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Title: SU-F-J-97: A Joint Registration and Segmentation Approach for Large Bladder Deformations in Adaptive Radiotherapy

Abstract

Purpose: To improve results of deformable image registration (DIR) in adaptive radiotherapy for large bladder deformations in CT/CBCT pelvis imaging. Methods: A variational multi-modal DIR algorithm is incorporated in a joint iterative scheme, alternating between segmentation based bladder matching and registration. Using an initial DIR to propagate the bladder contour to the CBCT, in a segmentation step the contour is improved by discrete image gradient sampling along all surface normals and adapting the delineation to match the location of each maximum (with a search range of +−5/2mm at the superior/inferior bladder side and step size of 0.5mm). An additional graph-cut based constraint limits the maximum difference between neighboring points. This improved contour is utilized in a subsequent DIR with a surface matching constraint. By calculating an euclidean distance map of the improved contour surface, the new constraint enforces the DIR to map each point of the original contour onto the improved contour. The resulting deformation is then used as a starting guess to compute a deformation update, which can again be used for the next segmentation step. The result is a dense deformation, able to capture much larger bladder deformations. The new method is evaluated on ten CT/CBCT male pelvismore » datasets, calculating Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) between the final propagated bladder contour and a manually delineated gold standard on the CBCT image. Results: Over all ten cases, an average DSC of 0.93±0.03 is achieved on the bladder. Compared with the initial DIR (0.88±0.05), the DSC is equal (2 cases) or improved (8 cases). Additionally, DSC accuracy of femoral bones (0.94±0.02) was not affected. Conclusion: The new approach shows that using the presented alternating segmentation/registration approach, the results of bladder DIR in the pelvis region can be greatly improved, especially for cases with large variations in bladder volume. Fraunhofer MEVIS received funding from a research grant by Varian Medical Systems.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Fraunhofer MEVIS, Luebeck (Germany)
  2. Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22634706
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; ALGORITHMS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BLADDER; CALORIMETRY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DATASETS; EUCLIDEAN SPACE; IMAGES; ITERATIVE METHODS; PELVIS; RADIOTHERAPY; SKELETON

