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Title: SU-F-J-95: Impact of Shape Complexity On the Accuracy of Gradient-Based PET Volume Delineation

Abstract

Purpose: Explore correlation of tumor complexity shape with PET target volume accuracy when delineated with gradient-based segmentation tool. Methods: A total of 24 clinically realistic digital PET Monte Carlo (MC) phantoms of NSCLC were used in the study. The phantom simulated 29 thoracic lesions (lung primary and mediastinal lymph nodes) of varying size, shape, location, and {sup 18}F-FDG activity. A program was developed to calculate a curvature vector along the outline and the standard deviation of this vector was used as a metric to quantify a shape’s “complexity score”. This complexity score was calculated for standard geometric shapes and MC-generated target volumes in PET phantom images. All lesions were contoured using a commercially available gradient-based segmentation tool and the differences in volume from the MC-generated volumes were calculated as the measure of the accuracy of segmentation. Results: The average absolute percent difference in volumes between the MC-volumes and gradient-based volumes was 11% (0.4%–48.4%). The complexity score showed strong correlation with standard geometric shapes. However, no relationship was found between the complexity score and the accuracy of segmentation by gradient-based tool on MC simulated tumors (R{sup 2} = 0.156). When the lesions were grouped into primary lung lesions and mediastinal/mediastinal adjacentmore » lesions, the average absolute percent difference in volumes were 6% and 29%, respectively. The former group is more isolated and the latter is more surround by tissues with relatively high SUV background. Conclusion: The complexity shape of NSCLC lesions has little effect on the accuracy of the gradient-based segmentation method and thus is not a good predictor of uncertainty in target volume delineation. Location of lesion within a relatively high SUV background may play a more significant role in the accuracy of gradient-based segmentation.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
  2. MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22634704
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; CORRELATIONS; FLUORINE 18; FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE; IMAGES; LUNGS; LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NEOPLASMS; PHANTOMS; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Dance, M, Wu, G, Gao, Y, Das, S, Lian, J, Pirozzi, S, and Nelson, A. SU-F-J-95: Impact of Shape Complexity On the Accuracy of Gradient-Based PET Volume Delineation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956003.
Dance, M, Wu, G, Gao, Y, Das, S, Lian, J, Pirozzi, S, & Nelson, A. SU-F-J-95: Impact of Shape Complexity On the Accuracy of Gradient-Based PET Volume Delineation. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956003.
Dance, M, Wu, G, Gao, Y, Das, S, Lian, J, Pirozzi, S, and Nelson, A. Wed . "SU-F-J-95: Impact of Shape Complexity On the Accuracy of Gradient-Based PET Volume Delineation". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956003.
@article{osti_22634704,
title = {SU-F-J-95: Impact of Shape Complexity On the Accuracy of Gradient-Based PET Volume Delineation},
author = {Dance, M and Wu, G and Gao, Y and Das, S and Lian, J and Pirozzi, S and Nelson, A},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Explore correlation of tumor complexity shape with PET target volume accuracy when delineated with gradient-based segmentation tool. Methods: A total of 24 clinically realistic digital PET Monte Carlo (MC) phantoms of NSCLC were used in the study. The phantom simulated 29 thoracic lesions (lung primary and mediastinal lymph nodes) of varying size, shape, location, and {sup 18}F-FDG activity. A program was developed to calculate a curvature vector along the outline and the standard deviation of this vector was used as a metric to quantify a shape’s “complexity score”. This complexity score was calculated for standard geometric shapes and MC-generated target volumes in PET phantom images. All lesions were contoured using a commercially available gradient-based segmentation tool and the differences in volume from the MC-generated volumes were calculated as the measure of the accuracy of segmentation. Results: The average absolute percent difference in volumes between the MC-volumes and gradient-based volumes was 11% (0.4%–48.4%). The complexity score showed strong correlation with standard geometric shapes. However, no relationship was found between the complexity score and the accuracy of segmentation by gradient-based tool on MC simulated tumors (R{sup 2} = 0.156). When the lesions were grouped into primary lung lesions and mediastinal/mediastinal adjacent lesions, the average absolute percent difference in volumes were 6% and 29%, respectively. The former group is more isolated and the latter is more surround by tissues with relatively high SUV background. Conclusion: The complexity shape of NSCLC lesions has little effect on the accuracy of the gradient-based segmentation method and thus is not a good predictor of uncertainty in target volume delineation. Location of lesion within a relatively high SUV background may play a more significant role in the accuracy of gradient-based segmentation.