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Title: SU-F-J-16: Planar KV Imaging Dose Reduction Study

Abstract

Purpose: IGRT has become an indispensable tool in modern radiotherapy with kV imaging used in many departments due to superior image quality and lower dose when compared to MV imaging. Many departments use manufacturer supplied protocols for imaging which are not always optimised between image quality and radiation dose (ALARA). Methods: Whole body phantom PBU-50 (Kyoto Kagaku ltd., Japan) for imaging in radiology has been imaged on Varian iX accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, USA) with OBI 1.5 system. Manufacturer’s default protocols were adapted by modifying kV and mAs values when imaging different anatomical regions of the phantom (head, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, extremities). Images with different settings were independently reviewed by two persons and their suitability for IGRT set-up correction protocols were evaluated. The suitable images with the lowest mAs were then selected. The entrance surface dose (ESD) for manufacturer’s default protocols and modified protocols were measured with RTI Black Piranha (RTI Group, Sweden) and compared. Image quality was also measured with kVQC phantom (Standard Imaging, USA) for different protocols. The modified protocols have been applied for clinical work. Results: For most cases optimized protocols reduced the ESD on average by a factor of 3(range 0.9–8.5). Further reduction in ESD hasmore » been observed by applying bow-tie filter designed for CBCT. The largest reduction in dose (12.2 times) was observed for Thorax lateral protocol. The dose was slightly increased (by 10%) for large pelvis AP protocol. Conclusion: Manufacturer’s default IGRT protocols could be optimised to reduce the ESD to the patient without losing the necessary image quality for patient set-up correction. For patient set-up with planar kV imaging the bony anatomy is mostly used and optimization should focus on this aspect. Therefore, the current approach with anthropomorphic phantom is more advantageous in optimization over standard kV quality control phantoms and SNR metrics.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. North Estonia Medical Centre, Tallinn (Estonia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22632151
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ABDOMEN; ANATOMY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CHEST; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; CORRECTIONS; IMAGES; MANUFACTURERS; OPTIMIZATION; PATIENTS; PELVIS; PHANTOMS; QUALITY CONTROL; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Gershkevitsh, E, and Zolotuhhin, D. SU-F-J-16: Planar KV Imaging Dose Reduction Study. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955924.
Gershkevitsh, E, & Zolotuhhin, D. SU-F-J-16: Planar KV Imaging Dose Reduction Study. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955924.
Gershkevitsh, E, and Zolotuhhin, D. Wed . "SU-F-J-16: Planar KV Imaging Dose Reduction Study". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955924.
@article{osti_22632151,
title = {SU-F-J-16: Planar KV Imaging Dose Reduction Study},
author = {Gershkevitsh, E and Zolotuhhin, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: IGRT has become an indispensable tool in modern radiotherapy with kV imaging used in many departments due to superior image quality and lower dose when compared to MV imaging. Many departments use manufacturer supplied protocols for imaging which are not always optimised between image quality and radiation dose (ALARA). Methods: Whole body phantom PBU-50 (Kyoto Kagaku ltd., Japan) for imaging in radiology has been imaged on Varian iX accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, USA) with OBI 1.5 system. Manufacturer’s default protocols were adapted by modifying kV and mAs values when imaging different anatomical regions of the phantom (head, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, extremities). Images with different settings were independently reviewed by two persons and their suitability for IGRT set-up correction protocols were evaluated. The suitable images with the lowest mAs were then selected. The entrance surface dose (ESD) for manufacturer’s default protocols and modified protocols were measured with RTI Black Piranha (RTI Group, Sweden) and compared. Image quality was also measured with kVQC phantom (Standard Imaging, USA) for different protocols. The modified protocols have been applied for clinical work. Results: For most cases optimized protocols reduced the ESD on average by a factor of 3(range 0.9–8.5). Further reduction in ESD has been observed by applying bow-tie filter designed for CBCT. The largest reduction in dose (12.2 times) was observed for Thorax lateral protocol. The dose was slightly increased (by 10%) for large pelvis AP protocol. Conclusion: Manufacturer’s default IGRT protocols could be optimised to reduce the ESD to the patient without losing the necessary image quality for patient set-up correction. For patient set-up with planar kV imaging the bony anatomy is mostly used and optimization should focus on this aspect. Therefore, the current approach with anthropomorphic phantom is more advantageous in optimization over standard kV quality control phantoms and SNR metrics.