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Title: SU-F-J-17: Patient Localization Using MRI-Guided Soft Tissue for Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy: Indication for Margin Reduction and Its Feasibility

Abstract

Purpose: On-board MRI provides superior soft-tissue contrast, allowing patient alignment using tumor or nearby critical structures. This study aims to study H&N MRI-guided IGRT to analyze inter-fraction patient setup variations using soft-tissue targets and design appropriate CTV-to-PTV margin and clinical implication. Methods: 282 MR images for 10 H&N IMRT patients treated on a ViewRay system were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were immobilized using a thermoplastic mask on a customized headrest fitted in a radiofrequency coil and positioned to soft-tissue targets. The inter-fraction patient displacements were recorded to compute the PTV margins using the recipe: 2.5∑+0.7σ. New IMRT plans optimized on the revised PTVs were generated to evaluate the delivered dose distributions. An in-house dose deformation registration tool was used to assess the resulting dosimetric consequences when margin adaption is performed based on weekly MR images. The cumulative doses were compared to the reduced margin plans for targets and critical structures. Results: The inter-fraction displacements (and standard deviations), ∑ and σ were tabulated for MRI and compared to kVCBCT. The computed CTV-to-PTV margin was 3.5mm for soft-tissue based registration. There were minimal differences between the planned and delivered doses when comparing clinical and the PTV reduced margin plans: the paired t-tests yieldedmore » p=0.38 and 0.66 between the planned and delivered doses for the adapted margin plans for the maximum cord and mean parotid dose, respectively. Target V95 received comparable doses as planned for the reduced margin plans. Conclusion: The 0.35T MRI offers acceptable soft-tissue contrast and good spatial resolution for patient alignment and target visualization. Better tumor conspicuity from MRI allows soft-tissue based alignments with potentially improved accuracy, suggesting a benefit of margin reduction for H&N radiotherapy. The reduced margin plans (i.e., 2 mm) resulted in improved normal structure sparing and accurate dose delivery to achieve intended treatment goal under MR guidance.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22632152
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; ANIMAL TISSUES; DEFORMATION; HEAD; IMAGES; NECK; NEOPLASMS; NMR IMAGING; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; RADIOWAVE RADIATION; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; THERMOPLASTICS

Citation Formats

Qi, X, Yang, Y, Jack, N, Santhanam, A, Yang, L, Chen, A, and Low, D. SU-F-J-17: Patient Localization Using MRI-Guided Soft Tissue for Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy: Indication for Margin Reduction and Its Feasibility. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955925.
Qi, X, Yang, Y, Jack, N, Santhanam, A, Yang, L, Chen, A, & Low, D. SU-F-J-17: Patient Localization Using MRI-Guided Soft Tissue for Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy: Indication for Margin Reduction and Its Feasibility. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955925.
Qi, X, Yang, Y, Jack, N, Santhanam, A, Yang, L, Chen, A, and Low, D. 2016. "SU-F-J-17: Patient Localization Using MRI-Guided Soft Tissue for Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy: Indication for Margin Reduction and Its Feasibility". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955925.
