skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-D-206-07: CBCT Scatter Correction Based On Rotating Collimator

Abstract

Purpose: Scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has obvious effect on the removal of image noise, the cup artifact and the increase of image contrast. Several methods using a beam blocker for the estimation and subtraction of scatter have been proposed. However, the inconvenience of mechanics and propensity to residual artifacts limited the further evolution of basic and clinical research. Here, we propose a rotating collimator-based approach, in conjunction with reconstruction based on a discrete Radon transform and Tchebichef moments algorithm, to correct scatter-induced artifacts. Methods: A rotating-collimator, comprising round tungsten alloy strips, was mounted on a linear actuator. The rotating-collimator is divided into 6 portions equally. The round strips space is evenly spaced on each portion but staggered between different portions. A step motor connected to the rotating collimator drove the blocker to around x-ray source during the CBCT acquisition. The CBCT reconstruction based on a discrete Radon transform and Tchebichef moments algorithm is performed. Experimental studies using water phantom and Catphan504 were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Results: The proposed algorithm was tested on both the Monte Carlo simulation and actual experiments with the Catphan504 phantom. From the simulation result, the meanmore » square error of the reconstruction error decreases from 16% to 1.18%, the cupping (τcup) from 14.005% to 0.66%, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio increase from 16.9594 to 31.45. From the actual experiments, the induced visual artifacts are significantly reduced. Conclusion: We conducted an experiment on CBCT imaging system with a rotating collimator to develop and optimize x-ray scatter control and reduction technique. The proposed method is attractive in applications where a high CBCT image quality is critical, for example, dose calculation in adaptive radiation therapy. We want to thank Dr. Lei Xing and Dr. Yong Yang in the Stanford University School of Medicine for this work. This work was jointly supported by NSFC (61471226), Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of Shandong Province (JQ201516), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015T80739, 2014M551949).« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong (China)
  2. Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, China, Jinan, Shandong (China)
  3. Zhang Jiagang STFK Medical Device Co, Zhangjiangkang, Suzhou (China)
  4. Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong provice (China)
  5. Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Image Processing Te, Ji’nan, Shandong province (China)
  6. School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624405
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ALGORITHMS; BEAMS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COLLIMATORS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; CORRECTIONS; ERRORS; IMAGES; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHANTOMS; RADIOTHERAPY; RADON; SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO; TUNGSTEN; TUNGSTEN ALLOYS; X-RAY SOURCES

Citation Formats

Yu, G, Feng, Z, Yin, Y, Qiang, L, Li, B, Huang, P, and Li, D. SU-D-206-07: CBCT Scatter Correction Based On Rotating Collimator. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955661.
Yu, G, Feng, Z, Yin, Y, Qiang, L, Li, B, Huang, P, & Li, D. SU-D-206-07: CBCT Scatter Correction Based On Rotating Collimator. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955661.
Yu, G, Feng, Z, Yin, Y, Qiang, L, Li, B, Huang, P, and Li, D. 2016. "SU-D-206-07: CBCT Scatter Correction Based On Rotating Collimator". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955661.
@article{osti_22624405,
title = {SU-D-206-07: CBCT Scatter Correction Based On Rotating Collimator},
author = {Yu, G and Feng, Z and Yin, Y and Qiang, L and Li, B and Huang, P and Li, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has obvious effect on the removal of image noise, the cup artifact and the increase of image contrast. Several methods using a beam blocker for the estimation and subtraction of scatter have been proposed. However, the inconvenience of mechanics and propensity to residual artifacts limited the further evolution of basic and clinical research. Here, we propose a rotating collimator-based approach, in conjunction with reconstruction based on a discrete Radon transform and Tchebichef moments algorithm, to correct scatter-induced artifacts. Methods: A rotating-collimator, comprising round tungsten alloy strips, was mounted on a linear actuator. The rotating-collimator is divided into 6 portions equally. The round strips space is evenly spaced on each portion but staggered between different portions. A step motor connected to the rotating collimator drove the blocker to around x-ray source during the CBCT acquisition. The CBCT reconstruction based on a discrete Radon transform and Tchebichef moments algorithm is performed. Experimental studies using water phantom and Catphan504 were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Results: The proposed algorithm was tested on both the Monte Carlo simulation and actual experiments with the Catphan504 phantom. From the simulation result, the mean square error of the reconstruction error decreases from 16% to 1.18%, the cupping (τcup) from 14.005% to 0.66%, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio increase from 16.9594 to 31.45. From the actual experiments, the induced visual artifacts are significantly reduced. Conclusion: We conducted an experiment on CBCT imaging system with a rotating collimator to develop and optimize x-ray scatter control and reduction technique. The proposed method is attractive in applications where a high CBCT image quality is critical, for example, dose calculation in adaptive radiation therapy. We want to thank Dr. Lei Xing and Dr. Yong Yang in the Stanford University School of Medicine for this work. This work was jointly supported by NSFC (61471226), Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of Shandong Province (JQ201516), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015T80739, 2014M551949).