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955924},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To study effect of scan length on magnitude of imaging dose deposition in Varian kV CBCT for head & neck and pelvis CBCT. Methods: To study effect of scan length we measured imaging dose at depth of 8 cm for head and neck Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) acquisition ( X ray beam energy is used 100kV and 200 degree of gantry rotation) and at 16 cm depth for pelvis CBCT acquisition ( X ray beam energy used is 125 kV and 360 degree of gantry rotation) in specially designed phantom. We used farmer chamber which was calibrated inmore » kV X ray range for measurements .Dose was measured with default field size, and reducing field size along y direction to 10 cm and 5 cm. Results: As the energy of the beam decreases the scattered radiation increases and this contributes significantly to the dose deposited in the patient. By reducing the scan length to 10 Cm from default 20.6 cm we found a dose reduction of 14% for head and neck CBCT protocol and a reduction of 26% for pelvis CBCT protocol. Similarly for a scan length of 5cm compared to default the dose reduction in head and neck CBCT protocol is 36% while in the pelvis CBCT protocol the dose reduction is 50%. Conclusion: By limiting the scan length we can control the scatter radiation generated and hence the dose to the patient. However the variation in dose reduction for same length used in two protocols is because of the scan geometry. The pelvis CBCT protocol uses a full rotation and head and neck CBCT protocol uses partial rotation.« less
  • Purpose: To assess image quality and imaging dose of 2.5MV electronic portal imaging in comparison to kV imaging and 6MV and Flattening-Filter-Free 6MV (6MVFFF) portal imaging using a DMI imager. Methods: Quantitative assessment of image quality was performed with Leeds and Las Vegas test phantoms in conjunction with qualitative evaluation of clinical patient images for kV imaging and 2.5MV, 6MV and 6MVFFF portal imaging. High and low contrast resolutions were evaluated and imaging doses were measured using these x-rays. Phantom test was performed both in air and in solid water. Clinical patient portal images were also reviewed and qualitatively assessedmore » for these three imaging MV energies. Results: Among the 28 objects in Las Vegas phantom, 16, 17 and 26 of them were resolved using Low Dose technique and 18, 22 and 26 were resolved using High Quality technique with 6MV, 6MVFFF and 2.5MV, respectively. The number of Leeds low contrast objects resolved by 6MV, 6MFFFF and 2.5MV was 6, 15 and 18 with Low Dose technique and 14, 17 and 18 with High Quality technique, respectively. When the test phantoms were embedded in 20cm thick solid water, the results were noticeably affected, but the performance of 2.5MV was still substantially better than 6MV and 6MVFFF. Imaging dose with 2.5MV measured at 10 cm depth was about half of that with 6MV or 6MVFFF. Clinical patient portal images were reviewed and qualitatively assessed for different sites including brain, head-and-neck, chest and pelvis. 2.5MV imaging provided more details and substantially higher contrast. Conclusion: While portal imaging with 6MVFFF provides noticeably better image quality than that with 6MV, the performance of 2.5MV portal imaging is substantially better than both 6MV and 6MVFFF in terms of high and low contrast resolutions as well as lower imaging dose. 2.5MV imaging provides near kV imaging quality.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the role of 2D kilovoltage (kV) imaging to complement cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging in a shift threshold based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) strategy for conventional lung radiotherapy. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted by analyzing IGRT couch shift trends for 15 patients that received lung radiation therapy to evaluate the benefit of performing orthogonal kV imaging prior to CBCT imaging. Herein, a shift threshold based IGRT protocol was applied, which would mandate additional CBCT verification if the applied patient shifts exceeded 3 mm to avoid intraobserver variability in CBCT registration and to confirm table shifts.more » For each patient, two IGRT strategies: kV + CBCT and CBCT alone, were compared and the recorded patient shifts were categorized into whether additional CBCT acquisition would have been mandated or not. The effectiveness of either strategy was gauged by the likelihood of needing additional CBCT imaging for accurate patient set-up. Results: The use of CBCT alone was 6 times more likely to require an additional CBCT