour is improved by discrete image gradient sampling along all surface normals and adapting the delineation to match the location of each maximum (with a search range of +−5/2mm at the superior/inferior bladder side and step size of 0.5mm). An additional graph-cut based constraint limits the maximum difference between neighboring points. This improved contour is utilized in a subsequent DIR with a surface matching constraint. By calculating an euclidean distance map of the improved contour surface, the new constraint enforces the DIR to map each point of the original contour onto the improved contour. The resulting deformation is then used as a starting guess to compute a deformation update, which can again be used for the next segmentation step. The result is a dense deformation, able to capture much larger bladder deformations. The new method is evaluated on ten CT/CBCT male pelvis datasets, calculating Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) between the final propagated bladder contour and a manually delineated gold standard on the CBCT image. Results: Over all ten cases, an average DSC of 0.93±0.03 is achieved on the bladder. Compared with the initial DIR (0.88±0.05), the DSC is equal (2 cases) or improved (8 cases). Additionally, DSC accuracy of femoral bones (0.94±0.02) was not affected. Conclusion: The new approach shows that using the presented alternating segmentation/registration approach, the results of bladder DIR in the pelvis region can be greatly improved, especially for cases with large variations in bladder volume. Fraunhofer MEVIS received funding from a research grant by Varian Medical Systems.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956005},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: Various studies have demonstrated that online adaptive radiotherapy by real-time re-optimization of the treatment plan can improve organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing in the abdominal region. Its clinical implementation, however, requires fast and accurate auto-segmentation of OARs in CT scans acquired just before each treatment fraction. Autosegmentation is particularly challenging in the abdominal region due to the frequently observed large deformations. We present a clinical validation of a new auto-segmentation method that uses fully automated non-rigid registration for propagating abdominal OAR contours from planning to daily treatment CT scans. Methods: OARs were manually contoured by an expert panel to obtain groundmore » truth contours for repeat CT scans (3 per patient) of 10 patients. For the non-rigid alignment, we used a new non-rigid registration method that estimates the deformation field by optimizing local normalized correlation coefficient with smoothness regularization. This field was used to propagate planning contours to repeat CTs. To quantify the performance of the auto-segmentation, we compared the propagated and ground truth contours using two widely used metrics- Dice coefficient (Dc) and Hausdorff distance (Hd). The proposed method was benchmarked against translation and rigid alignment based auto-segmentation. Results: For all organs, the auto-segmentation performed better than the baseline (translation) with an average processing time of 15 s per fraction CT. The overall improvements ranged from 2% (heart) to 32% (pancreas) in Dc, and 27% (heart) to 62% (spinal cord) in Hd. For liver, kidneys, gall bladder, stomach, spinal cord and heart, Dc above 0.85 was achieved. Duodenum and pancreas were the most challenging organs with both showing relatively larger spreads and medians of 0.79 and 2.1 mm for Dc and Hd, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the achieved accuracy and computational time we conclude that the investigated auto-segmentation method overcomes an important hurdle to the clinical implementation of online adaptive radiotherapy. Partial funding for this work was provided by Accuray Incorporated as part of a research collaboration with Erasmus MC Cancer Institute.« less
  • Purpose: Evaluate the accuracy of atlas-based auto segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) on both helical CT (HCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT) images in head and neck (HN) cancer adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Methods: Six HN patients treated in the ART process were included in this study. For each patient, three images were selected: pretreatment planning CT (PreTx-HCT), in treatment CT for replanning (InTx-HCT) and a CBCT acquired in the same day of the InTx-HCT. Three clinical procedures of auto segmentation and deformable registration performed in the ART process were evaluated: a) auto segmentation on PreTx-HCT using multi-subject atlases, b)more » intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to InTx-HCT using deformable HCT-to-HCT image registration, and c) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to CBCT using deformable CBCT-to-HCT image registration. Seven OARs (brainstem, cord, L/R parotid, L/R submandibular gland and mandible) were manually contoured on PreTx-HCT and InTx-HCT for comparison. In addition, manual contours on InTx-CT were copied on the same day CBCT, and a local region rigid body registration was performed accordingly for each individual OAR. For procedures a) and b), auto contours were compared to manual contours, and for c) auto contours were compared to those rigidly transferred contours on CBCT. Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and mean surface distances of agreement (MSDA) were calculated for evaluation. Results: For procedure a), the mean DSC/MSDA of most OARs are >80%/±2mm. For intra-patient HCT-to-HCT propagation, the Resultimproved to >85%/±1.5mm. Compared to HCT-to-HCT, the mean DSC for HCT-to-CBCT propagation drops ∼2–3% and MSDA increases ∼0.2mm. This Resultindicates that the inferior imaging quality of CBCT seems only degrade auto propagation performance slightly. Conclusion: Auto segmentation and deformable propagation can generate OAR structures on HCT and CBCT images with clinically acceptable accuracy. Therefore, they can be reliably implemented in the clinical HN ART process.« less