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956003},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: Validate the consistency of a gradient-based segmentation tool to facilitate accurate delineation of PET/CT-based GTVs in head and neck cancers by comparing against hybrid PET/MR-derived GTV contours. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 head and neck target volumes (10 primary and 8 nodal) were retrospectively contoured using a gradient-based segmentation tool by two observers. Each observer independently contoured each target five times. Inter-observer variability was evaluated via absolute percent differences. Intra-observer variability was examined by percentage uncertainty. All target volumes were also contoured using the SUV percent threshold method. The thresholds were explored case by case so itsmore » derived volume matched with the gradient-based volume. Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) were calculated to determine overlap of PET/CT GTVs and PET/MR GTVs. Results: The Levene’s test showed there was no statistically significant difference of the variances between the observer’s gradient-derived contours. However, the absolute difference between the observer’s volumes was 10.83%, with a range from 0.39% up to 42.89%. PET-avid regions with qualitatively non-uniform shapes and intensity levels had a higher absolute percent difference near 25%, while regions with uniform shapes and intensity levels had an absolute percent difference of 2% between observers. The average percentage uncertainty between observers was 4.83% and 7%. As the volume of the gradient-derived contours increased, the SUV threshold percent needed to match the volume decreased. Dice coefficients showed good agreement of the PET/CT and PET/MR GTVs with an average DSC value across all volumes at 0.69. Conclusion: Gradient-based segmentation of PET volume showed good consistency in general but can vary considerably for non-uniform target shapes and intensity levels. PET/CT-derived GTV contours stemming from the gradient-based tool show good agreement with the anatomically and metabolically more accurate PET/MR-derived GTV contours, but tumor delineation accuracy can be further improved with the use PET/MR.« less
  • Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analogue [18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) has been used in radiation treatment planning for non-small-cell carcinoma. To date, lymph nodes have been contoured according to the uptake of the tumor. This prospective study was performed to evaluate if nodal volume delineates according to FDG uptake within the primary tumor (PET-GTVnt) is suitable for nodal target volume delineation or if individualized nodal FDG uptake measure (PET-GTVnn) is necessary to better nodal target definition. Methods and Materials: Forty cases, who underwent a diagnostic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) scan, were included. Two PET-based GTVs formore » each lymph node were contoured and compared. First, we used an isocontour of 40% of the maximum tumor uptake (PET-GTVnt). Second, an isocontour of 40% of the maximum uptake of each node (PET-GTVnn) was employed. To avoid interobserver variability, this was carried out by the same radiation oncologist. Afterwards, the difference between both lymph node volumes was plotted against the ratio of the maximum uptakes (I{sub n}/I{sub t}) in a linear regression analysis. Results: Compared with CT-based lymph node volume (CT-GTVn), the intraclass correlation coefficient of PET-GTVnn was higher than the coefficient of PET-GTVnt (p < 0.001). All cases could be divided into four groups: undetected (17.5%), detected but overestimated (10%), detected but underestimated (35%), and correctly detected (37.5%). Conclusions: If a method of automatic delineation shall be applied, this method must be applied to every lesion separately. However, to facilitate the delineation in daily practice, when I{sub n}/I{sub t} is {<=}25%, lymph nodes could be delineated in accordance with tumor uptake, keeping an absolute difference in radii <5 mm.« less
  • Purpose: {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has benefits in target volume (TV) definition in radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, an optimal protocol for TV delineation has not been determined. We investigate volumetric and positional variation in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation using a planning PET/CT among three radiation oncologists and a PET radiologist. Methods and Materials: RTP PET/CT scans were performed on 28 NSCLC patients (Stage IA-IIIB) of which 14 patients received prior induction chemotherapy. Three radiation oncologists and one PET radiologist working with a fourth radiation oncologist independently delineated the GTV onmore » CT alone (GTV{sub CT}) and on fused PET/CT images (GTV{sub PETCT}). The mean percentage volume change (PVC) between GTV{sub CT} and GTV{sub PETCT} for the radiation oncologists and the PVC between GTV{sub CT} and GTV{sub PETCT} for the PET radiologist were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Concordance index (CI) was used to assess both positional and volume change between GTV{sub CT} and GTV{sub PETCT} in a single measurement. Results: For all patients, a significant difference in PVC from GTV{sub CT} to GTV{sub PETCT} exists between the radiation oncologist (median, 5.9%), and the PET radiologist (median, -0.4%, p = 0.001). However, no significant difference in median concordance index (comparing GTV{sub CT} and GTV{sub FUSED} for individual cases) was observed (PET radiologist = 0.73; radiation oncologists = 0.66; p = 0.088). Conclusions: Percentage volume changes from GTV{sub CT} to GTV{sub PETCT} were lower for the PET radiologist than for the radiation oncologists, suggesting a lower impact of PET/CT in TV delineation for the PET radiologist than for the oncologists. Guidelines are needed to standardize the use of PET/CT for TV delineation in RTP.« less
  • Purpose: To quantify the impact of 4D PET/CT on PERCIST metrics in lung and liver tumors in NSCLC and colorectal cancer patients. Methods: 32 patients presenting lung or liver tumors of 1–3 cm size affected by respiratory motion were scanned on a GE Discovery 690 PET/CT. The bed position with lesion(s) affected by motion was acquired in a 12 minute PET LIST mode and unlisted into 8 bins with respiratory gating. Three different CT maps were used for attenuation correction: a clinical helical CT (CT-clin), an average CT (CT-ave), and an 8-phase 4D CINE CT (CT-cine). All reconstructions were 3Dmore » OSEM, 2 iterations, 24 subsets, 6.4 Gaussian filtration, 192×192 matrix, non-TOF, and non-PSF. Reconstructions using CT-clin and CT-ave used only 3 out of the 12 minutes of the data (clinical protocol); all 12 minutes were used for the CT-cine reconstruction. The percent change of SUVbw-peak and SUVbw-max was calculated between PET-CTclin and PET-CTave. The same percent change was also calculated between PET-CTclin and PET-CTcine in each of the 8 bins and in the average of all bins. A 30% difference from PET-CTclin classified lesions as progressive metabolic disease (PMD) using maximum bin value and the average of eight bin values. Results: 30 lesions in 25 patients were evaluated. Using the bin with maximum SUVbw-peak and SUVbw-max difference, 4 and 13 lesions were classified as PMD, respectively. Using the average bin values for SUVbw-peak and SUVbw-max, 3 and 6 lesions were classified as PMD, respectively. Using PET-CTave values for SUVbw-peak and SUVbw-max, 4 and 3 lesions were classified as PMD, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that response evaluation in 4D PET/CT is dependent on SUV measurement (SUVpeak vs. SUVmax), number of bins (single or average), and the CT map used for attenuation correction.« less
  • Purpose: A method to guide mid-treatment biopsies using quantitative [F-18]NaF PET/CT response is being investigated in a clinical trial. This study aims to develop methodology to identify patients amenable to mid-treatment biopsy based on pre-treatment imaging characteristics. Methods: 35 metastatic prostate cancer patients had NaF PET/CT scans taken prior to the start of treatment and 9–12 weeks into treatment. For mid-treatment biopsy targeting, lesions must be at least 1.5 cm{sup 3} and located in a clinically feasible region (lumbar/sacral spine, pelvis, humerus, or femur). Three methods were developed based on number of lesions present prior to treatment: a feasibility-restricted method,more » a location-restricted method, and an unrestricted method. The feasibility restricted method only utilizes information from lesions meeting biopsy requirements in the pre-treatment scan. The unrestricted method accounts for all lesions present in the pre-treatment scan. For each method, optimized classification cutoffs for candidate patients were determined. Results: 13 of the 35 patients had enough lesions at the mid-treatment for biopsy candidacy. Of 1749 lesions identified in all 35 patients at mid-treatment, only 9.8% were amenable to biopsy. Optimizing the feasibility-restricted method required 4 lesions at pre-treatment meeting volume and region requirements for biopsy, resulting patient identification sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 0.7. Of 6 false positive patients, only one patient lacked lesions for biopsy. Restricting for location alone showed poor results (sensitivity 0.2 and specificity 0.3). The optimized unrestricted method required patients have at least 37 lesions in pretreatment scan, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 0.8. There were 5 false positives, only one lacked lesions for biopsy. Conclusion: Incorporating the overall pre-treatment number of NaF PET/CT identified lesions provided best prediction for identifying candidate patients for mid-treatment biopsy. This study provides validity for prediction-based inclusion criteria that can be extended to various clinical trial scenarios. Funded by Prostate Cancer Foundation.« less