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Title: SU-F-J-69: The Dosimetric Impact of Interfraction Anorectum and Bladder Variability in Prostate Radiation Therapy

Abstract

Purpose: In the era of dose escalation and numerous protocols evaluating radiation delivery to the prostate, it is imperative to achieve accurate and standardized daily set up. At the Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, patients are instructed to drink 8 ounces of water 30 minutes prior to RT and follow a low residue diet to ensure that the anorectum is not distended and the bladder is adequately filled. If daily CBCT imaging shows any variation, the patient is removed from the table and drinks water or evacuates their rectum prior to a repeat CBCT. Here we attempt to quantify the efficacy of this procedure. Methods: CBCTs were collected for 5 patients receiving 40 fractions of definitive treatment for prostate cancer. CBCTs were imported into MIM (v6.5.7, Cleveland OH) and the bladder, anorectum, and prostate were contoured. Using the daily registration reviewed by the attending physician, the planning dose was rigidly transferred to the daily CBCT. On days that multiple CBCTs were performed due to inadequate anorectum or bladder preparation, the repeated and final CBCTs were evaluated for variations in V40Gy and V65Gy to both the anorectum and bladder. Results: A high level of variability in doses to the anorectum and bladdermore » was found in the scans that were not utilized for treatment. The aggregate lower quartile for the unused versus used CBCTs was 27.2% vs. 16.83% for V40Gy and 8.53% vs. 5.66% for V65Gy bladder. The upper quartiles showed to be 48.88% vs. 41.92% and 21.05% vs. 20.55%. The combined lower quartile for the unused vs. used CBCTs was 8.24% vs. 5.49% for V40Gy and 0.57% vs. 0.0% for V65Gy anorectum. The upper quartiles were 34.35% vs. 33.25% and 18.37% vs. 16.11%. Conclusion: This study shows that daily imaging is insufficient and that proper bladder and anorectum preparation are essential to deliver proper treatment.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22632199
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BLADDER; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DIET; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; PLANNING; PROSTATE; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; RECTUM

Citation Formats

Patel, V, Chinea, F, Abramowitz, M, and Studenski, M. SU-F-J-69: The Dosimetric Impact of Interfraction Anorectum and Bladder Variability in Prostate Radiation Therapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955977.
Patel, V, Chinea, F, Abramowitz, M, & Studenski, M. SU-F-J-69: The Dosimetric Impact of Interfraction Anorectum and Bladder Variability in Prostate Radiation Therapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955977.
Patel, V, Chinea, F, Abramowitz, M, and Studenski, M. 2016. "SU-F-J-69: The Dosimetric Impact of Interfraction Anorectum and Bladder Variability in Prostate Radiation Therapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955977.
@article{osti_22632199,
title = {SU-F-J-69: The Dosimetric Impact of Interfraction Anorectum and Bladder Variability in Prostate Radiation Therapy},
author = {Patel, V and Chinea, F and Abramowitz, M and Studenski, M},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In the era of dose escalation and numerous protocols evaluating radiation delivery to the prostate, it is imperative to achieve accurate and standardized daily set up. At the Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, patients are instructed to drink 8 ounces of water 30 minutes prior to RT and follow a low residue diet to ensure that the anorectum is not distended and the bladder is adequately filled. If daily CBCT imaging shows any variation, the patient is removed from the table and drinks water or evacuates their rectum prior to a repeat CBCT. Here we attempt to quantify the efficacy of this procedure. Methods: CBCTs were collected for 5 patients receiving 40 fractions of definitive treatment for prostate cancer. CBCTs were imported into MIM (v6.5.7, Cleveland OH) and the bladder, anorectum, and prostate were contoured. Using the daily registration reviewed by the attending physician, the planning dose was rigidly transferred to the daily CBCT. On days that multiple CBCTs were performed due to inadequate anorectum or bladder preparation, the repeated and final CBCTs were evaluated for variations in V40Gy and V65Gy to both the anorectum and bladder. Results: A high level of variability in doses to the anorectum and bladder was found in the scans that were not utilized for treatment. The aggregate lower quartile for the unused versus used CBCTs was 27.2% vs. 16.83% for V40Gy and 8.53% vs. 5.66% for V65Gy bladder. The upper quartiles showed to be 48.88% vs. 41.92% and 21.05% vs. 20.55%. The combined lower quartile for the unused vs. used CBCTs was 8.24% vs. 5.49% for V40Gy and 0.57% vs. 0.0% for V65Gy anorectum. The upper quartiles were 34.35% vs. 33.25% and 18.37% vs. 16.11%. Conclusion: This study shows that daily imaging is insufficient and that proper bladder and anorectum preparation are essential to deliver proper treatment.