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Title: SU-F-J-10: Sliding Mode Control of a SMA Actuated Active Flexible Needle for Medical Procedures

Abstract

Purpose: In medical interventional procedures such as brachytherapy, ablative therapies and biopsy precise steering and accurate placement of needles are very important for anatomical obstacle avoidance and accurate targeting. This study presents the efficacy of a sliding mode controller for Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated flexible needle for medical procedures. Methods: Second order system dynamics of the SMA actuated active flexible needle was used for deriving the sliding mode control equations. Both proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and adaptive PID sliding mode control (APIDSMC) algorithms were developed and implemented. The flexible needle was attached at the end of a 6 DOF robotic system. Through LabView programming environment, the control commands were generated using the PID and APIDSMC algorithms. Experiments with artificial tissue mimicking phantom were performed to evaluate the performance of the controller. The actual needle tip position was obtained using an electromagnetic (EM) tracking sensor (Aurora, NDI, waterloo, Canada) at a sampling period of 1ms. During experiment, external disturbances were created applying force and thermal shock to investigate the robustness of the controllers. Results: The root mean square error (RMSE) values for APIDSMC and PID controllers were 0.75 mm and 0.92 mm, respectively, for sinusoidal reference input. In the presence of externalmore » disturbances, the APIDSMC controller showed much smoother and less overshooting response compared to that of the PID controller. Conclusion: Performance of the APIDSMC was superior to the PID controller. The APIDSMC was proved to be more effective controller in compensating the SMA uncertainties and external disturbances with clinically acceptable thresholds.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22632146
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ALGORITHMS; ALLOYS; ANIMAL TISSUES; BIOPSY; BRACHYTHERAPY; MODE CONTROL; PHANTOMS; SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT; THERMAL SHOCK

Citation Formats

Podder, T. SU-F-J-10: Sliding Mode Control of a SMA Actuated Active Flexible Needle for Medical Procedures. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955918.
Podder, T. SU-F-J-10: Sliding Mode Control of a SMA Actuated Active Flexible Needle for Medical Procedures. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955918.
Podder, T. Wed . "SU-F-J-10: Sliding Mode Control of a SMA Actuated Active Flexible Needle for Medical Procedures". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955918.
@article{osti_22632146,
title = {SU-F-J-10: Sliding Mode Control of a SMA Actuated Active Flexible Needle for Medical Procedures},
author = {Podder, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In medical interventional procedures such as brachytherapy, ablative therapies and biopsy precise steering and accurate placement of needles are very important for anatomical obstacle avoidance and accurate targeting. This study presents the efficacy of a sliding mode controller for Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated flexible needle for medical procedures. Methods: Second order system dynamics of the SMA actuated active flexible needle was used for deriving the sliding mode control equations. Both proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and adaptive PID sliding mode control (APIDSMC) algorithms were developed and implemented. The flexible needle was attached at the end of a 6 DOF robotic system. Through LabView programming environment, the control commands were generated using the PID and APIDSMC algorithms. Experiments with artificial tissue mimicking phantom were performed to evaluate the performance of the controller. The actual needle tip position was obtained using an electromagnetic (EM) tracking sensor (Aurora, NDI, waterloo, Canada) at a sampling period of 1ms. During experiment, external disturbances were created applying force and thermal shock to investigate the robustness of the controllers. Results: The root mean square error (RMSE) values for APIDSMC and PID controllers were 0.75 mm and 0.92 mm, respectively, for sinusoidal reference input. In the presence of external disturbances, the APIDSMC controller showed much smoother and less overshooting response compared to that of the PID controller. Conclusion: Performance of the APIDSMC was superior to the PID controller. The APIDSMC was proved to be more effective controller in compensating the SMA uncertainties and external disturbances with clinically acceptable thresholds.