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Title: SU-C-207A-03: Development of Proton CT Imaging System Using Thick Scintillator and CCD Camera

Abstract

Purpose: In the treatment planning of proton therapy, Water Equivalent Length (WEL), which is the parameter for the calculation of dose and the range of proton, is derived by X-ray CT (xCT) image and xCT-WEL conversion. However, about a few percent error in the accuracy of proton range calculation through this conversion has been reported. The purpose of this study is to construct a proton CT (pCT) imaging system for an evaluation of the error. Methods: The pCT imaging system was constructed with a thick scintillator and a cooled CCD camera, which acquires the two-dimensional image of integrated value of the scintillation light toward the beam direction. The pCT image is reconstructed by FBP method using a correction between the light intensity and residual range of proton beam. An experiment for the demonstration of this system was performed with 70-MeV proton beam provided by NIRS cyclotron. The pCT image of several objects reconstructed from the experimental data was evaluated quantitatively. Results: Three-dimensional pCT images of several objects were reconstructed experimentally. A finestructure of approximately 1 mm was clearly observed. The position resolution of pCT image was almost the same as that of xCT image. And the error of proton CTmore » pixel value was up to 4%. The deterioration of image quality was caused mainly by the effect of multiple Coulomb scattering. Conclusion: We designed and constructed the pCT imaging system using a thick scintillator and a CCD camera. And the system was evaluated with the experiment by use of 70-MeV proton beam. Three-dimensional pCT images of several objects were acquired by the system. This work was supported by JST SENTAN Grant Number 13A1101 and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H04912.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
  2. Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)
  3. Rikkyo University, Tokyo (Japan)
  4. Tokai University, Isehara (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624338
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CAMERAS; CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICES; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; CORRECTIONS; COULOMB SCATTERING; ERRORS; EVALUATION; NIRS CYCLOTRON; PLANNING; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SCINTILLATIONS; FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS

