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Title: SU-D-BRC-06: Experimental and Monte Carlo Studies of Fluence Corrections for Graphite Calorimetry in Proton Therapy

Abstract

Purpose: For photon and electron beams, the standard device used to measure absorbed dose is a calorimeter. Standards laboratories are currently working on the establishment of graphite calorimeters as a primary standard for proton beams. To provide a practical method for graphite calorimetry, it is necessary to convert dose to graphite to dose to water, requiring knowledge of the water-to-graphite stopping-power ratio and the fluence correction factor. This study aims to present a novel method to determine fluence corrections experimentally, and to apply this methodology to low- and high-energy proton beams. Methods: Measurements were performed in 60 MeV and 180 MeV proton beams. Experimental information was obtained from depth-dose ionization chamber measurements performed in a water phantom. This was repeated with different thicknesses of graphite plates in front of the water phantom. One distinct advantage of this method is that only ionization chamber perturbation factors for water are required. Fluence corrections were also obtained through Monte Carlo simulations for comparison with the experiments. Results: The experimental observations made in this study confirm the Monte Carlo results. Overall, fluence corrections between water and graphite increased with depth, with a maximum correction of 1% for the low-energy beam and 4% for themore » high-energy beam. The results also showed that a fraction of the secondary particles generated in proton therapy beams do not have enough energy to cross the ionization chamber wall; thus, their contribution is not accounted for in the measured fluence corrections. This effect shows up as a discrepancy in fluence corrections of 1% and has been confirmed by simulations of the experimental setup. Conclusion: Fluence corrections derived by experiment do not account for low-energy secondary particles that are stopped in the ion chamber wall. This work will contribute to a practical graphite calorimetry technique for determining absolute dose to water in proton beams.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [1];  [3];  [7]
  1. University College London, London (United Kingdom)
  2. (United Kingdom)
  3. National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)
  4. University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada)
  5. National Eye Proton therapy Centre, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Wirral (United Kingdom)
  6. Proton Therapy Center, Prague (Czech Republic)
  7. (Austria)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624377
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
07 ISOTOPES AND RADIATION SOURCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ABSORBED RADIATION DOSES; CALORIMETERS; CALORIMETRY; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; CORRECTIONS; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; ELECTRON BEAMS; GRAPHITE; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHANTOMS; PROTON BEAMS; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Lourenco, A, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Thomas, R, Bouchard, H, Kacperek, A, Vondracek, V, Royle, G, Palmans, H, and EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt. SU-D-BRC-06: Experimental and Monte Carlo Studies of Fluence Corrections for Graphite Calorimetry in Proton Therapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955625.
Lourenco, A, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Thomas, R, Bouchard, H, Kacperek, A, Vondracek, V, Royle, G, Palmans, H, & EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt. SU-D-BRC-06: Experimental and Monte Carlo Studies of Fluence Corrections for Graphite Calorimetry in Proton Therapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955625.
Lourenco, A, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Thomas, R, Bouchard, H, Kacperek, A, Vondracek, V, Royle, G, Palmans, H, and EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt. 2016. "SU-D-BRC-06: Experimental and Monte Carlo Studies of Fluence Corrections for Graphite Calorimetry in Proton Therapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955625.