@article{osti_22632152,
title = {SU-F-J-17: Patient Localization Using MRI-Guided Soft Tissue for Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy: Indication for Margin Reduction and Its Feasibility},
author = {Qi, X and Yang, Y and Jack, N and Santhanam, A and Yang, L and Chen, A and Low, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: On-board MRI provides superior soft-tissue contrast, allowing patient alignment using tumor or nearby critical structures. This study aims to study H&N MRI-guided IGRT to analyze inter-fraction patient setup variations using soft-tissue targets and design appropriate CTV-to-PTV margin and clinical implication. Methods: 282 MR images for 10 H&N IMRT patients treated on a ViewRay system were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were immobilized using a thermoplastic mask on a customized headrest fitted in a radiofrequency coil and positioned to soft-tissue targets. The inter-fraction patient displacements were recorded to compute the PTV margins using the recipe: 2.5∑+0.7σ. New IMRT plans optimized on the revised PTVs were generated to evaluate the delivered dose distributions. An in-house dose deformation registration tool was used to assess the resulting dosimetric consequences when margin adaption is performed based on weekly MR images. The cumulative doses were compared to the reduced margin plans for targets and critical structures. Results: The inter-fraction displacements (and standard deviations), ∑ and σ were tabulated for MRI and compared to kVCBCT. The computed CTV-to-PTV margin was 3.5mm for soft-tissue based registration. There were minimal differences between the planned and delivered doses when comparing clinical and the PTV reduced margin plans: the paired t-tests yielded p=0.38 and 0.66 between the planned and delivered doses for the adapted margin plans for the maximum cord and mean parotid dose, respectively. Target V95 received comparable doses as planned for the reduced margin plans. Conclusion: The 0.35T MRI offers acceptable soft-tissue contrast and good spatial resolution for patient alignment and target visualization. Better tumor conspicuity from MRI allows soft-tissue based alignments with potentially improved accuracy, suggesting a benefit of margin reduction for H&N radiotherapy. The reduced margin plans (i.e., 2 mm) resulted in improved normal structure sparing and accurate dose delivery to achieve intended treatment goal under MR guidance.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955925},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: We propose a surface-image-guided soft robotic patient positioning system for maskless head-and-neck radiotherapy. The ultimate goal of this project is to utilize a soft robot to realize non-rigid patient positioning and real-time motion compensation. In this proof-of-concept study, we design a position-based visual servoing control system for an air-bladder-based soft robot and investigate its performance in controlling the flexion/extension cranial motion on a mannequin head phantom. Methods: The current system consists of Microsoft Kinect depth camera, an inflatable air bladder (IAB), pressured air source, pneumatic valve actuators, custom-built current regulators, and a National Instruments myRIO microcontroller. The performance ofmore » the designed system was evaluated on a mannequin head, with a ball joint fixed below its neck to simulate torso-induced head motion along flexion/extension direction. The IAB is placed beneath the mannequin head. The Kinect camera captures images of the mannequin head, extracts the face, and measures the position of the head relative to the camera. This distance is sent to the myRIO, which runs control algorithms and sends actuation commands to the valves, inflating and deflating the IAB to induce head motion. Results: For a step input, i.e. regulation of the head to a constant displacement, the maximum error was a 6% overshoot, which the system then reduces to 0% steady-state error. In this initial investigation, the settling time to reach the regulated position was approximately 8 seconds, with 2 seconds of delay between the command start of motion due to capacitance of the pneumatics, for a total of 10 seconds to regulate the error. Conclusion: The surface image-guided soft robotic patient positioning system can achieve accurate mannequin head flexion/extension motion. Given this promising initial Result, the extension of the current one-dimensional soft robot control to multiple IABs for non-rigid positioning control will be pursued.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of improved normal tissue sparing for head-and-neck (H'N) image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) by employing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for target level II/III though a GPU-based deformable image registration and dose accumulation framework. Methods: Ten H'N simultaneous integrated boost cases treated on TomoTherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Weekly kVCT scans in addition to daily MVCT scans were acquired for each patient. Reduced margin plans were generated with 0- mm margin for level II and III PTV (while 3-5 mm margin for PTV1) and compared with the standard margin plan using 3-5mm margin to all CTV1-3 (reference plan). An in-housemore » developed GPU-based 3D image deformation tool was used to register and deform the weekly KVCTs with the planning CT and determine the delivered mean/minimum/maximum dose, dose volume histograms (DVHs), etc. Results: Compared with the reference plans, the averaged cord maximum, the right and left parotid doses reduced by 22.7 %, 16.5 %, and 9 % respectively in the reduced margin plans. The V95 for PTV2 and PTV3 were found within 2 and 5% between the reference and tighter margin plans. For the reduced margin plans, the averaged cumulative mean doses were consistent with the planned dose for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 within 1.5%, 1.7% and 1.4%. Similar dose variations of the delivered dose were seen for the reference and tighter margin plans. The delivered maximum and mean doses for the cord were 3.55 % and 2.37% higher than the planned doses; a 5 % higher cumulative mean dose for the parotids was also observed for the delivered dose than the planned doses in both plans. Conclusion: By imposing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for level II and III targets for H'N irradiation, acceptable cumulative doses were achievable when coupled with weekly kVCT guidance while improving normal structure sparing.« less