},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955661},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: X-ray scatter is a significant impediment to image quality improvements in cone-beam CT (CBCT). The authors present and demonstrate a novel scatter correction algorithm using a scatter estimation method that simultaneously combines multiple Monte Carlo (MC) CBCT simulations through the use of a concurrently evaluated fitting function, referred to as concurrent MC fitting (CMCF). Methods: The CMCF method uses concurrently run MC CBCT scatter projection simulations that are a subset of the projection angles used in the projection set, P, to be corrected. The scattered photons reaching the detector in each MC simulation are simultaneously aggregated by an algorithmmore » which computes the scatter detector response, S{sub MC}. S{sub MC} is fit to a function, S{sub F}, and if the fit of S{sub F} is within a specified goodness of fit (GOF), the simulations are terminated. The fit, S{sub F}, is then used to interpolate the scatter distribution over all pixel locations for every projection angle in the set P. The CMCF algorithm was tested using a frequency limited sum of sines and cosines as the fitting function on both simulated and measured data. The simulated data consisted of an anthropomorphic head and a pelvis phantom created from CT data, simulated with and without the use of a compensator. The measured data were a pelvis scan of a phantom and patient taken on an Elekta Synergy platform. The simulated data were used to evaluate various GOF metrics as well as determine a suitable fitness value. The simulated data were also used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality improvements provided by the CMCF method. A qualitative analysis was performed on the measured data by comparing the CMCF scatter corrected reconstruction to the original uncorrected and corrected by a constant scatter correction reconstruction, as well as a reconstruction created using a set of projections taken with a small cone angle. Results: Pearson’s correlation, r, proved to be a suitable GOF metric with strong correlation with the actual error of the scatter fit, S{sub F}. Fitting the scatter distribution to a limited sum of sine and cosine functions using a low-pass filtered fast Fourier transform provided a computationally efficient and accurate fit. The CMCF algorithm reduces the number of photon histories required by over four orders of magnitude. The simulated experiments showed that using a compensator reduced the computational time by a factor between 1.5 and 1.75. The scatter estimates for the simulated and measured data were computed between 35–93 s and 114–122 s, respectively, using 16 Intel Xeon cores (3.0 GHz). The CMCF scatter correction improved the contrast-to-noise ratio by 10%–50% and reduced the reconstruction error to under 3% for the simulated phantoms. Conclusions: The novel CMCF algorithm significantly reduces the computation time required to estimate the scatter distribution by reducing the statistical noise in the MC scatter estimate and limiting the number of projection angles that must be simulated. Using the scatter estimate provided by the CMCF algorithm to correct both simulated and real projection data showed improved reconstruction image quality.« less
  • Purpose: To estimate and remove the scatter contamination in the acquired projection of cone-beam CT (CBCT), to suppress the shading artifacts and improve the image quality without prior information. Methods: The uncorrected CBCT images containing shading artifacts are reconstructed by applying the standard FDK algorithm on CBCT raw projections. The uncorrected image is then segmented to generate an initial template image. To estimate scatter signal, the differences are calculated by subtracting the simulated projections of the template image from the raw projections. Since scatter signals are dominantly continuous and low-frequency in the projection domain, they are estimated by low-pass filteringmore » the difference signals and subtracted from the raw CBCT projections to achieve the scatter correction. Finally, the corrected CBCT image is reconstructed from the corrected projection data. Since an accurate template image is not readily segmented from the uncorrected CBCT image, the proposed scheme is iterated until the produced template is not altered. Results: The proposed scheme is evaluated on the Catphan©600 phantom data and CBCT images acquired from a pelvis patient. The result shows that shading artifacts have been effectively suppressed by the proposed method. Using multi-detector CT (MDCT) images as reference, quantitative analysis is operated to measure the quality of corrected images. Compared to images without correction, the method proposed reduces the overall CT number error from over 200 HU to be less than 50 HU and can increase the spatial uniformity. Conclusion: An iterative strategy without relying on the prior information is proposed in this work to remove the shading artifacts due to scatter contamination in the projection domain. The method is evaluated in phantom and patient studies and the result shows that the image quality is remarkably improved. The proposed method is efficient and practical to address the poor image quality issue of CBCT images. This work is supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LR16F010001), National High-tech R&D Program for Young Scientists by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2015AA020917).« less