@article{osti_22624377,
title = {SU-D-BRC-06: Experimental and Monte Carlo Studies of Fluence Corrections for Graphite Calorimetry in Proton Therapy},
author = {Lourenco, A and National Physical Laboratory, Teddington and Thomas, R and Bouchard, H and Kacperek, A and Vondracek, V and Royle, G and Palmans, H and EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt},
abstractNote = {Purpose: For photon and electron beams, the standard device used to measure absorbed dose is a calorimeter. Standards laboratories are currently working on the establishment of graphite calorimeters as a primary standard for proton beams. To provide a practical method for graphite calorimetry, it is necessary to convert dose to graphite to dose to water, requiring knowledge of the water-to-graphite stopping-power ratio and the fluence correction factor. This study aims to present a novel method to determine fluence corrections experimentally, and to apply this methodology to low- and high-energy proton beams. Methods: Measurements were performed in 60 MeV and 180 MeV proton beams. Experimental information was obtained from depth-dose ionization chamber measurements performed in a water phantom. This was repeated with different thicknesses of graphite plates in front of the water phantom. One distinct advantage of this method is that only ionization chamber perturbation factors for water are required. Fluence corrections were also obtained through Monte Carlo simulations for comparison with the experiments. Results: The experimental observations made in this study confirm the Monte Carlo results. Overall, fluence corrections between water and graphite increased with depth, with a maximum correction of 1% for the low-energy beam and 4% for the high-energy beam. The results also showed that a fraction of the secondary particles generated in proton therapy beams do not have enough energy to cross the ionization chamber wall; thus, their contribution is not accounted for in the measured fluence corrections. This effect shows up as a discrepancy in fluence corrections of 1% and has been confirmed by simulations of the experimental setup. Conclusion: Fluence corrections derived by experiment do not account for low-energy secondary particles that are stopped in the ion chamber wall. This work will contribute to a practical graphite calorimetry technique for determining absolute dose to water in proton beams.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955625},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation) is a particle simulation code recently developed with the specific aim of making Monte Carlo simulations user-friendly for research and clinical physicists in the particle therapy community. The authors present a thorough and extensive experimental validation of Monte Carlo simulations performed with TOPAS in a variety of setups relevant for proton therapy applications. The set of validation measurements performed in this work represents an overall end-to-end testing strategy recommended for all clinical centers planning to rely on TOPAS for quality assurance or patient dose calculation and, more generally, for all the institutions using passive-scatteringmore » proton therapy systems. Methods: The authors systematically compared TOPAS simulations with measurements that are performed routinely within the quality assurance (QA) program in our institution as well as experiments specifically designed for this validation study. First, the authors compared TOPAS simulations with measurements of depth-dose curves for spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) fields. Second, absolute dosimetry simulations were benchmarked against measured machine output factors (OFs). Third, the authors simulated and measured 2D dose profiles and analyzed the differences in terms of field flatness and symmetry and usable field size. Fourth, the authors designed a simple experiment using a half-beam shifter to assess the effects of multiple Coulomb scattering, beam divergence, and inverse square attenuation on lateral and longitudinal dose profiles measured and simulated in a water phantom. Fifth, TOPAS’ capabilities to simulate time dependent beam delivery was benchmarked against dose rate functions (i.e., dose per unit time vs time) measured at different depths inside an SOBP field. Sixth, simulations of the charge deposited by protons fully stopping in two different types of multilayer Faraday cups (MLFCs) were compared with measurements to benchmark the nuclear interaction models used in the simulations. Results: SOBPs’ range and modulation width were reproduced, on average, with an accuracy of +1, −2 and ±3 mm, respectively. OF simulations reproduced measured data within ±3%. Simulated 2D dose-profiles show field flatness and average field radius within ±3% of measured profiles. The field symmetry resulted, on average in ±3% agreement with commissioned profiles. TOPAS accuracy in reproducing measured dose profiles downstream the half beam shifter is better than 2%. Dose rate function simulation reproduced the measurements within ∼2% showing that the four-dimensional