  • Purpose: To compare the geometric alignments of soft-tissue implanted markers to the traditional bony-based alignments in head-and-neck cancers, on the basis of daily image guidance. Dosimetric impact of the two alignment techniques on target coverage is presented. Methods and Materials: A total of 330 retrospective alignments (5 patients) were performed on daily megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image sets using both alignment techniques. Intermarker distances were tracked for all fractions to assess marker interfractional stability. Using a deformable image registration algorithm, target cumulative doses were calculated according to generated shifts on daily MVCT image sets. Target D95 was used as amore » dosimetric endpoint to evaluate each alignment technique. Results: Intermarker distances overall were stable, with a standard deviation of <1.5 mm for all fractions and no observed temporal trends. Differences in shift magnitudes between both alignment techniques were found to be statistically significant, with a maximum observed difference of 8 mm in a given direction. Evaluation of technique-specific dose coverage based on D95 of target clinical target volume and planning target volume shows small differences (within +-5%) compared with the kilovoltage CT plan. Conclusion: The use of daily MVCT imaging demonstrates that implanted markers in oral tongue and soft-palate cancers are stable localization surrogates. Alignments based on implanted markers generate shifts comparable overall to the traditional bony-based alignment, with no observed systematic difference in magnitude or direction. The cumulative dosimetric impact on target clinical target volume and planning target volume coverage was found to be similar, despite large observed differences in daily alignment shifts between the two techniques.« less
  • Purpose: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is feasible in the head and neck [1]. This study aims to expand upon these findings to assess the feasibility of treatment planning and monitoring via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance using a clinical MR-guided HIFU platform. Methods: Two 31 kg pigs were anaesthetized, shaved, and positioned prone on the HIFU table (Sonalleve, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland). The necks were acoustically coupled to the integrated transducer using gel pads and degassed water. MR imaging verified acoustic coupling and facilitated target selection in the thyroid and thymus. Targets were thermally ablated with 130–200 W ofmore » acoustic power over a period of 16 s at a frequency of 1.2 MHz while being monitored through real-time, multi-planar MR-thermometry. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging was used to assess treatment efficacy. Post-treatment, animals were euthanized and sonicated tissues were harvested for histology assessment. Results: MR-thermometry, post-contrast-imaging, and gross pathology demonstrated that the system was capable of causing localized thermal ablation in both the thyroid and the thymus without damaging the aerodigestive tract. In one animal, superficial bruising was observed in the ultrasound beam path. Otherwise, there were no adverse events. Analysis of the tissue histology found regions of damage consistent with acute thermal injury at the targeted locations. Conclusion: It is feasible to use a clinical MR-guided HIFU platform for extracorporeal ablation of porcine head and neck tissues. MR guidance and thermometry are sufficient to target and monitor treatment in the thyroid region, despite the presence of the inhomogeneous aerodigestive tract. Further study is necessary to assess efficacy and survival using a tumor model, and to examine what modifications should be made to the transducer positioning system and associated patient positioning aids to adapt it for clinical head and neck targets.Reference:[1] Esnault et al. (2011). Thyroid, 21(9), 965– 973. Funding support provided by Philips Healthcare. Ari Partanen is a paid employee of Philips Healthcare.« less
  • Purpose: 3D optical surface imaging has been applied to patient positioning in radiation therapy (RT). The optical patient positioning system is advantageous over conventional method using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in that it is radiation free, frameless, and is capable of real-time monitoring. While the conventional radiographic method uses volumetric registration, the optical system uses surface matching for patient alignment. The relative accuracy of these two methods has not yet been sufficiently investigated. This study aims to investigate the theoretical accuracy of the surface registration based on a simulation study using patient data. Methods: This study compares the relative accuracymore » of surface and volumetric registration in head-and-neck RT. The authors examined 26 patient data sets, each consisting of planning CT data acquired before treatment and patient setup CBCT data acquired at the time of treatment. As input data of surface registration, patient’s skin surfaces were created by contouring patient skin from planning CT and treatment CBCT. Surface registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm by point–plane closest, which minimizes the normal distance between source points and target surfaces. Six degrees of freedom (three translations and three rotations) were used in both surface and volumetric registrations and the results were compared. The accuracy of each method was estimated by digital phantom tests. Results: Based on the results of 26 patients, the authors found that the average and maximum root-mean-square translation deviation between the surface and volumetric registrations were 2.7 and 5.2 mm, respectively. The residual error of the surface registration was calculated to have an average of 0.9 mm and a maximum of 1.7 mm. Conclusions: Surface registration may lead to results different from those of the conventional volumetric registration. Only limited accuracy can be achieved for patient positioning with an approach based solely on surface information.« less