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Title: SU-F-J-48: Effect of Scan Length On Magnitude of Imaging Dose in KV CBCT

Abstract

Purpose: To study effect of scan length on magnitude of imaging dose deposition in Varian kV CBCT for head & neck and pelvis CBCT. Methods: To study effect of scan length we measured imaging dose at depth of 8 cm for head and neck Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) acquisition ( X ray beam energy is used 100kV and 200 degree of gantry rotation) and at 16 cm depth for pelvis CBCT acquisition ( X ray beam energy used is 125 kV and 360 degree of gantry rotation) in specially designed phantom. We used farmer chamber which was calibrated in kV X ray range for measurements .Dose was measured with default field size, and reducing field size along y direction to 10 cm and 5 cm. Results: As the energy of the beam decreases the scattered radiation increases and this contributes significantly to the dose deposited in the patient. By reducing the scan length to 10 Cm from default 20.6 cm we found a dose reduction of 14% for head and neck CBCT protocol and a reduction of 26% for pelvis CBCT protocol. Similarly for a scan length of 5cm compared to default the dose reduction in head and neckmore » CBCT protocol is 36% while in the pelvis CBCT protocol the dose reduction is 50%. Conclusion: By limiting the scan length we can control the scatter radiation generated and hence the dose to the patient. However the variation in dose reduction for same length used in two protocols is because of the scan geometry. The pelvis CBCT protocol uses a full rotation and head and neck CBCT protocol uses partial rotation.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. P.D. Hinduja Natinal Hospital & MRC, Mumbai, Maharastra (India)
  2. Brijalal Biyani Science College, Amravati, Maharastra (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22632180
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; FARMS; HEAD; NECK; PATIENTS; PELVIS; PHANTOMS; RADIATION DOSES

