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Title: SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope

Abstract

Purpose: While the energy of therapeutic proton beams can be adjusted to penetrate to any given depth in water, range uncertainties arise in patients due in part to imprecise knowledge of the stopping power of protons in human tissues [1]. Proton radiography is one approach to reduce the beam range uncertainty [2], thereby allowing for a reduction in treatment margins and dose escalation. Methods: The authors have adapted a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (“Micromegas”) for proton therapy beams and have demonstrated fine spatial and time resolution of magnetically scanned proton pencil beams, as well as wide dynamic range for dosimetry [3]. The authors have constructed a prototype imaging system comprised of 5 Micromegas layers. Proton radiographs were obtained downstream of solid water assemblies. The position-sensitive monitor chambers in the IBA proton delivery nozzle provide the beam entrance position. Results: Our technique achieves spatial resolution as low as 300 µm and water-equivalent thickness (WET) resolution as good as 0.02% (60 µm out of 31 cm total thickness). The dose delivered to the patient is kept below 2 cGy. The spatial resolution as a function of sample rate and number of delivered protons is found to be nearmore » the theoretical Cramer-Rao lower bound. By extrapolating the CR bound, we argue that the imaging dose could be further lowered to 1 mGy, while still achieving submillimeter spatial resolution, by achievable instrumentation and beam delivery modifications. Conclusion: For proton radiography, high spatial and WET resolution can be achieved, with minimal additional dose to patient, by using magnetically scanned proton pencil beams and Micromegas detectors.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  2. Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States)
  3. James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624337
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANIMAL TISSUES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; DOSIMETRY; PATIENTS; PROTON BEAMS; PROTON RADIOGRAPHY; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; STOPPING POWER; THICKNESS; TIME RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

Dolney, D, Mayers, G, Newcomer, M, Bollinger, D, Desai, N, Maughan, R, Solberg, T, Hollebeek, R, Weiss, D, and Meekins, E. SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955577.
Dolney, D, Mayers, G, Newcomer, M, Bollinger, D, Desai, N, Maughan, R, Solberg, T, Hollebeek, R, Weiss, D, & Meekins, E. SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955577.
Dolney, D, Mayers, G, Newcomer, M, Bollinger, D, Desai, N, Maughan, R, Solberg, T, Hollebeek, R, Weiss, D, and Meekins, E. Wed . "SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955577.
@article{osti_22624337,
title = {SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope},
author = {Dolney, D and Mayers, G and Newcomer, M and Bollinger, D and Desai, N and Maughan, R and Solberg, T and Hollebeek, R and Weiss, D and Meekins, E},
abstractNote = {Purpose: While the energy of therapeutic proton beams can be adjusted to penetrate to any given depth in water, range uncertainties arise in patients due in part to imprecise knowledge of the stopping power of protons in human tissues [1]. Proton radiography is one approach to reduce the beam range uncertainty [2], thereby allowing for a reduction in treatment margins and dose escalation. Methods: The authors have adapted a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (“Micromegas”) for proton therapy beams and have demonstrated fine spatial and time resolution of magnetically scanned proton pencil beams, as well as wide dynamic range for dosimetry [3]. The authors have constructed a prototype imaging system comprised of 5 Micromegas layers. Proton radiographs were obtained downstream of solid water assemblies. The position-sensitive monitor chambers in the IBA proton delivery nozzle provide the beam entrance position. Results: Our technique achieves spatial resolution as low as 300 µm and water-equivalent thickness (WET) resolution as good as 0.02% (60 µm out of 31 cm total thickness). The dose delivered to the patient is kept below 2 cGy. The spatial resolution as a function of sample rate and number of delivered protons is found to be near the theoretical Cramer-Rao lower bound. By extrapolating the CR bound, we argue that the imaging dose could be further lowered to 1 mGy, while still achieving submillimeter spatial resolution, by achievable instrumentation and beam delivery modifications. Conclusion: For proton radiography, high spatial and WET resolution can be achieved, with minimal additional dose to patient, by using magnetically scanned proton pencil beams and Micromegas detectors.