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955918},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To report on the results of a complete permanent implant brachytherapy procedure assisted by an electromagnetic (EM) hollow needle possessing both 3D tracking and seed drop detection abilities. Methods: End-to-end in-phantom EM-assisted LDR procedures were conducted. The novel system consisted of an EM tracking apparatus (NDI Aurora V2, Planar Field Generator), a 3D US scanner (Philips CX50), a hollow needle prototype allowing 3D tracking and seed drop detection and a specially designed treatment planning software (Philips Healthcare). A tungsten-doped 30 cc spherical agarose prostate immersed in gelatin was used for the treatment. A cylindrical shape of 0.8 cc wasmore » carved along its diameter to mimic the urethra. An initial plan of 26 needles and 47 seeds was established with the system. The plan was delivered with the EM-tracked hollow needle, and individual seed drop locations were recorded on the fly. The phantom was subsequently imaged with a CT scanner from which seed positions and contour definitions were obtained. The DVHs were then independently recomputed and compared with those produced by the planning system, both before and after the treatment. Results: Of the 47 seeds, 45 (96%) were detected by the EM technology embedded in the hollow needle design. The executed plan (from CT analysis) differed from the initial plan by 2%, 14% and 8% respectively in terms of V100, D90 and V150 for the prostate, and by 8%, 7% and 10% respectively in terms of D5, V100 and V120 for the urethra. Conclusion: The average DVH deviations between initial and executed plans were within a 5% tolerance imposed for this proof-of-concept assessment. This relatively good concordance demonstrates the feasibility and potential benefits of combining EM tracking and seed drop detection for real-time dosimetry validation and assistance in permanent implant brachytherapy procedures. This project has been entirely funded by Philips Healthcare.« less
  • Purpose: To accommodate head-and-neck (HN) RT simulation scan with immobilization, sub-optimized flexible radiofrequency coils have to be used on an MR-sim rather than a volumetric head coil for diagnostic radiological (DR) applications. In this study, we present and compare ACR MRI phantom test with flexible coils setting (RT-setting) and volumetric head coil setting (DR-setting). Methods: Two 8-channel array coils were wrapped close to an ACR MRI phantom placed on a flat couch-top in RT-setting for acquisition. ACR MRI phantom tests were conducted 10 times for each setting on a 1.5T MR-sim. Sagittal localizer (TE/TR=20/200ms), axial T1 (TE/TR=20/500ms) and T2 scansmore » (2TEs/TR=20,80/2000ms) were acquired (NEX=1). Acqusition and image analysis were conducted following ACR guidelines. Extra 10 RT-setting acquisitions were obtained by enabling prescan normalization. Results: For RT-setting without prescan normalization, all tests passed the ACR recommended criteria but image intensity uniformity. Geometric accuracy was 147.8±0.3mm and 191.0±0.4mm. Spatial resolution was 0.9mm. Slice thickness was 5.2mm±0.1mm (T1) and 5.1±0.1mm (T2). Slice position accuracy was 1.4±0.6mm, −2.2±0.3mm (T1), and 1.5±0.2mm, −2.2±0.2mm (T2). Image uniformity was 80.6%±2.6% (T1) and 80.2%±3.1% (T2) (criteria: ≥87.5% for 1.5T). Ghosting ratio was 0.0006±0.0004. Low contrast detectability was 30.7±1.7 (T1) and 22.6±3.0 (T2). Image uniformity (91.4%±4.2% and 91.8%±4.3%) and low contrast detectability (36.5±1.4 and 31.6±2.2) of DR-setting were better than RT-setting. Prescan normalization substantially improved image uniformity to 93.4%±0.2% and 93.4%±0.3%, but slightly compromised ghosting (0.0033±0.0004) and spatial resolution (0.9mm or 1.0mm) for RT-setting. Conclusion: Flexible coils setting for HN-RT simulation scan could successfully pass ACR criteria (prescan normalization enabled) and generally achieve comparable performance to volumetric coil setting, although compromise on low contrast detectability was observed probably due to the lower signal-to-noise ratio of the flexible coils. Our results could also serve as a reference baseline of high-field MR-sim QA performance under ACR guideline.« less
