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Title: SU-F-SPS-09: Parallel MC Kernel Calculations for VMAT Plan Improvement

Abstract

Purpose: Adding kernels (small perturbations in leaf positions) to the existing apertures of VMAT control points may improve plan quality. We investigate the calculation of kernel doses using a parallelized Monte Carlo (MC) method. Methods: A clinical prostate VMAT DICOM plan was exported from Eclipse. An arbitrary control point and leaf were chosen, and a modified MLC file was created, corresponding to the leaf position offset by 0.5cm. The additional dose produced by this 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm kernel was calculated using the DOSXYZnrc component module of BEAMnrc. A range of particle history counts were run (varying from 3 × 10{sup 6} to 3 × 10{sup 7}); each job was split among 1, 10, or 100 parallel processes. A particle count of 3 × 10{sup 6} was established as the lower range because it provided the minimal accuracy level. Results: As expected, an increase in particle counts linearly increases run time. For the lowest particle count, the time varied from 30 hours for the single-processor run, to 0.30 hours for the 100-processor run. Conclusion: Parallel processing of MC calculations in the EGS framework significantly decreases time necessary for each kernel dose calculation. Particle counts lower than 1 × 10{supmore » 6} have too large of an error to output accurate dose for a Monte Carlo kernel calculation. Future work will investigate increasing the number of parallel processes and optimizing run times for multiple kernel calculations.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ;  [3]
  1. State University of New York at Fredonia, Fredonia, NY (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624425
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; ERRORS; KERNELS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; OPTIMIZATION; PARALLEL PROCESSING; PROSTATE; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Chamberlain, S, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, French, S, and Nazareth, D. SU-F-SPS-09: Parallel MC Kernel Calculations for VMAT Plan Improvement. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955684.
Chamberlain, S, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, French, S, & Nazareth, D. SU-F-SPS-09: Parallel MC Kernel Calculations for VMAT Plan Improvement. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955684.
Chamberlain, S, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, French, S, and Nazareth, D. Wed . "SU-F-SPS-09: Parallel MC Kernel Calculations for VMAT Plan Improvement". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955684.
@article{osti_22624425,
title = {SU-F-SPS-09: Parallel MC Kernel Calculations for VMAT Plan Improvement},
author = {Chamberlain, S and Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY and French, S and Nazareth, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Adding kernels (small perturbations in leaf positions) to the existing apertures of VMAT control points may improve plan quality. We investigate the calculation of kernel doses using a parallelized Monte Carlo (MC) method. Methods: A clinical prostate VMAT DICOM plan was exported from Eclipse. An arbitrary control point and leaf were chosen, and a modified MLC file was created, corresponding to the leaf position offset by 0.5cm. The additional dose produced by this 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm kernel was calculated using the DOSXYZnrc component module of BEAMnrc. A range of particle history counts were run (varying from 3 × 10{sup 6} to 3 × 10{sup 7}); each job was split among 1, 10, or 100 parallel processes. A particle count of 3 × 10{sup 6} was established as the lower range because it provided the minimal accuracy level. Results: As expected, an increase in particle counts linearly increases run time. For the lowest particle count, the time varied from 30 hours for the single-processor run, to 0.30 hours for the 100-processor run. Conclusion: Parallel processing of MC calculations in the EGS framework significantly decreases time necessary for each kernel dose calculation. Particle counts lower than 1 × 10{sup 6} have too large of an error to output accurate dose for a Monte Carlo kernel calculation. Future work will investigate increasing the number of parallel processes and optimizing run times for multiple kernel calculations.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955684},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To identify the robustness of different treatment techniques in respect to simulated linac errors on the dose distribution to the target volume and organs at risk for step and shoot IMRT (ssIMRT), VMAT and Autoplan generated VMAT nasopharynx plans. Methods: A nasopharynx patient dataset was retrospectively replanned with three different techniques: 7 beam ssIMRT, one arc manual generated VMAT and one arc automatically generated VMAT. Treatment simulated uncertainties: gantry, collimator, MLC field size and MLC shifts, were introduced into these plans at increments of 5,2,1,−1,−2 and −5 (degrees or mm) and recalculated in Pinnacle. The mean and maximum dosesmore » were calculated for the high dose PTV, parotids, brainstem, and spinal cord and then compared to the original baseline plan. Results: Simulated gantry angle errors have <1% effect on the PTV, ssIMRT is most sensitive. The small collimator errors (±1 and ±2 degrees) impacted the mean PTV dose by <2% for all techniques, however for the ±5 degree errors mean target varied by up to 7% for the Autoplan VMAT and 10% for the max dose to the spinal cord and brain stem, seen in all techniques. The simulated MLC shifts introduced the largest errors for the Autoplan VMAT, with the larger MLC modulation presumably being the cause. The most critical error observed, was the MLC field size error, where even small errors of 1 mm, caused significant changes to both the PTV and the OAR. The ssIMRT is the least sensitive and the Autoplan the most sensitive, with target errors of up to 20% over and under dosages observed. Conclusion: For a nasopharynx patient the plan robustness observed is highest for the ssIMRT plan and lowest for the Autoplan generated VMAT plan. This could be caused by the more complex MLC modulation seen for the VMAT plans. This project is supported by a grant from NSW Cancer Council.« less