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955977},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To evaluate the impact of interfraction catheter movement on dosimetry in prostate high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients were treated with fractionated HDR brachytherapy. Implants were performed on day 1 under transrectal ultrasound guidance. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed. Inverse planning simulated annealing was used for treatment planning. The first fraction was delivered on day 1. A cone beam CT (CBCT) was performed on day 2 before the second fraction was given. A fusion of the CBCT and CT was performed using intraprostatic gold markers as landmarks. Initial prostate and urethra contours were transferred tomore » the CBCT images. Bladder and rectum contours were drawn, and catheters were digitized on the CBCT. The planned treatment was applied to the CBCT dataset, and dosimetry was analyzed and compared to the initial dose distribution. This process was repeated after a reoptimization was performed, using the same constraints used on day 1. Results: Mean interfraction catheter displacement was 5.1 mm. When we used the initial plan on day 2, the mean prostate V100 (volume receiving 100 Gy or more) decreased from 93.8% to 76.2% (p < 0.01). Rectal V75 went from 0.75 cm{sup 3} to 1.49 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.01). A reoptimization resulted in a mean prostate V100 of 88.1%, closer to the initial plan (p = 0.05). Mean rectal V75 was also improved with a value of 0.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no significant change in bladder and urethra dose on day 2. Conclusions: A mean interfraction catheter displacement of 5.1 mm results in a significant decrease in prostate V100 and an increase in rectum dose. A reoptimization before the second treatment improves dose distribution.« less
  • Purpose: To assess the impact of dose-volume histogram parameters on low-grade toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients have been surveyed prospectively before (time A), at the last day (B), 2 months after (C), and 16 months (median) after (D) radiotherapy (70.2 Gy) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Dose-volume histograms were correlated with urinary and bowel function/bother scores. Results: The initial bladder volume and the percentage of the bladder volume receiving 10%-90% of the prescription dose significantly correlated with urinary function/bother scores (significant cutoff levels found for all dose levels). Pain withmore » urination proved to be mainly an acute problem, subsiding faster for patients with larger bladder volumes and smaller volumes inside particular isodose lines. At time D, persisting problems with smaller initial bladder volumes were a weak stream and an increased frequency of urination. Though bladder volume and planning target volume both independently have an influence on dose-volume histogram parameters for the bladder, bladder volume plays the decisive role for urinary toxicity. Conclusions: The patient's ability to fill the bladder has a major impact on the dose-volume histogram and both acute and late urinary toxicity.« less
  • Purpose: To determine the potential association between genitourinary (GU) toxicity and planning dose–volume parameters for GU pelvic structures after high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy in localized prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 268 patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy to a prescribed dose of 86.4 Gy in 48 fractions during June 2004-December 2008 were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Dose–volume histograms of the whole bladder, bladder wall, urethra, and bladder trigone were analyzed. The primary endpoint for GU toxicity was an IPSS sum increase ≥10 points over baseline. Univariate and multivariate analysesmore » were done by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 3-7.7 years). Thirty-nine patients experienced an IPSS sum increase ≥10 during follow-up; 84% remained event free at 5 years. After univariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.006), the V90 of the trigone (P=.006), and the maximal dose to the trigone (P=.003) were significantly