than KV+CBCT, for a 3 mm shift threshold (88% vs 14%). The likelihood of additional CBCT verification generally increased with lower shift thresholds, and was significantly lower when kV+CBCT was used (7% with 5 mm shift threshold, 36% with 2 mm threshold), than with CBCT alone (61% with 5 mm shift threshold, 97% with 2 mm threshold). With CBCT alone, treatment time increased by 2.2 min and dose increased by 1.9 cGy per fraction on average due to additional CBCT with a 3mm shift threshold. Conclusion: The benefit of kV imaging to screen for gross misalignments led to more accurate CBCT based patient localization compared with using CBCT alone. The subsequently reduced need for additional CBCT verification will minimize treatment time and result in less overall patient imaging dose.« less
  • Purpose: Existing real-time imaging uses dual (orthogonal) kV beam fluoroscopies and may result in significant amount of extra radiation to patients, especially for prolonged treatment cases. In addition, kV projections only provide 2D information, which is insufficient for in vivo dose reconstruction. We propose real-time volumetric imaging using prior knowledge of pre-treatment 4D images and real-time 2D transit data of treatment beam and kV beam. Methods: The pre-treatment multi-snapshot volumetric images are used to simulate 2D projections of both the treatment beam and kV beam, respectively, for each treatment field defined by the control point. During radiation delivery, the transitmore » signals acquired by the electronic portal image device (EPID) are processed for every projection and compared with pre-calculation by cross-correlation for phase matching and thus 3D snapshot identification or real-time volumetric imaging. The data processing involves taking logarithmic ratios of EPID signals with respect to the air scan to reduce modeling uncertainties in head scatter fluence and EPID response. Simulated 2D projections are also used to pre-calculate confidence levels in phase matching. Treatment beam projections that have a low confidence level either in pre-calculation or real-time acquisition will trigger kV beams so that complementary information can be exploited. In case both the treatment beam and kV beam return low confidence in phase matching, a predicted phase based on linear regression will be generated. Results: Simulation studies indicated treatment beams provide sufficient confidence in phase matching for most cases. At times of low confidence from treatment beams, kV imaging provides sufficient confidence in phase matching due to its complementary configuration. Conclusion: The proposed real-time volumetric imaging utilizes the treatment beam and triggers kV beams for complementary information when the treatment beam along does not provide sufficient confidence for phase matching. This strategy minimizes the use of extra radiation to patients. This project is partially supported by a Varian MRA grant.« less
  • Purpose: To quantitatively investigate the surface dose deposited in patients imaged with a kV on-board-imager mounted on a radiotherapy machine using different clinical imaging techniques and filters. Methods: A high sensitivity photon diode is used to measure the surface dose on central-axis and at an off-axis-point which is mounted on the top of a phantom setup. The dose is measured for different imaging techniques that include: AP-Pelvis, AP-Head, AP-Abdomen, AP-Thorax, and Extremity. The dose measurements from these imaging techniques are combined with various filtering techniques that include: no-filter (open-field), half-fan bowtie (HF), full-fan bowtie (FF) and Cu-plate filters. The relativemore » surface dose for different imaging and filtering techniques is evaluated quantiatively by the ratio of the dose relative to the Cu-plate filter. Results: The lowest surface dose is deposited with the Cu-plate filter. The highest surface dose deposited results from open fields without filter and it is nearly a factor of 8–30 larger than the corresponding imaging technique with the Cu-plate filter. The AP-Abdomen technique delivers the largest surface dose that is nearly 2.7 times larger than the AP-Head technique. The smallest surface dose is obtained from the Extremity imaging technique. Imaging with bowtie filters decreases the surface dose by nearly 33% in comparison with the open field. The surface doses deposited with the HF or FF-bowtie filters are within few percentages. Image-quality of the radiographic images obtained from the different filtering techniques is similar because the Cu-plate eliminates low-energy photons. The HF- and FF-bowtie filters generate intensity-gradients in the radiographs which affects image-quality in the different imaging technique. Conclusion: Surface dose from kV-imaging decreases significantly with the Cu-plate and bowtie-filters compared to imaging without filters using open-field beams. The use of Cu-plate filter does not affect image-quality and may be used as the default in the different imaging techniques.« less