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955577},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: While the energy of therapeutic proton beams can be adjusted to penetrate to any given depth in water, range uncertainties arise in patients due in part to imprecise knowledge of the stopping power of protons in human tissues. Proton radiography is one approach to reduce the beam range uncertainty, thereby allowing for a reduction in treatment margins and dose escalation. Methods: The authors have adapted a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (“Micromegas”) for proton therapy beams and have demonstrated fine spatial and time resolution of magnetically scanned proton pencil beams, as well as wide dynamic rangemore » for dosimetry. In this work, proton radiographs were obtained using Micromegas 2D planes positioned downstream of solid water assemblies. The position-sensitive monitor chambers in the IBA proton delivery nozzle provide the beam entrance position. Results: Radiography with Micromegas detectors and actively scanned beams provide spatial resolution of up to 300 µm and water-equivalent thickness (WET) resolution as good as 0.02% (60 µm out of 31 cm total thickness), with the dose delivered to the patient kept below 2 cGy. The spatial resolution as a function of sample rate and number of delivered protons is found to be near the theoretical Cramer-Rao lower bound. Using the CR bound, we argue that the imaging dose could be further lowered to 1 mGy, while still achieving sub-mm spatial resolution, by relatively simple instrumentation upgrades and beam delivery modifications. Conclusion: For proton radiography, high spatial and WET resolution can be achieved, with minimal additional dose to patient, by using magnetically scanned proton pencil beams and Micromegas detectors.« less
  • Purpose: Multiple Coulomb scattering is the largest contributor to blurring in proton imaging. Here we tested a maximum likelihood least squares estimator (MLLSE) to improve the spatial resolution of proton radiography (pRad) and proton computed tomography (pCT). Methods: The object is discretized into voxels and the average relative stopping power through voxel columns defined from the source to the detector pixels is optimized such that it maximizes the likelihood of the proton energy loss. The length spent by individual protons in each column is calculated through an optimized cubic spline estimate. pRad images were first produced using Geant4 simulations. Anmore » anthropomorphic head phantom and the Catphan line-pair module for 3-D spatial resolution were studied and resulting images were analyzed. Both parallel and conical beam have been investigated for simulated pRad acquisition. Then, experimental data of a pediatric head phantom (CIRS) were acquired using a recently completed experimental pCT scanner. Specific filters were applied on proton angle and energy loss data to remove proton histories that underwent nuclear interactions. The MTF10% (lp/mm) was used to evaluate and compare spatial resolution. Results: Numerical simulations showed improvement in the pRad spatial resolution for the parallel (2.75 to 6.71 lp/cm) and conical beam (3.08 to 5.83 lp/cm) reconstructed with the MLLSE compared to averaging detector pixel signals. For full tomographic reconstruction, the improved pRad were used as input into a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction algorithm. The Catphan pCT reconstruction based on the MLLSE-enhanced projection showed spatial resolution improvement for the parallel (2.83 to 5.86 lp/cm) and conical beam (3.03 to 5.15 lp/cm). The anthropomorphic head pCT displayed important contrast gains in high-gradient regions. Experimental results also demonstrated significant improvement in spatial resolution of the pediatric head radiography. Conclusion: The proposed MLLSE shows promising potential to increase the spatial resolution (up to 244%) in proton imaging.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive test pattern in validating calculation models of the low-dose tails of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) spots. Such a pattern has been used previously for quality assurance purposes to assess spot shape and location, and for determining monitor units. Methods: In this study, a scintillation detector was used to measure the test pattern in air at isocenter for two proton beam energies (115 and 225 MeV) of two IBA universal nozzles (UN). Planar measurements were compared with calculated dose distribution based on the weighted superposition ofmore » spot profiles previously measured using a pair-magnification method. Results: Including the halo component below 1% of the central dose is shown to improve the gamma-map comparison between calculation and measurement from 94.9% to 98.4% using 2 mm/2% criteria for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #1. In contrast, including the halo component below 1% of the central dose does not improve the gamma