associated with an IPSS sum increase ≥10. After multivariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.009) and increased maximal dose to the trigone (P=.005) remained significantly associated. Seventy-two patients had both a lower baseline IPSS sum and a higher maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as high risk, and 68 patients had both a higher baseline IPSS sum and a lower maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as low risk for development of an IPSS sum increase ≥10. Twenty-one of 72 high-risk patients (29%) and 5 of 68 low-risk patients (7%) experienced an IPSS sum increase ≥10 (P=.001; odds ratio 5.19). Conclusions: The application of hot spots to the bladder trigone was significantly associated with relevant changes in IPSS during follow-up. Reduction of radiation dose to the lower bladder and specifically the bladder trigone seems to be associated with a reduction in late GU toxicity.« less
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of daily setup error and interfraction organ motion on the overall dosimetric radiation treatment plans. Twelve patients undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments for prostate cancer were evaluated in this institutional review board-approved study. Each patient had fiducial markers placed into the prostate gland before treatment planning computed tomography scan. IMRT plans were generated using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Each patient was treated to a dose of 8100 cGy given in 45 fractions. In this study, we retrospectively created a plan for each treatment day that had amore » shift available. To calculate the dose, the patient would have received under this plan, we mathematically 'negated' the shift by moving the isocenter in the exact opposite direction of the shift. The individualized daily plans were combined to generate an overall plan sum. The dose distributions from these plans were compared with the treatment plans that were used to treat the patients. Three-hundred ninety daily shifts were negated and their corresponding plans evaluated. The mean isocenter shift based on the location of the fiducial markers was 3.3 {+-} 6.5 mm to the right, 1.6 {+-} 5.1 mm posteriorly, and 1.0 {+-} 5.0 mm along the caudal direction. The mean D95 doses for the prostate gland when setup error was corrected and uncorrected were 8228 and 7844 cGy (p < 0.002), respectively, and for the planning target volume (PTV8100) was 8089 and 7303 cGy (p < 0.001), respectively. The mean V95 values when patient setup was corrected and uncorrected were 99.9% and 87.3%, respectively, for the PTV8100 volume (p < 0.0001). At an individual patient level, the difference in the D95 value for the prostate volume could be >1200 cGy and for the PTV8100 could approach almost 2000 cGy when comparing corrected against uncorrected plans. There was no statistically significant difference in the D35 parameter for the surrounding normal tissue except for the dose received by the penile bulb and the right hip. Our dosimetric evaluation suggests significant underdosing with inaccurate target localization and emphasizes the importance of accurate patient setup and target localization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of intrafraction organ motion, rotation, and deformation on doses delivered to target volumes.« less
  • Purpose: To study the impact of daily rotations and translations of the prostate on dosimetric coverage during radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Real-time tracking data for 26 patients were obtained during RT. Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans meeting RTOG 0126 dosimetric criteria were created with 0-, 2-, 3-, and 5-mm planning target volume (PTV) margins. Daily translations and rotations were used to reconstruct prostate delivered dose from the planned dose. D{sub 95} and V{sub 79} were computed from the delivered dose to evaluate target coverage and the adequacy of PTV margins. Prostate equivalent rotation is a new metric introducedmore » in this study to quantify prostate rotations by accounting for prostate shape and length of rotational lever arm. Results: Large variations in prostate delivered dose were seen among patients. Adequate target coverage was met in 39%, 65%, and 84% of the patients for plans with 2-, 3-, and 5-mm PTV margins, respectively. Although no correlations between prostate delivered dose and daily rotations were seen, the data showed a clear correlation with prostate equivalent rotation. Conclusions: Prostate rotations during RT could cause significant underdosing even if daily translations were managed. These rotations should be managed with rotational tolerances based on prostate equivalent rotations.« less