  • Purpose: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is on increasing demand for high-performance image-guided radiotherapy such as online tumor delineation and dose calculation. However, the current CBCT imaging has severe scatter artifacts and its current clinical application is therefore limited to patient setup based mainly on the bony structures. This study’s purpose is to develop a CBCT artifact correction method. Methods: The proposed scatter correction method utilizes the planning CT to improve CBCT image quality. First, an image registration is used to match the planning CT with the CBCT to reduce the geometry difference between the two images. Then, themore » planning CT-based prior information is entered into the Bayesian deconvolution framework to iteratively perform a scatter artifact correction for the CBCT mages. This technique was evaluated using Catphan phantoms with multiple inserts. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), and the image spatial nonuniformity (ISN) in selected volume of interests (VOIs) were calculated to assess the proposed correction method. Results: Post scatter correction, the CNR increased by a factor of 1.96, 3.22, 3.20, 3.46, 3.44, 1.97 and 1.65, and the SNR increased by a factor 1.05, 2.09, 1.71, 3.95, 2.52, 1.54 and 1.84 for the Air, PMP, LDPE, Polystryrene, Acrylic, Delrin and Teflon inserts, respectively. The ISN decreased from 21.1% to 4.7% in the corrected images. All values of CNR, SNR and ISN in the corrected CBCT image were much closer to those in the planning CT images. The results demonstrated that the proposed method reduces the relevant artifacts and recovers CT numbers. Conclusion: We have developed a novel CBCT artifact correction method based on CT image, and demonstrated that the proposed CT-guided correction method could significantly reduce scatter artifacts and improve the image quality. This method has great potential to correct CBCT images allowing its use in adaptive radiotherapy.« less
  • The problem of Compton scatter is a major source of error for SPECT emission imaging. With the scatter compensation techniques which have been introduced in the literature, the effects of phantom variations with size, shape, and density on the scatter correction methods have not been fully investigated. Here, results from a Monte Carlo investigation are presented for the application of the dual photopeak window (DPW) scatter correction method to phantom geometries of varying shapes, sizes, and densities as well as to several collimators. A Monte Carlo program was used to simulate a Tc-99m point source at locations of 0.5 cmmore » from the phantom surface, at the center, 0.5 cm from the bottom, and 4/5 the distance lateral from the center for each case of variation. DPW was then used to correct for scatter using a regression relation determined for a 30.5 cm [times] 23.0 cm water-filled elliptical tub phantom using an ultrahigh resolution collimator. The application of DPW in all cases account for an approximate twelve-fold reduction in scatter fraction with an excellent agreement between the true scatter and scatter estimate distributions both at the tails and under the peak of the point spread functions.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate whether deconvolution methods can improve the scatter estimation under different blurring and noise conditions for blocker-based scatter correction methods for cone-beam X-ray computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: An “ideal” projection image with scatter was first simulated for blocker-based CBCT data acquisition by assuming no blurring effect and no noise. The ideal image was then convolved with long-tail point spread functions (PSF) with different widths to mimic the blurring effect from the finite focal spot and detector response. Different levels of noise were also added. Three deconvolution Methods: 1) inverse filtering; 2) Wiener; and 3) Richardson-Lucy, were used tomore » recover the scatter signal in the blocked region. The root mean square error (RMSE) of estimated scatter serves as a quantitative measure for the performance of different methods under different blurring and noise conditions. Results: Due to the blurring effect, the scatter signal in the blocked region is contaminated by the primary signal in the unblocked region. The direct use of the signal in the blocked region to estimate scatter (“direct method”) leads to large RMSE values, which increase with the increased width of PSF and increased noise. The inverse filtering is very sensitive to noise and practically useless. The Wiener and Richardson-Lucy deconvolution methods significantly improve scatter estimation compared to the direct method. For a typical medium PSF and medium noise condition, both methods (∼20 RMSE) can achieve 4-fold improvement over the direct method (∼80 RMSE). The Wiener method deals better with large noise and Richardson-Lucy works better on wide PSF. Conclusion: We investigated several deconvolution methods to recover the scatter signal in the blocked region for blocker-based scatter correction for CBCT. Our simulation results demonstrate that Wiener and Richardson-Lucy deconvolution can significantly improve the scatter estimation compared to the direct method.« less