Citation Formats

Deshpande, S, Naidu, S, Sutar, A, Kannan, V, and Dhote, D. SU-F-J-48: Effect of Scan Length On Magnitude of Imaging Dose in KV CBCT. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955956.
Deshpande, S, Naidu, S, Sutar, A, Kannan, V, & Dhote, D. SU-F-J-48: Effect of Scan Length On Magnitude of Imaging Dose in KV CBCT. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955956.
Deshpande, S, Naidu, S, Sutar, A, Kannan, V, and Dhote, D. 2016. "SU-F-J-48: Effect of Scan Length On Magnitude of Imaging Dose in KV CBCT". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955956.
@article{osti_22632180,
title = {SU-F-J-48: Effect of Scan Length On Magnitude of Imaging Dose in KV CBCT},
author = {Deshpande, S and Naidu, S and Sutar, A and Kannan, V and Dhote, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To study effect of scan length on magnitude of imaging dose deposition in Varian kV CBCT for head & neck and pelvis CBCT. Methods: To study effect of scan length we measured imaging dose at depth of 8 cm for head and neck Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) acquisition ( X ray beam energy is used 100kV and 200 degree of gantry rotation) and at 16 cm depth for pelvis CBCT acquisition ( X ray beam energy used is 125 kV and 360 degree of gantry rotation) in specially designed phantom. We used farmer chamber which was calibrated in kV X ray range for measurements .Dose was measured with default field size, and reducing field size along y direction to 10 cm and 5 cm. Results: As the energy of the beam decreases the scattered radiation increases and this contributes significantly to the dose deposited in the patient. By reducing the scan length to 10 Cm from default 20.6 cm we found a dose reduction of 14% for head and neck CBCT protocol and a reduction of 26% for pelvis CBCT protocol. Similarly for a scan length of 5cm compared to default the dose reduction in head and neck CBCT protocol is 36% while in the pelvis CBCT protocol the dose reduction is 50%. Conclusion: By limiting the scan length we can control the scatter radiation generated and hence the dose to the patient. However the variation in dose reduction for same length used in two protocols is because of the scan geometry. The pelvis CBCT protocol uses a full rotation and head and neck CBCT protocol uses partial rotation.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955956},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of an analytic framework to estimate patients’ absorbed dose distribution owing to daily cone-beam CT scan for image-guided radiation treatment. Methods: To compute total absorbed dose distribution, we separated the framework into primary and scattered dose calculations. Using the source parameters such as voltage, current, and bowtie filtration, for the primary dose calculation, we simulated the forward projection from the source to each voxel of an imaging object including some inhomogeneous inserts. Then we calculated the primary absorbed dose at each voxel based on the absorption probability deduced from the HU values and Beer’s law.more » In sequence, all voxels constructing the phantom were regarded as secondary sources to radiate scattered photons for scattered dose calculation. Details of forward projection were identical to that of the previous step. The secondary source intensities were given by using scatter-to- primary ratios provided by NIST. In addition, we compared the analytically calculated dose distribution with their Monte Carlo simulation results. Results: The suggested framework for absorbed dose estimation successfully provided the primary and secondary dose distributions of the phantom. Moreover, our analytic dose calculations and Monte Carlo calculations were well agreed each other even near the inhomogeneous inserts. Conclusion: This work indicated that our framework can be an effective monitor to estimate a patient’s exposure owing to cone-beam CT scan for image-guided radiation treatment. Therefore, we expected that the patient’s over-exposure during IGRT might be prevented by our framework.« less
  • Purpose: A novel method has been developed for volume of interest (VOI) cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging using a 2.35 MV/Carbon target linac imaging beam line combined with dynamic multileaf collimator sequences. Methods: The authors demonstrate the concept of acquisition of multiple, separate imaging volumes, where volumes can be either completely separated or nested, and are associated with predetermined imaging dose and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) characteristics. Two individual MLC sequences were established in the planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical) to collimate the beam according to a defined inner VOI (e.g., containing a target volume under image guidance) and an outer VOImore » (e.g., including surrounding landmarks or organs-at-risk). MLC sequences were interleaved as a function of gantry angle to produce a reconstructed CBCT image with nested VOIs. By controlling the ratio of inner-to-outer ratio of MLC segments (and thus Monitor Units) during acquisition, the relative dose and CNR in the two volumes can be controlled. Inner-to-outer ratios of 2:1 to 6:1 were examined. Results: The concept was explored using an anatomical head phantom to assess image quality. A geometric phantom was used to quantify absolute dose and CNR values for the various sequences. The authors found that the dose in the outer VOI decreased by a functional relationship dependent on the inner-to-outer sequence ratio, while the CNR varied by the square root of dose, as expected. Conclusions: In this study the authors demonstrate flexibility in VOI CBCT by tailoring the imaging dose and CNR distribution in separate volumes within the patient anatomy. This would allow for high quality imaging of a target volume for alignment purposes, with simultaneous low dose imaging of the surrounding anatomy (e.g., for coregistration)« less
  • Purpose: A novel method has been developed for volume of interest (VOI) cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging using a 2.35 MV/Carbon target linac imaging beam line combined with dynamic multileaf collimator sequences. Methods: The authors demonstrate the concept of acquisition of multiple, separate imaging volumes, where volumes can be either completely separated or nested, and are associated with predetermined imaging dose and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) characteristics. Two individual MLC sequences were established in the planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical) to collimate the beam according to a defined inner VOI (e.g., containing a target volume under image guidance) and an outer VOImore » (e.g., including surrounding landmarks or organs-at-risk). MLC sequences were interleaved as a function of gantry angle to produce a reconstructed CBCT image with nested VOIs. By controlling the ratio of inner-to-outer ratio of MLC segments (and thus Monitor Units) during acquisition, the relative dose and CNR in the two volumes can be controlled. Inner-to-outer ratios of 2:1 to 6:1 were examined. Results: The concept was explored using an anatomical head phantom to assess image quality. A geometric phantom was used to quantify absolute dose and CNR values for the various sequences. The authors found that the dose in the outer VOI decreased by a functional relationship dependent on the inner-to-outer sequence ratio, while the CNR varied by the square root of dose, as expected. Conclusions: In this study the authors demonstrate flexibility in VOI CBCT by tailoring the imaging dose and CNR distribution in separate volumes within the patient anatomy. This would allow for high quality imaging of a target volume for alignment purposes, with simultaneous low dose imaging of the surrounding anatomy (e.g., for coregistration)« less
  • Purpose: CBCT is the current gold standard to verify prone breast patient setup. We investigated in a phantom if non-ionizing localization systems can replace ionizing localization systems for prone breast treatments. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was positioned on a prone breast board. Electromagnetic transponders were attached on the left chest surface. The CT images of the phantom were imported to the treatment planning system. The isocenter was set to the center of the transponders. The positions of the isocenter and transponders transferred to the transponder tracking system. The posterior phantom surface was contoured and exported to the optical surface trackingmore » system. A CBCT was taken for the initial setup alignment on the treatment machine. Using the electromagnetic and optical localization systems, the deviation of the phantom setup from the original CT images was measured. This was compared with the difference between the original CT and kV-CBCT images. Results: For the electromagnetic localization system, the phantom position deviated from the original CT in 1.5 mm, 0.0 mm and 0.5 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI) and left-right (LR) directions. For the optical localization system, the phantom position deviated from the original CT in 2.0 mm, −2.0 mm and 0.1 mm in the AP, SI and LR directions. For the CBCT, the phantom position deviated from the original CT in 4.0 mm, 1.0 mm and −1.0 mm in the AP, SI and LR directions. The measured values from the non-ionizing localization systems differed from those with the CBCT less than 3.0 mm in all directions. Conclusions: This phantom study showed the feasibility of using a combination of non-ionizing localization systems to achieve a similar setup accuracy as CBCT for prone breast patients. This could potentially eliminate imaging dose. As a next step, we are expanding this study to actual patients. This work has been in part supported by Departmental Research Award RODEPT1-JS001, Department of Radiation Oncology, UC Davis Medical Center.« less
  • Purpose: The focus of this work was to investigate the improvements in image quality and dose reduction for volume-of-interest (VOI) kV-CBCT using dynamic collimation. Methods: A prototype iris aperture was used to track a VOI during a CBCT acquisition. The current aperture design is capable of one-dimensional translation as a function of gantry angle and dynamic adjustment of the iris radius. The aperture occupies the location of the bow-tie filter on a Varian OBI system. CBCT and planar image quality was investigated as a function of aperture radius, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI, for a 20 cmmore » diameter cylindrical water phantom with a 9 mm diameter bone insert centered on isocenter. Corresponding scatter-to-primary ratios (SPR) were determined at the detector plane with Monte Carlo simulation using EGSnrc. Dose distributions for various anatomical sites were modeled using a dynamic BEAMnrc library and DOSXYZnrc. The resulting VOI dose distributions were compared to full-field distributions. Results: SPR was reduced by a factor of 8.4 when decreasing iris diameter from 21.2 cm to 2.4 cm (at isocenter). Similarly, this change in iris diameter corresponds to a factor increase of approximately 1.4 and 1.5 in image contrast for CBCT and planar images, respectively, and similarly a factor decrease in image noise of approximately 1.7 and 1.5. This results in a measured gain in contrast-to-noise ratio of a factor of approximately 2.3 for both CBCT and planar images. Depending upon the anatomical site, dose was reduced to 10%–70% of the full field value along the central axis plane and down to 2% along the axial planes, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI compared to full-field techniques. Conclusion: The presented VOI technique offers improved image quality for image-guided radiotherapy while sparing the surrounding volume of unnecessary dose compared to full-field techniques.« less