Citation Formats

Tanaka, S, Uesaka, M, Nishio, T, Tsuneda, M, Matsushita, K, and Kabuki, S. SU-C-207A-03: Development of Proton CT Imaging System Using Thick Scintillator and CCD Camera. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955578.
Tanaka, S, Uesaka, M, Nishio, T, Tsuneda, M, Matsushita, K, & Kabuki, S. SU-C-207A-03: Development of Proton CT Imaging System Using Thick Scintillator and CCD Camera. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955578.
Tanaka, S, Uesaka, M, Nishio, T, Tsuneda, M, Matsushita, K, and Kabuki, S. Wed . "SU-C-207A-03: Development of Proton CT Imaging System Using Thick Scintillator and CCD Camera". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955578.
@article{osti_22624338,
title = {SU-C-207A-03: Development of Proton CT Imaging System Using Thick Scintillator and CCD Camera},
author = {Tanaka, S and Uesaka, M and Nishio, T and Tsuneda, M and Matsushita, K and Kabuki, S},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In the treatment planning of proton therapy, Water Equivalent Length (WEL), which is the parameter for the calculation of dose and the range of proton, is derived by X-ray CT (xCT) image and xCT-WEL conversion. However, about a few percent error in the accuracy of proton range calculation through this conversion has been reported. The purpose of this study is to construct a proton CT (pCT) imaging system for an evaluation of the error. Methods: The pCT imaging system was constructed with a thick scintillator and a cooled CCD camera, which acquires the two-dimensional image of integrated value of the scintillation light toward the beam direction. The pCT image is reconstructed by FBP method using a correction between the light intensity and residual range of proton beam. An experiment for the demonstration of this system was performed with 70-MeV proton beam provided by NIRS cyclotron. The pCT image of several objects reconstructed from the experimental data was evaluated quantitatively. Results: Three-dimensional pCT images of several objects were reconstructed experimentally. A finestructure of approximately 1 mm was clearly observed. The position resolution of pCT image was almost the same as that of xCT image. And the error of proton CT pixel value was up to 4%. The deterioration of image quality was caused mainly by the effect of multiple Coulomb scattering. Conclusion: We designed and constructed the pCT imaging system using a thick scintillator and a CCD camera. And the system was evaluated with the experiment by use of 70-MeV proton beam. Three-dimensional pCT images of several objects were acquired by the system. This work was supported by JST SENTAN Grant Number 13A1101 and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H04912.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955578},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To investigate the time structure of the range, we have verified the rang shift due to the betatron tune shift with several synchrotron parameters. Methods: A cylindrical plastic scintillator block and a CCD camera were installed on the black box. Using image processing, the range was determined the 80 percent of distal dose of the depth light distribution. The root mean square error of the range measurement using the scintillator and CCD system is about 0.2 mm. Range measurement was performed at interval of 170 msec. The chromaticity of the synchrotron was changed in the range of plus ormore » minus 1% from reference chromaticity in this study. All of the particle inside the synchrotron ring were extracted with the output beam intensity 1.8×10{sup 8} and 5.0×10{sub 7} particle per sec. Results: The time strictures of the range were changed by changing of the chromaticity. The reproducibility of the measurement was sufficient to observe the time structures of the range. The range shift was depending on the number of the residual particle inside the synchrotron ring. Conclusion: In slow beam extraction for scanned carbon-ion therapy, the range shift is undesirable because it causes the dose uncertainty in the target. We introduced the time-resolved range measurement using scintillator and CCD system. The scintillator and CCD system have enabled to verify the range shift with sufficient spatial resolution and reproducibility.« less
  • Purpose: To successfully implement and operate a photon counting scheme on an electron multiplying charged-coupled device (EMCCD) based micro-CT system. Methods: We built an EMCCD based micro-CT system and implemented a photon counting scheme. EMCCD detectors use avalanche transfer registries to multiply the input signal far above the readout noise floor. Due to intrinsic differences in the pixel array, using a global threshold for photon counting is not optimal. To address this shortcoming, we generated a threshold array based on sixty dark fields (no x-ray exposure). We calculated an average matrix and a variance matrix of the dark field sequence.more » The average matrix was used for the offset correction while the variance matrix was used to set individual pixel thresholds for the photon counting scheme. Three hundred photon counting frames were added for each projection and 360 projections were acquired for each object. The system was used to scan various objects followed by reconstruction using an FDK algorithm. Results: Examination of the projection images and reconstructed slices of the objects indicated clear interior detail free of beam hardening artifacts. This suggests successful implementation of the photon counting scheme on our EMCCD based micro-CT system. Conclusion: This work indicates that it is possible to implement and operate a photon counting scheme on an EMCCD based micro-CT system, suggesting that these devices might be able to operate at very low x-ray exposures in a photon counting mode. Such devices could have future implications in clinical CT protocols. NIH Grant R01EB002873; Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less
  • Purpose: Multiple Coulomb scattering is the largest contributor to blurring in proton imaging. Here we tested a maximum likelihood least squares estimator (MLLSE) to improve the spatial resolution of proton radiography (pRad) and proton computed tomography (pCT). Methods: The object is discretized into voxels and the average relative stopping power through voxel columns defined from the source to the detector pixels is optimized such that it maximizes the likelihood of the proton energy loss. The length spent by individual protons in each column is calculated through an optimized cubic spline estimate. pRad images were first produced using Geant4 simulations. Anmore » anthropomorphic head phantom and the Catphan line-pair module for 3-D spatial resolution were studied and resulting images were analyzed. Both parallel and conical beam have been investigated for simulated pRad acquisition. Then, experimental data of a pediatric head phantom (CIRS) were acquired using a recently completed experimental pCT scanner. Specific filters were applied on proton angle and energy loss data to remove proton histories that underwent nuclear interactions. The MTF10% (lp/mm) was used to evaluate and compare spatial resolution. Results: Numerical simulations showed improvement in the pRad spatial resolution for the parallel (2.75 to 6.71 lp/cm) and conical beam (3.08 to 5.83 lp/cm) reconstructed with the MLLSE compared to averaging detector pixel signals. For full tomographic reconstruction, the improved pRad were used as input into a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction algorithm. The Catphan pCT reconstruction based on the MLLSE-enhanced projection showed spatial resolution improvement for the parallel (2.83 to 5.86 lp/cm) and conical beam (3.03 to 5.15 lp/cm). The anthropomorphic head pCT displayed important contrast gains in high-gradient regions. Experimental results also demonstrated significant improvement in spatial resolution of the pediatric head radiography. Conclusion: The proposed MLLSE shows promising potential to increase the spatial resolution (up to 244%) in proton imaging.« less
  • Purpose: Three-dimensional irradiation with a scanned carbon-ion beam has been performed from 2011 at the authors’ facility. The authors have developed the rotating-gantry equipped with the scanning irradiation system. The number of combinations of beam properties to measure for the commissioning is more than 7200, i.e., 201 energy steps, 3 intensities, and 12 gantry angles. To compress the commissioning time, quick and simple range verification system is required. In this work, the authors develop a quick range verification system using scintillator and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and estimate the accuracy of the range verification. Methods: A cylindrical plastic scintillator blockmore » and a CCD camera were installed on the black box. The optical spatial resolution of the system is 0.2 mm/pixel. The camera control system was connected and communicates with the measurement system that is part of the scanning system. The range was determined by image processing. Reference range for each energy beam was determined by a difference of Gaussian (DOG) method and the 80% of distal dose of the depth-dose distribution that were measured by a large parallel-plate ionization chamber. The authors compared a threshold method and a DOG method. Results: The authors found that the edge detection method (i.e., the DOG method) is best for the range detection. The accuracy of range detection using this system is within 0.2 mm, and the reproducibility of the same energy measurement is within 0.1 mm without setup error. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the authors’ range check system is capable of quick and easy range verification with sufficient accuracy.« less
  • Purpose: Proton therapy requires highly-precise image guidance in patient setup to ensure accurate dose delivery. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is expected to play an important role to reduce uncertainties in patient setup. Hokkaido University has developed a new proton therapy system dedicated to spot-scanning under a collaborative work with Hitachi Ltd. In our system, an orthogonal X-ray imaging system is mounted on a full-rotating gantry. On-board CBCT imaging is therefore available. We have conducted commissioning of the CBCT system for clinical use in proton therapy. Methods: The orthogonal X-ray imaging system, which consists of two sets of X-ray tubes and flatmore » panel detectors (FPDs), are equipped on the rotating gantry. The FPDs are mounted on the proton beam nozzle and can be retracted when not in use. The distance between the X-ray source and the FPD is about 2.1 m. The maximum rotation speed of the gantry is 1 rpm, so CBCT images can be acquired in approximately 1 minute. The maximum reconstruction volume is nearly 40 cm in diameter and 20 cm in axial length. For commissioning of the CBCT system, mechanical accuracy of the rotating gantry first was evaluated. Imaging performance was examined via quantitative evaluation of image quality. Results: Through the mechanical test, the isocentricity of the gantry was confirmed to be less than 1 mm. Moreover, it was improved to 0.5 mm with an appropriate correction. The accurate rotation of the gantry contributes to the CBCT image quality. In the image quality test, objects with 7 line-pairs per cm, which corresponds to a line spacing of 0.071 cm, could be discerned. Spatial linearity and uniformity were also sufficient. Conclusion: Clinical commissioning of the on-board CBCT system for proton therapy was conducted, and CBCT images with sufficient quality were successfully obtained. This research was supported by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R and D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program), initiated by the Council for Science and Technology Policy (CSTP)« less