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Title: SU-D-209-04: Raise Your Table: An Effective Way to Reduce Radiation Dose for Fluoroscopy

Abstract

Purpose: Patient table height plays an important role in estimating patient skin dose for interventional radiology (IR) procedures, because the patient’s skin location is dependent on the height of table. Variation in table height can lead to as much as 150% difference in skin dose for patient exams with similar air kerma meter readings. In our facility, IR procedural workflow was recently changed to require the IR physicians to confirm the patient table height before the procedure. The patient table height data was collected before and after this workflow change to validate the implementation of this practice. Methods: Table height information was analyzed for all procedures performed in three IR rooms, which were impacted by the workflow change, covering three months before and after the change (Aug 2015 to Jan 2016). In total, 442, 425, and 390 procedures were performed in these three rooms over this time period. There were no personnel or procedure assignment changes during the six-month period of time. Statistical analysis was performed for the average table height changes before and after the workflow change. Results: For the three IR rooms investigated, after the workflow change, the average table heights were increased by 1.43 cm (p=0.004084), 0.66more » cm (p=0.187089), and 1.59 cm (p=0.002193), providing a corresponding estimated skin dose savings of 6.76%, 2.94% and 7.62%, respectively. After the workflow change, the average table height was increased by 0.95 cm, 0.63 cm, 0.55 cm, 1.07 cm, 1.12 cm, and 3.36 cm for the six physicians who routinely work in these three rooms. Conclusion: Consistent improvement in table height settings has been observed for all IR rooms and all physicians following a simple workflow change. This change has led to significant patient dose savings by making physicians aware of the pre-procedure table position.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624409
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; FLUOROSCOPY; HEIGHT; KERMA; PATIENTS; PERSONNEL; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOMETERS; SKIN