Citation Formats

Derksen, A, Koenig, L, Heldmann, S, and Meine, H. SU-F-J-97: A Joint Registration and Segmentation Approach for Large Bladder Deformations in Adaptive Radiotherapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956005.
Derksen, A, Koenig, L, Heldmann, S, & Meine, H. SU-F-J-97: A Joint Registration and Segmentation Approach for Large Bladder Deformations in Adaptive Radiotherapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956005.
Derksen, A, Koenig, L, Heldmann, S, and Meine, H. 2016. "SU-F-J-97: A Joint Registration and Segmentation Approach for Large Bladder Deformations in Adaptive Radiotherapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956005.
@article{osti_22634706,
title = {SU-F-J-97: A Joint Registration and Segmentation Approach for Large Bladder Deformations in Adaptive Radiotherapy},
author = {Derksen, A and Koenig, L and Heldmann, S and Meine, H},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To improve results of deformable image registration (DIR) in adaptive radiotherapy for large bladder deformations in CT/CBCT pelvis imaging. Methods: A variational multi-modal DIR algorithm is incorporated in a joint iterative scheme, alternating between segmentation based bladder matching and registration. Using an initial DIR to propagate the bladder contour to the CBCT, in a segmentation step the contour is improved by discrete image gradient sampling along all surface normals and adapting the delineation to match the location of each maximum (with a search range of +−5/2mm at the superior/inferior bladder side and step size of 0.5mm). An additional graph-cut based constraint limits the maximum difference between neighboring points. This improved contour is utilized in a subsequent DIR with a surface matching constraint. By calculating an euclidean distance map of the improved contour surface, the new constraint enforces the DIR to map each point of the original contour onto the improved contour. The resulting deformation is then used as a starting guess to compute a deformation update, which can again be used for the next segmentation step. The result is a dense deformation, able to capture much larger bladder deformations. The new method is evaluated on ten CT/CBCT male pelvis datasets, calculating Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) between the final propagated bladder contour and a manually delineated gold standard on the CBCT image. Results: Over all ten cases, an average DSC of 0.93±0.03 is achieved on the bladder. Compared with the initial DIR (0.88±0.05), the DSC is equal (2 cases) or improved (8 cases). Additionally, DSC accuracy of femoral bones (0.94±0.02) was not affected. Conclusion: The new approach shows that using the presented alternating segmentation/registration approach, the results of bladder DIR in the pelvis region can be greatly improved, especially for cases with large variations in bladder volume. Fraunhofer MEVIS received funding from a research grant by Varian Medical Systems.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956005},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Available deformable registration methods are often inaccurate over large organ variation encountered, for example, in the rectum and bladder. The authors developed a novel approach to accurately and effectively register large deformations in the prostate region for adaptive radiation therapy. A software tool combining a fast symmetric demons algorithm and the use of masks was developed in C++ based on ITK libraries to register CT images acquired at planning and before treatment fractions. The deformation field determined was subsequently used to deform the delivered dose to match the anatomy of the planning CT. The large deformations involved required that themore » bladder and rectum volume be masked with uniform intensities of -1000 and 1000 HU, respectively, in both the planning and treatment CTs. The tool was tested for five prostate IGRT patients. The average rectum planning to treatment contour overlap improved from 67% to 93%, the lowest initial overlap is 43%. The average bladder overlap improved from 83% to 98%, with a lowest initial overlap of 60%. Registration regions were set to include a volume receiving 4% of the maximum dose. The average region was 320x210x63, taking approximately 9 min to register on a dual 2.8 GHz Linux system. The prostate and seminal vesicles were correctly placed even though they are not masked. The accumulated doses for multiple fractions with large deformation were computed and verified. The tool developed can effectively supply the previously delivered dose for adaptive planning to correct for interfractional changes.« less
  • Purpose: In the external beam radiation treatment of prostate cancers, successful implementation of adaptive radiotherapy and conformal radiation dose delivery is highly dependent on precise and expeditious segmentation and registration of the prostate volume between the simulation and the treatment images. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel, fast, and accurate segmentation and registration method to increase the computational efficiency to meet the restricted clinical treatment time requirement in image guided radiotherapy. Methods: The method developed in this study used soft tissues to capture the transformation between the 3D planning CT (pCT) images and 3D cone-beam CTmore » (CBCT) treatment images. The method incorporated a global-to-local deformable mesh model based registration framework as well as an automatic anatomy-constrained robust active shape model (ACRASM) based segmentation algorithm in the 3D CBCT images. The global registration was based on the mutual information method, and the local registration was to minimize the Euclidian distance of the corresponding nodal points from the global transformation of deformable mesh models, which implicitly used the information of the segmented target volume. The method was applied on six data sets of prostate cancer patients. Target volumes delineated by the same radiation oncologist on the pCT and CBCT were chosen as the benchmarks and were compared to the segmented and registered results. The distance-based and the volume-based estimators were used to quantitatively evaluate the results of segmentation and registration. Results: The ACRASM segmentation algorithm was compared to the original active shape model (ASM) algorithm by evaluating the values of the distance-based estimators. With respect to the corresponding benchmarks, the mean distance ranged from -0.85 to 0.84 mm for ACRASM and from -1.44 to 1.17 mm for ASM. The mean absolute distance ranged from 1.77 to 3.07 mm for ACRASM and from 2.45 to 6.54 mm for ASM. The volume overlap ratio ranged from 79% to 91% for ACRASM and from 44% to 80% for ASM. These data demonstrated that the segmentation results of ACRASM were in better agreement with the corresponding benchmarks than those of ASM. The developed registration algorithm was quantitatively evaluated by comparing the registered target volumes from the pCT to the benchmarks on the CBCT. The mean distance and the root mean square error ranged from 0.38 to 2.2 mm and from 0.45 to 2.36 mm, respectively, between the CBCT images and the registered pCT. The mean overlap ratio of the prostate volumes ranged from 85.2% to 95% after registration. The average time of the ACRASM-based segmentation was under 1 min. The average time of the global transformation was from 2 to 4 min on two 3D volumes and the average time of the local transformation was from 20 to 34 s on two deformable superquadrics mesh models. Conclusions: A novel and fast segmentation and deformable registration method was developed to capture the transformation between the planning and treatment images for external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancers. This method increases the computational efficiency and may provide foundation to achieve real time adaptive radiotherapy.« less
  • Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumormore » and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight parameters were determined for the weighted S-TPS-RPM. Results: The weighted S-TPS-RPM registration algorithm with optimal parameters significantly improved the anatomical accuracy as compared to S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder alone and reduced the range of the anatomical errors by half as compared with the simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. The weighted algorithm reduced the RDE range of lipiodol markers from 0.9-14 mm after rigid bone match to 0.9-4.0 mm, compared to a range of 1.1-9.1 mm with S-TPS-RPM of bladder alone and 0.9-9.4 mm for simultaneous nonweighted registration. All registration methods resulted in good geometric accuracy on the bladder; average error values were all below 1.2 mm. Conclusions: The weighted S-TPS-RPM registration algorithm with additional weight parameter allowed indirect control over structure-specific flexibility in multistructure registrations of bladder and bladder tumor, enabling anatomically coherent registrations. The availability of an anatomically validated deformable registration method opens up the horizon for improvements in IGART for bladder cancer.« less
  • Purpose: To compare interobserver variations in delineating the whole breast for treatment planning using two contouring methods. Methods and Materials: Autosegmented contours were generated by a deformable image registration-based breast segmentation method (DEF-SEG) by mapping the whole breast clinical target volume (CTVwb) from a template case to a new patient case. Eight breast radiation oncologists modified the autosegmented contours as necessary to achieve a clinically appropriate CTVwb and then recontoured the same case from scratch for comparison. The times to complete each approach, as well as the interobserver variations, were analyzed. The template case was also mapped to 10 breastmore » cancer patients with a body mass index of 19.1-35.9 kg/m{sup 2}. The three-dimensional surface-to-surface distances and volume overlapping analyses were computed to quantify contour variations. Results: The median time to edit the DEF-SEG-generated CTVwb was 12.9 min (range, 3.4-35.9) compared with 18.6 min (range, 8.9-45.2) to contour the CTVwb from scratch (30% faster, p = 0.028). The mean surface-to-surface distance was noticeably reduced from 1.6 mm among the contours generated from scratch to 1.0 mm using the DEF-SEG method (p = 0.047). The deformed contours in 10 patients achieved 94% volume overlap before correction and required editing of 5% (range, 1-10%) of the contoured volume. Conclusion: Significant interobserver variations suggested a lack of consensus regarding the CTVwb, even among breast cancer specialists. Using the DEF-SEG method produced more consistent results and required less time. The DEF-SEG method can be successfully applied to patients with different body mass indexes.« less