agreement for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #2, due to the cutoff of the halo component at off-axis locations. When location-dependent spot profiles are used for calculation instead of spot profiles at central axis, the gamma agreement is improved from 98.0% to 99.5% using 2 mm/2% criteria. The cutoff of the halo component is smaller at higher energies, and is not observable for the 225 MeV proton beam for UN #2. Conclusion: In conclusion, the use of a comprehensive test pattern can facilitate the validation of the halo component of proton PBS spots at off axis locations. The cutoff of the halo component should be taken into consideration for large fields or PBS systems that intend to trim spot profiles using apertures. This work was supported by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Contract Agreement No. DAMD17-W81XWH-07-2-0121 and W81XWH-09-2-0174.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and limitations of a commercially-available treatment planning system’s (TPS’s) dose calculation algorithm for proton pencil-beam scanning (PBS) and present a novel technique to efficiently derive a clinically-acceptable beam model. Methods: In-air fluence profiles of PBS spots were modeled in the TPS alternately as single-(SG) and double-Gaussian (DG) functions, based on fits to commissioning data. Uniform-fluence, single-energy-layer square fields of various sizes and energies were calculated with both beam models and delivered to water. Dose was measured at several depths. Motivated by observed discrepancies in measured-versus-calculated dose comparisons, a third model was constructed based on double-Gaussianmore » parameters contrived through a novel technique developed to minimize these differences (DGC). Eleven cuboid-dose-distribution-shaped fields with varying range/modulation and field size were subsequently generated in the TPS, using each of the three beam models described, and delivered to water. Dose was measured at the middle of each spread-out Bragg peak. Results: For energies <160 MeV, the DG model fit square-field measurements to <2% at all depths, while the SG model could disagree by >6%. For energies >160 MeV, both SG and DG models fit square-field measurements to <1% at <4 cm depth, but could exceed 6% deeper. By comparison, disagreement with the DGC model was always <3%. For the cuboid plans, calculation-versus-measured percent dose differences exceeded 7% for the SG model, being larger for smaller fields. The DG model showed <3% disagreement for all field sizes in shorter-range beams, although >5% differences for smaller fields persisted in longer-range beams. In contrast, the DGC model predicted measurements to <2% for all beams. Conclusion: Neither the TPS’s SG nor DG models, employed as intended, are ideally suited for routine clinical use. However, via a novel technique to be presented, its DG model can be tuned judiciously to yield acceptable results.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and requirement for intra-fraction on-line multiple scanning particle beam range verifications (BRVs) with in-situ PET imaging, which is beyond the current single-beam BRV with extra factors that will affect the BR measurement accuracy, such as beam diameter, separation between beams, and different image counts at different BRV positions. Methods: We simulated a 110-MeV proton beam with 5-mm diameter irradiating a uniform PMMA phantom by GATE simulation, which generated nuclear interaction-induced positrons. In this preliminary study, we simply duplicated these positrons and placed them next to the initial protons to approximately mimic the two spatially separatedmore » positron distributions produced by two beams parallel to each other but with different beam ranges. These positrons were then imaged by a PET (∼2-mm resolution, 10% sensitivity, 320×320×128 mm^3 FOV) with different acquisition times. We calculated the positron activity ranges (ARs) from reconstructed PET images and compared them with the corresponding ARs of original positron distributions. Results: Without further image data processing and correction, the preliminary study show the errors between the measured and original ARs varied from 0.2 mm to 2.3 mm as center-to-center separations and range differences were in the range of 8–12 mm and 2–8 mm respectively, indicating the accuracy of AR measurement strongly depends on the beam separations and range differences. In addition, it is feasible to achieve ≤ 1.0-mm accuracy for both beams with 1-min PET acquisition and 12 mm beam separation. Conclusion: This study shows that the overlap between the positron distributions from multiple scanning beams can significantly impact the accuracy of BRVs of distributed particle beams and need to be further addressed beyond the established method of single-beam BRV, but it also indicates the feasibility to achieve accurate on-line multi-beam BRV with further improved method.« less