skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-F-E-01: Pitfalls: Reliability and Performance of Diagnostic X-Sources

Abstract

Purpose: Performance and reliability of medical X-ray tubes for imaging are crucial from an ethical, clinical and economic perspective. This lecture will deliver insight into the aspects to consider during the decision making process to invest in X-ray imaging equipment. Outdated metric still hampers realistic product comparison. It is time to change this and to comply with latest standards, which consider current technology. Failure modes and ways to avoid down-time of the equipment shall be discussed. In view of the increasing number of interventional procedures and the hazards associated with ionizing radiation, toxic contrast agents, and the combination thereof, the aspect of system reliability is of paramount importance. Methods: A comprehensive picture of trends for different modalities (CT, angiography, general radiology) has been drawn and led to the development of novel X-ray tube technology. Results: Recent X-ray tubes feature enhanced reliability and unprecedented performance. Relevant metrics for product comparison still have to be implemented in practice. Conclusion: The speed of scientific and industrial development of new diagnostic and therapeutic X-ray sources remains tremendous. Still, users suffer from gaps between desire and reality in day-to-day diagnostic routine. X-ray sources are still limiting cutting-edge medical procedures. Side-effects of wear and tear, limitationsmore » of the clinical work flow, costs, the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum and others topics need to be further addressed. New applications and modalities, like detection-based color-resolved X-ray and phase-contrast / dark-field imaging will impact the course of new developments of X-ray sources. The author is employee of Royal Philips.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Philips Medical Systems DMC GmbHHamburg (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624428
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BLOOD VESSELS; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; CONTRAST MEDIA; DECISION MAKING; FAILURES; LECTURES; PERFORMANCE; RELIABILITY; SIDE EFFECTS; TOXICITY; X-RAY SOURCES; X-RAY SPECTRA; X-RAY TUBES

Citation Formats

Behling, R. SU-F-E-01: Pitfalls: Reliability and Performance of Diagnostic X-Sources. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955687.
Behling, R. SU-F-E-01: Pitfalls: Reliability and Performance of Diagnostic X-Sources. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955687.
Behling, R. 2016. "SU-F-E-01: Pitfalls: Reliability and Performance of Diagnostic X-Sources". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955687.
@article{osti_22624428,
title = {SU-F-E-01: Pitfalls: Reliability and Performance of Diagnostic X-Sources},
author = {Behling, R},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Performance and reliability of medical X-ray tubes for imaging are crucial from an ethical, clinical and economic perspective. This lecture will deliver insight into the aspects to consider during the decision making process to invest in X-ray imaging equipment. Outdated metric still hampers realistic product comparison. It is time to change this and to comply with latest standards, which consider current technology. Failure modes and ways to avoid down-time of the equipment shall be discussed. In view of the increasing number of interventional procedures and the hazards associated with ionizing radiation, toxic contrast agents, and the combination thereof, the aspect of system reliability is of paramount importance. Methods: A comprehensive picture of trends for different modalities (CT, angiography, general radiology) has been drawn and led to the development of novel X-ray tube technology. Results: Recent X-ray tubes feature enhanced reliability and unprecedented performance. Relevant metrics for product comparison still have to be implemented in practice. Conclusion: The speed of scientific and industrial development of new diagnostic and therapeutic X-ray sources remains tremendous. Still, users suffer from gaps between desire and reality in day-to-day diagnostic routine. X-ray sources are still limiting cutting-edge medical procedures. Side-effects of wear and tear, limitations of the clinical work flow, costs, the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum and others topics need to be further addressed. New applications and modalities, like detection-based color-resolved X-ray and phase-contrast / dark-field imaging will impact the course of new developments of X-ray sources. The author is employee of Royal Philips.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955687},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • NP-59 concentrates in steroid hormone synthesizing tissues, enabling scintigraphic localization and characterization of endocrine dysfunction in the adrenal cortex and ovary. Studying 108 consecutive cases from 1982 to 1985 and using clinical, biochemical, radiographic, and pathologic data, we performed a rigorous assessment of the accuracy and pitfalls of NP-59 scintigraphy. The evaluation was divided into categories of abnormal hormone secretion: Cushing's syndrome, primary aldosteronism, and hyperandrogenism. Additional categories included euadrenal tumors (without detectable hormone dysfunction) and sites of residual adrenal cortical tissue. The accuracy of NP-59 scintigraphy ranged from 71% in primary aldosteronism and 75% in euadrenal tumors, to 100%more » for Cushing's syndrome and hyperandrogenism. However, more than in most nuclear medicine studies, NP-59 imaging requires well-defined indications to be met for it to be efficacious, including the fulfillment of clear clinical, biochemical, and radiographic criteria. The high reproducibility of NP-59 scintigraphic interpretation was demonstrated when 40 random cases underwent interinstitutional exchange and through interobserver evaluation at the University of Michigan. Responses of 85/126 medical centers to questionnaires revealed the high level of NP-59 safety.« less
  • A report is given of two patients with initial symptoms of congestive heart failure who had an extensive work-up that failed to reveal any signs of pulmonary malignancy. Subsequent biopsy by fiberoptic bronchoscopy confirmed alveolar cell carcinoma in both cases, suggesting that bronchoscopy with biopsy should be considered in patients with congestive heart failure if pulmonary edema does not resolve with appropriate therapy. 11 references, 2 figures.
  • To determine the most reliable method of following the progress of disease in children with primary intracranial neoplasms, the noninvasive diagnostic procedures in 92 children were analyzed. Computerized tomographic (CT) scanning was found to be significantly superior to all other testing procedures in sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy. This superiority was seen regardless of tumor location or pathological subtype. When results in follow-up were compared to initial findings at diagnosis, the sensitivity of CT scanning was again significantly more reliable than the other procedures. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was unreliable and added little information to that obtained from simultaneous CT andmore » Radionuclide (RN) scanning. It is recommended that combined CT and RN scanning be used for management of intracranial neoplasms until a reliable method for detecting microscopic disease is available.« less
  • Various methods for separating an integrated circuit (IC) batch were considered using noise parameters for the purpose of determining their reliability. The existing methods for screening semiconductor products using low-frequency (LF) noise were tested on transistors, as well as both digital and analog ICs, and showed good results. Selection criteria for semiconductor products were determined based on the statistics of a representative sample; however, their reliability was not estimated. The calculation of the correlation coefficient of determined LF noise parameters and reference reliability testing results was taken as the basis of the determination of reliability of diagnostic methods. For themore » experiment, KR142EN5A ICs made by bipolar technology were selected, which represent three-pin stabilizers with a fixed output voltage from 5 V and are used in many radio-electronic devices.« less