Citation Formats

Huo, D, Hoerner, M, Toskich, B, and Rill, L. SU-D-209-04: Raise Your Table: An Effective Way to Reduce Radiation Dose for Fluoroscopy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955665.
Huo, D, Hoerner, M, Toskich, B, & Rill, L. SU-D-209-04: Raise Your Table: An Effective Way to Reduce Radiation Dose for Fluoroscopy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955665.
Huo, D, Hoerner, M, Toskich, B, and Rill, L. 2016. "SU-D-209-04: Raise Your Table: An Effective Way to Reduce Radiation Dose for Fluoroscopy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955665.
@article{osti_22624409,
title = {SU-D-209-04: Raise Your Table: An Effective Way to Reduce Radiation Dose for Fluoroscopy},
author = {Huo, D and Hoerner, M and Toskich, B and Rill, L},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Patient table height plays an important role in estimating patient skin dose for interventional radiology (IR) procedures, because the patient’s skin location is dependent on the height of table. Variation in table height can lead to as much as 150% difference in skin dose for patient exams with similar air kerma meter readings. In our facility, IR procedural workflow was recently changed to require the IR physicians to confirm the patient table height before the procedure. The patient table height data was collected before and after this workflow change to validate the implementation of this practice. Methods: Table height information was analyzed for all procedures performed in three IR rooms, which were impacted by the workflow change, covering three months before and after the change (Aug 2015 to Jan 2016). In total, 442, 425, and 390 procedures were performed in these three rooms over this time period. There were no personnel or procedure assignment changes during the six-month period of time. Statistical analysis was performed for the average table height changes before and after the workflow change. Results: For the three IR rooms investigated, after the workflow change, the average table heights were increased by 1.43 cm (p=0.004084), 0.66 cm (p=0.187089), and 1.59 cm (p=0.002193), providing a corresponding estimated skin dose savings of 6.76%, 2.94% and 7.62%, respectively. After the workflow change, the average table height was increased by 0.95 cm, 0.63 cm, 0.55 cm, 1.07 cm, 1.12 cm, and 3.36 cm for the six physicians who routinely work in these three rooms. Conclusion: Consistent improvement in table height settings has been observed for all IR rooms and all physicians following a simple workflow change. This change has led to significant patient dose savings by making physicians aware of the pre-procedure table position.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955665},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To determine contributions to skin dose due to scatter from the table and head holder used during fluoroscopy, and also to explore alternative design material to reduce the scatter dose. Methods: Measurements were made of the primary and scatter components of the xray beam exiting the patient table and a cylindrical head holder used on a Toshiba Infinix c-arm unit as a function of kVp for the various beam filters on the machine and for various field sizes. The primary component of the beam was measured in air with the object placed close to the x-ray tube with anmore » air gap between it and a 6 cc parallel-plate ionization chamber and with the beam collimated to a size just larger than the chamber. The primary plus scatter radiation components were measured with the object moved to a position in the beam next to the chamber for larger field sizes. Both sets of measurements were preformed while keeping the source-to-chamber distance fixed. The scatter fraction was estimated by taking the ratio of the difference between the two measurements and the reading that included both primary and scatter. Similar measurements were also made for a 2.3 cm thick Styrofoam block which could substitute for the patient support. Results: The measured scatter fractions indicate that the patient table as well as the head holder contributes an additional 10–16% to the patient entrance dose depending on field size. Forward scatter was reduced with the Styrofoam block so that the scatter fraction was about 4–5%. Conclusion: The results of this investigation demonstrated that scatter from the table and head holder used in clinical fluoroscopy contribute substantially to the skin dose. The lower contribution of scatter from Styrofoam suggests that there is an opportunity to redesign patient support accessories to reduce the skin dose. Partial support from NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation Equipment Grant.« less
  • One of us has previously described the need to derive the effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}) from monitoring badge exposures recorded for medical personnel wearing protective lead aprons during fluoroscopic or interventional x-ray procedures. The key points are repeated for background. We present a formula as a simple and practical way to monitor the effective dose when two film badges are worn. 8 refs., 2 tabs.
  • The objective of this study was to compare the effective radiation dose of perineural and epidural injections of the lumbar spine under computed tomography (CT) or fluoroscopic guidance with respect to dose-reduced protocols. We assessed the radiation dose with an Alderson Rando phantom at the lumbar segment L4/5 using 29 thermoluminescence dosimeters. Based on our clinical experience, 4-10 CT scans and 1-min fluoroscopy are appropriate. Effective doses were calculated for CT for a routine lumbar spine protocol and for maximum dose reduction; as well as for fluoroscopy in a continuous and a pulsed mode (3-15 pulses/s). Effective doses under CTmore » guidance were 1.51 mSv for 4 scans and 3.53 mSv for 10 scans using a standard protocol and 0.22 mSv and 0.43 mSv for the low-dose protocol. In continuous mode, the effective doses ranged from 0.43 to 1.25 mSv for 1-3 min of fluoroscopy. Using 1 min of pulsed fluoroscopy, the effective dose was less than 0.1 mSv for 3 pulses/s. A consequent low-dose CT protocol reduces the effective dose compared to a standard lumbar spine protocol by more than 85%. The latter dose might be expected when applying about 1 min of continuous fluoroscopy for guidance. A pulsed mode further reduces the effective dose of fluoroscopy by 80-90%.« less
  • Current lung cancer risk estimates after exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation such as X rays are based on studies of people exposed to such radiation at high dose rates, for example the atomic bomb survivors. Radiobiology and animal experiments suggest that risks from exposure at low to moderate dose rates, for example medical diagnostic procedures, may be overestimated by such risk models, but data for humans to examine this issue are limited. In this paper we report on lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 in a cohort of 64,172 Canadian tuberculosis patients, of whom 39% were exposed tomore » highly fractionated multiple chest fluoroscopies leading to a mean lung radiation dose of 1.02 Sv received at moderate dose rates. These data have been used to estimate the excess relative risk per sievert of lung cancer mortality, and this is compared directly to estimates derived from 75,991 atomic bomb survivors. Based on 1,178 lung cancer deaths in the fluoroscopy study, there was no evidence of any positive association between risk and dose, with the relative risk at 1 Sv being 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.94, 1.07), which contrasts with that based on the atomic bomb survivors, 1.60 (1.27, 1.99). The difference in effect between the two studies almost certainly did not arise by chance (P = 0.0001). This study provides strong support from data for humans for a substantial fractionation/dose-rate effect for low-linear energy transfer radiation and lung cancer risk. This implies that lung cancer risk from exposures to such radiation at present-day dose rates is likely to be lower than would be predicted by current radiation risk models based on studies of high-dose-rate exposures. 25 refs., 8 tabs.« less
  • The relationship between exposure to low-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation and subsequent breast cancer mortality risk is reported based on a further 7 years of follow-up in the Canadian fluoroscopy study. Amongst 31,917 women first treated for tuberculosis in a Canadian institution between 1930 and 1952, a total of 688 breast cancer deaths were observed between 1950 and 1987. There is a strong linear trend of increasing risk with increasing dose (P < 0.0001), with the excess relative risk per sievert decreasing with age at exposure (P = 0.0003). The excess relative risk is approximately constant between 5 and 39more » years after exposure, with a suggestion of a decrease between 40 and 57 years after exposure, though this could be a chance effect (P = 0.22). Combined analyses of the Canadian fluoroscopy data and the data for the atomic bomb survivors with respect to breast cancer mortality are also reported. In general the two studies are reasonably consistent, the only distinct difference being the much greater excess relative risk per sievert amongst women exposed to very high doses in the province of Nova Scotia (P, heterogeneity <0.0001). Based on the combined data sets of simple relative risk (RR) model for the effect of a dose of D sieverts at age A years is developed: RR(D) = 1.0 + 0.52D exp[-0.10(A - 15)]. This model fits the combined data well, and is used to predict excess lifetime risks of breast cancer mortality after radiation exposure from routine annual mammography. 20 refs., 12 tabs.« less