modeling of the passively modulation system was implement correctly and millimeter accuracy can be achieved in reproducing measured data. For MLFCs simulations, 2% agreement was found between TOPAS and both sets of experimental measurements. The overall results show that TOPAS simulations are within the clinical accepted tolerances for all QA measurements performed at our institution. Conclusions: Our Monte Carlo simulations reproduced accurately the experimental data acquired through all the measurements performed in this study. Thus, TOPAS can reliably be applied to quality assurance for proton therapy and also as an input for commissioning of commercial treatment planning systems. This work also provides the basis for routine clinical dose calculations in patients for all passive scattering proton therapy centers using TOPAS.« less
  • Purpose: TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation) is a particle simulation code recently developed with the specific aim of making Monte Carlo simulations user-friendly for research and clinical physicists in the particle therapy community. The authors present a thorough and extensive experimental validation of Monte Carlo simulations performed with TOPAS in a variety of setups relevant for proton therapy applications. The set of validation measurements performed in this work represents an overall end-to-end testing strategy recommended for all clinical centers planning to rely on TOPAS for quality assurance or patient dose calculation and, more generally, for all the institutions using passive-scatteringmore » proton therapy systems. Methods: The authors systematically compared TOPAS simulations with measurements that are performed routinely within the quality assurance (QA) program in our institution as well as experiments specifically designed for this validation study. First, the authors compared TOPAS simulations with measurements of depth-dose curves for spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) fields. Second, absolute dosimetry simulations were benchmarked against measured machine output factors (OFs). Third, the authors simulated and measured 2D dose profiles and analyzed the differences in terms of field flatness and symmetry and usable field size. Fourth, the authors designed a simple experiment using a half-beam shifter to assess the effects of multiple Coulomb scattering, beam divergence, and inverse square attenuation on lateral and longitudinal dose profiles measured and simulated in a water phantom. Fifth, TOPAS’ capabilities to simulate time dependent beam delivery was benchmarked against dose rate functions (i.e., dose per unit time vs time) measured at different depths inside an SOBP field. Sixth, simulations of the charge deposited by protons fully stopping in two different types of multilayer Faraday cups (MLFCs) were compared with measurements to benchmark the nuclear interaction models used in the simulations. Results: SOBPs’ range and modulation width were reproduced, on average, with an accuracy of +1, −2 and ±3 mm, respectively. OF simulations reproduced measured data within ±3%. Simulated 2D dose-profiles show field flatness and average field radius within ±3% of measured profiles. The field symmetry resulted, on average in ±3% agreement with commissioned profiles. TOPAS accuracy in reproducing measured dose profiles downstream the half beam shifter is better than 2%. Dose rate function simulation reproduced the measurements within ∼2% showing that the four-dimensional modeling of the passively modulation system was implement correctly and millimeter accuracy can be achieved in reproducing measured data. For MLFCs simulations, 2% agreement was found between TOPAS and both sets of experimental measurements. The overall results show that TOPAS simulations are within the clinical accepted tolerances for all QA measurements performed at our institution. Conclusions: Our Monte Carlo simulations reproduced accurately the experimental data acquired through all the measurements performed in this study. Thus, TOPAS can reliably be applied to quality assurance for proton therapy and also as an input for commissioning of commercial treatment planning systems. This work also provides the basis for routine clinical dose calculations in patients for all passive scattering proton therapy centers using TOPAS.« less