  • Purpose For certain highly conformal treatment techniques, changes in patient anatomy due to weight loss and/or tumor shrinkage can result in significant changes in dose distribution. Recently, the Pinnacle treatment planning system added a Dynamic Planning module utilizing Deformable Image Registration (DIR). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this software in adapting to altered anatomy and adjusting treatment plans to account for it. Methods We simulated significant tumor response by changing patient thickness and altered chin positions using a commercially-available head and neck (H and N) phantom. In addition, we studied 23 CT image setsmore » of fifteen (15) patients with H and N tumors and eight (8) patients with prostate cancer. In each case, we applied deformable image registration through Dynamic Planning module of our Pinnacle Treatment Planning System. The dose distribution of the original CT image set was compared to the newly computed dose without altering any treatment parameter. Result was a dose if we did not adjust the plan to reflect anatomical changes. Results For the H and N phantom, a tumor response of up to 3.5 cm was correctly deformed by the Pinnacle Dynamic module. Recomputed isodose contours on new anatomies were within 1 mm of the expected distribution. The Pinnacle system configuration allowed dose computations resulting from original plans on new anatomies without leaving the planning system. Original and new doses were available side-by-side with both CT image sets. Based on DIR, about 75% of H and N patients (11/15) required a re-plan using new anatomy. Among prostate patients, the DIR predicted near-correct bladder volume in 62% of the patients (5/8). Conclusions The Dynamic Planning module of the Pinnacle system proved to be an accurate and useful tool in our ability to adapt to changes in patient anatomy during a course of radiotherapy.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the performance variations in commercial deformable image registration (DIR) tools for adaptive radiation therapy. Methods: Representative plans from three different anatomical sites, prostate, head-and-neck (HN) and cranial spinal irradiation (CSI) with L-spine boost, were included. Computerized deformed CT images were first generated using virtual DIR QA software (ImSimQA) for each case. The corresponding transformations served as the “reference”. Three commercial software packages MIMVista v5.5 and MIMMaestro v6.0, VelocityAI v2.6.2, and OnQ rts v2.1.15 were tested. The warped contours and doses were compared with the “reference” and among each other. Results: The performance in transferring contours was comparablemore » among all three tools with an average DICE coefficient of 0.81 for all the organs. However, the performance of dose warping accuracy appeared to rely on the evaluation end points. Volume based DVH comparisons were not sensitive enough to illustrate all the detailed variations while isodose assessment on a slice-by-slice basis could be tedious. Point-based evaluation was over-sensitive by having up to 30% hot/cold-spot differences. If adapting the 3mm/3% gamma analysis into the evaluation of dose warping, all three algorithms presented a reasonable level of equivalency. One algorithm had over 10% of the voxels not meeting this criterion for the HN case while another showed disagreement for the CSI case. Conclusion: Overall, our results demonstrated that evaluation based only on the performance of contour transformation could not guarantee the accuracy in dose warping. However, the performance of dose warping accuracy relied on the evaluation methodologies. Nevertheless, as more DIR tools are available for clinical use, the performance could vary at certain degrees. A standard quality assurance criterion with clinical meaning should be established for DIR QA, similar to the gamma index concept, in the near future.« less
  • Purpose: Three deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms are utilized to perform deformable dose accumulation for head and neck tomotherapy treatment, and the differences of the accumulated doses are evaluated. Methods: Daily MVCT data for 10 patients with pathologically proven nasopharyngeal cancers were analyzed. The data were acquired using tomotherapy (TomoTherapy, Accuray) at the PLA General Hospital. The prescription dose to the primary target was 70Gy in 33 fractions.Three DIR methods (B-spline, Diffeomorphic Demons and MIMvista) were used to propagate parotid structures from planning CTs to the daily CTs and accumulate fractionated dose on the planning CTs. The mean accumulated dosesmore » of parotids were quantitatively compared and the uncertainties of the propagated parotid contours were evaluated using Dice similarity index (DSI). Results: The planned mean dose of the ipsilateral parotids (32.42±3.13Gy) was slightly higher than those of the contralateral parotids (31.38±3.19Gy)in 10 patients. The difference between the accumulated mean doses of the ipsilateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (36.40±5.78Gy, 34.08±6.72Gy and 33.72±2.63Gy ) were statistically significant (B-spline vs Demons, P<0.0001, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.002). And The difference between those of the contralateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (34.08±4.82Gy, 32.42±4.80Gy and 33.92±4.65Gy ) were also significant (B-spline vs Demons, p =0.009, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.074). For the DSI analysis, the scores of B-spline, Demons and MIMvista DIRs were 0.90, 0.89 and 0.76. Conclusion: Shrinkage of parotid volumes results in the dose increase to the parotid glands in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy. The accumulated doses of parotids show significant difference using the different DIR algorithms between kVCT and MVCT. Therefore, the volume-based criterion (i.e. DSI) as a quantitative evaluation of registration accuracy is essential besides the visual assessment by the treating physician. This work was supported in part by the grant from Chinese Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 11105225)« less