  • Purpose: We investigate the effect of residual setup and motion errors in lung irradiation for VMAT, double scattering (DS) proton beams and spot scanning (IMPT) in a case study. Methods: The CT image and contour sets of a lung patient treated with 6 MV VMAT is re-planned with DS as well as IMPT subject to the same constraints; V20(lung), V10(lung) and V5(lung)< 15%, 20% and 25% respectively, V20(heart)<25% and V100%(PTV)≥95%. In addition, uncertainty analysis in the form of isocenter shifts (±1–3mm) was incorporated in the DVH calculations to assess the plan robustness. Results: Only the IMPT plan satisfies all themore » specified constraints. The 3D-conformal DS proton plan is able to achieve better sparing of the lung and heart dose compared to VMAT. For the lung, V20, V10 and V5 are 13%, 19% and 25% respectively for IMPT, 18%, 23% and 30% respectively for DS, and 20%, 30% and 42% respectively for VMAT. For heart: 0.6% for IMPT, 2.4% for DS and 30% for VMAT. When incorporating isocenter shifts in DVH calculations, the maximum changes in V20, V10 and V5 for lung are 14%, 21% and 28% respectively for IMPT. The corresponding max changes are19%, 24% and 32% respectively for DS, and 22%, 32% and 44% respectively for VMAT. The largest change occurs in the PTV coverage. For IMPT, V100%(PTV) varies between 88–96%, while V100%(PTV) for VMAT suffers a larger change compared to DS (Δ=5.5% vs 3.3%). Conclusion: While only IMPT satisfies the stringent dose-volume constraints for the lung irradiation, it is not as robust as the 3D conformal DS plan. DS also has better sparing in lung and heart compared to VMAT and similar PTV coverage. By including isocenter shifts in dose-volume calculations in treatment planning of lung, DS appears to be more robust than VMAT.« less
  • Purpose: To study the effect of total-variation based noise reduction algorithms to improve the image registration of low-dose CBCT for patient positioning in radiation therapy. Methods: In low-dose CBCT, the reconstructed image is degraded by excessive quantum noise. In this study, we developed a total-variation based noise reduction algorithm and studied the effect of the algorithm on noise reduction and image registration accuracy. To study the effect of noise reduction, we have calculated the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). To study the improvement of image registration, we performed image registration between volumetric CT and MV- CBCT images of different head-and-neck patientsmore » and calculated the mutual information (MI) and Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) as a similarity metric. The PSNR, MI and PCC were calculated for both the noisy and noise-reduced CBCT images. Results: The algorithms were shown to be effective in reducing the noise level and improving the MI and PCC for the low-dose CBCT images tested. For the different head-and-neck patients, a maximum improvement of PSNR of 10 dB with respect to the noisy image was calculated. The improvement of MI and PCC was 9% and 2% respectively. Conclusion: Total-variation based noise reduction algorithm was studied to improve the image registration between CT and low-dose CBCT. The algorithm had shown promising results in reducing the noise from low-dose CBCT images and improving the similarity metric in terms of MI and PCC.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the use of MobiusFX as a pre-treatment verification IMRT QA tool and compare it with a commercial 4D detector array for VMAT plan QA. Methods: 15 VMAT plan QA of different treatment sites were delivered and measured by traditional means with the 4D detector array ArcCheck (Sun Nuclear corporation) and at the same time measurement in linac treatment logs (Varian Dynalogs files) were analyzed from the same delivery with MobiusFX software (Mobius Medical Systems). VMAT plan QAs created in Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian) in a TrueBeam linac machine (Varian) were delivered and analyzed with the gammamore » analysis routine from SNPA software (Sun Nuclear corporation). Results: Comparable results in terms of the gamma analysis with 99.06% average gamma passing with 3%,3mm passing rate is observed in the comparison among MobiusFX, ArcCheck measurements, and the Treatment Planning System dose calculated. When going to a stricter criterion (1%,1mm) larger discrepancies are observed in different regions of the measurements with an average gamma of 66.24% between MobiusFX and ArcCheck. Conclusion: This work indicates the potential for using MobiusFX as a routine pre-treatment patient specific IMRT method for quality assurance purposes and its advantages as a phantom-less method which reduce the time for IMRT QA measurement. MobiusFX is capable of produce similar results of those by traditional methods used for patient specific pre-treatment verification VMAT QA. Even the gamma results comparing to the TPS are similar the analysis of both methods show that the errors being identified by each method are found in different regions. Traditional methods like ArcCheck are sensitive to setup errors and dose difference errors coming from the linac output. On the other hand linac log files analysis record different errors in the VMAT QA associated with the MLCs and gantry motion that by traditional methods cannot be detected.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the effect of multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) with leaf width of 1.25 mm on the plan quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer. Methods: A total of 20 patients with prostate cancer were retrospectively selected. Using a high definition MLC (HD MLC), primary and boost VMAT plans with two full arcs were generated for each patient (original plan). After that, by shifting patient CT images by 1.25 mm in the cranio-caudal direction between the 1st and the 2nd arc, we simulated fluences made with MLCs with leaf width of 1.25 mm. After shifting, primary andmore » boost plans were generated for each patient (shifted plan). A sum plan was generated by summation of the primary and boost plan for each patient. Dose-volumetric parameters were calculated and compared. Results: Both homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI) of the shifted plans were better than those of the original plans in primary plans (HI = 0.044 vs. 0.040 with p < 0.001 and CI = 1.056 vs. 1.044 with p = 0.006). Similarly, the shifted plans for boost target volume showed better homogeneity and conformity than did the original plans (HI = 0.042 vs. 0.037 with p = 0.006 and CI = 1.015 vs. 1.009 with p < 0.001). The total body volumes of the original plans irradiated by the prescription dose were larger than those of the shifted plans in sum plans (60.9 cc vs. 49.0 cc with p = 0.007). Conclusion: Use of extremely narrow MLCs could increase dose homogeneity and conformity of the target volume for prostate VMAT. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1C1A1A02036331).« less