  • Purpose: Eclipse AcurosPT 13.7, the first commercial Monte Carlo pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy treatment planning system (TPS), was experimentally validated for an IBA dedicated PBS nozzle in the CIRS 002LFC thoracic phantom. Methods: A two-stage procedure involving the use of TOPAS 1.3 simulations was performed. First, Geant4-based TOPAS simulations in this phantom were experimentally validated for single and multi-spot profiles at several depths for 100, 115, 150, 180, 210 and 225 MeV proton beams, using the combination of a Lynx scintillation detector and a MatriXXPT ionization chamber array. Second, benchmark calculations were performed with both AcurosPT and TOPASmore » in a phantom identical to the CIRS 002LFC, with the exception that the CIRS bone/mediastinum/lung tissues were replaced with similar tissues that are predefined in AcurosPT (a limitation of this system which necessitates the two stage procedure). Results: Spot sigmas measured in tissue were in agreement within 0.2 mm of TOPAS simulation for all six energies, while AcurosPT was consistently found to have larger spot sigma (<0.7 mm) than TOPAS. Using absolute dose calibration by MatriXXPT, the agreements between profiles measurements and TOPAS simulation, and calculation benchmarks are over 97% except near the end of range using 2 mm/2% gamma criteria. Overdosing and underdosing were observed at the low and high density side of tissue interfaces, respectively, and these increased with increasing depth and decreasing energy. Near the mediastinum/lung interface, the magnitude can exceed 5 mm/10%. Furthermore, we observed >5% quenching effect in the conversion of Lynx measurements to dose. Conclusion: We recommend the use of an ionization chamber array in combination with the scintillation detector to measure absolute dose and relative PBS spot characteristics. We also recommend the use of an independent Monte Carlo calculation benchmark for the commissioning of a commercial TPS. Partially supported by Varian Medical System under the master agreement between Varian and University of pennsylvania.« less
  • Purpose: Eclipse proton Monte Carlo AcurosPT 13.7 was commissioned and experimentally validated for an IBA dedicated PBS nozzle in water. Topas 1.3 was used to isolate the cause of differences in output and penumbra between simulation and experiment. Methods: The spot profiles were measured in air at five locations using Lynx. PTW-34070 Bragg peak chamber (Freiburg, Germany) was used to collect the relative integral Bragg peak for 15 proton energies from 100 MeV to 225 MeV. The phase space parameters (σx, σθ, ρxθ) number of protons per MU, energy spread and calculated mean energy provided by AcurosPT were identically implementedmore » into Topas. The absolute dose, profiles and field size factors measured using ionization chamber arrays were compared with both AcurosPT and Topas. Results: The beam spot size, σx, and the angular spread, σθ, in air were both energy-dependent: in particular, the spot size in air at isocentre ranged from 2.8 to 5.3 mm, and the angular spread ranged from 2.7 mrad to 6 mrad. The number of protons per MU increased from ∼9E7 at 100 MeV to ∼1.5E8 at 225 MeV. Both AcurosPT and TOPAS agree with experiment within 2 mm penumbra difference or 3% dose difference for scenarios including central axis depth dose and profiles at two depths in multi-spot square fields, from 40 to 200 mm, for all the investigated single-energy and multi-energy beams, indicating clinically acceptable source model and radiation transport algorithm in water. Conclusion: By comparing measured data and TOPAS simulation using the same source model, the AcurosPT 13.7 was validated in water within 2 mm penumbra difference or 3% dose difference. Benchmarks versus an independent Monte Carlo code are recommended to study the agreement in output, filed size factors and penumbra differences. This project is partially supported by the Varian grant under the master agreement between University of Pennsylvania and Varian.« less
  • Purpose: For proton radiation therapy, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) methods are recognized as the gold-standard dose calculation approach. Although previously unrealistic due to limitations in available computing power, GPU-based applications allow MCS of proton treatment fields to be performed in routine clinical use, on time scales comparable to that of conventional pencil-beam algorithms. This study focuses on validating the results of our GPU-based code (gPMC) versus fully implemented proton therapy based MCS code (TOPAS) for clinical patient cases. Methods: Two treatment sites were selected to provide clinical cases for this study: head-and-neck cases due to anatomical geometrical complexity (air cavitiesmore » and density heterogeneities), making dose calculation very challenging, and prostate cases due to higher proton energies used and close proximity of the treatment target to sensitive organs at risk. Both gPMC and TOPAS methods were used to calculate 3-dimensional dose distributions for all patients in this study. Comparisons were performed based on target coverage indices (mean dose, V90 and D90) and gamma index distributions for 2% of the prescription dose and 2mm. Results: For seven out of eight studied cases, mean target dose, V90 and D90 differed less than 2% between TOPAS and gPMC dose distributions. Gamma index analysis for all prostate patients resulted in passing rate of more than 99% of voxels in the target. Four out of five head-neck-cases showed passing rate of gamma index for the target of more than 99%, the fifth having a gamma index passing rate of 93%. Conclusion: Our current work showed excellent agreement between our GPU-based MCS code and fully implemented proton therapy based MC code for a group of dosimetrically challenging patient cases.« less