  • This paper presents an active power filter for three-phase systems. The work is motivated by the need for active filtration in a current-source excitation system for a variable-reluctance generator. The active filter is comprised of a six-switch three-phase inverter, a dc bus capacitor, and an isolation transformer. The isolation transformer is required by the application. The leakage inductance associated with each phase of the isolation transformer is used as the series impedance with each phase, by which the inverter is able to actively shape the phase currents in order to compensate for the nonlinearities of all loads within the pointmore » of common coupling. The active filter is controlled through two control loops. The inner current regulation loop uses sliding-mode control by virtue of its ease of implementation. The outer voltage loop regulates the average voltage on the dc bus capacitor. The outer voltage loop is responsible for correctly setting the commanded magnitude of the phase currents. This paper presents the analysis, design, and operation of the active filter. Experimental results are provided for the active filter compensating a phase-controlled rectifier which is drawing 10.4 kW.« less
  • Purpose: A correct body contour is essential for the accuracy of dose calculation in radiation therapy. While modern medical imaging technologies provide highly accurate representations of body contours, there are times when a patient’s anatomy cannot be fully captured or there is a lack of easy access to CT/MRI scanning. Recently, handheld cameras have emerged that are capable of performing three dimensional (3D) scans of patient surface anatomy. By combining 3D camera and medical imaging data, the patient’s surface contour can be fully captured. Methods: A proof-of-concept system matches a patient surface model, created using a handheld stereo depth cameramore » (DC), to the available areas of a body contour segmented from a CT scan. The matched surface contour is then converted to a DICOM structure and added to the CT dataset to provide additional contour information. In order to evaluate the system, a 3D model of a patient was created by segmenting the body contour with a treatment planning system (TPS) and fabricated with a 3D printer. A DC and associated software were used to create a 3D scan of the printed phantom. The surface created by the camera was then registered to a CT model that had been cropped to simulate missing scan data. The aligned surface was then imported into the TPS and compared with the originally segmented contour. Results: The RMS error for the alignment between the camera and cropped CT models was 2.26 mm. Mean distance between the aligned camera surface and ground truth model was −1.23 +/−2.47 mm. Maximum deviations were < 1 cm and occurred in areas of high concavity or where anatomy was close to the couch. Conclusion: The proof-of-concept study shows an accurate, easy and affordable method to extend medical imaging for radiation therapy planning using 3D cameras without additional radiation. Intel provided the camera hardware used in this study.« less
  • Purpose: A prototype actives scanning beam delivery system was designed, manufactured and installed as a part of the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Project. The prototype system includes the most components for steering, modulating, detecting incident beam to patient. The system was installed in MC-50 cyclotron beam line and tested to extract the normal operation conditions. Methods: The commissioning process was completed by using 45 MeV of proton beam. To measure the beam position accuracy along the scanning magnet power supply current, 25 different spots were scanning and measured. The scanning results on GaF film were compared with the irradiationmore » plan. Also, the beam size variation and the intensity reduction using range shifter were measured and analyzed. The results will be used for creating a conversion factors for asymmetric behavior of scanning magnets and a dose compensation factor for longitudinal direction. Results: The results show asymmetry operations on both scanning × and y magnet. In case of scanning magnet × operation, the current to position conversion factors were measured 1.69 mm/A for positive direction and 1.74 mm/A for negative direction. The scanning magnet y operation shows 1.38mm/A and 1.48 mm/A for both directions. The size of incoming beam which was 18 mm as sigma becomes larger up to 55 mm as sigma while using 10 mm of the range shifter plate. As the beam size becomes large, the maximum intensity of the was decreased. In case of using 10 mm of range shifter, the maximum intensity was only 52% compared with no range shifter insertion. Conclusion: For the appropriate operation of the prototype active scanning system, the commissioning process were performed to measure the beam characteristics variation. The obtained results would be applied on the irradiation planning software for more precise dose delivery using the active scanning system.« less