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Title: SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope

Abstract

Purpose: While the energy of therapeutic proton beams can be adjusted to penetrate to any given depth in water, range uncertainties arise in patients due in part to imprecise knowledge of the stopping power of protons in human tissues [1]. Proton radiography is one approach to reduce the beam range uncertainty [2], thereby allowing for a reduction in treatment margins and dose escalation. Methods: The authors have adapted a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (“Micromegas”) for proton therapy beams and have demonstrated fine spatial and time resolution of magnetically scanned proton pencil beams, as well as wide dynamic range for dosimetry [3]. The authors have constructed a prototype imaging system comprised of 5 Micromegas layers. Proton radiographs were obtained downstream of solid water assemblies. The position-sensitive monitor chambers in the IBA proton delivery nozzle provide the beam entrance position. Results: Our technique achieves spatial resolution as low as 300 µm and water-equivalent thickness (WET) resolution as good as 0.02% (60 µm out of 31 cm total thickness). The dose delivered to the patient is kept below 2 cGy. The spatial resolution as a function of sample rate and number of delivered protons is found to be nearmore » the theoretical Cramer-Rao lower bound. By extrapolating the CR bound, we argue that the imaging dose could be further lowered to 1 mGy, while still achieving submillimeter spatial resolution, by achievable instrumentation and beam delivery modifications. Conclusion: For proton radiography, high spatial and WET resolution can be achieved, with minimal additional dose to patient, by using magnetically scanned proton pencil beams and Micromegas detectors.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  2. Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States)
  3. James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624337
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANIMAL TISSUES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; DOSIMETRY; PATIENTS; PROTON BEAMS; PROTON RADIOGRAPHY; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; STOPPING POWER; THICKNESS; TIME RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

Dolney, D, Mayers, G, Newcomer, M, Bollinger, D, Desai, N, Maughan, R, Solberg, T, Hollebeek, R, Weiss, D, and Meekins, E. SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955577.
Dolney, D, Mayers, G, Newcomer, M, Bollinger, D, Desai, N, Maughan, R, Solberg, T, Hollebeek, R, Weiss, D, & Meekins, E. SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955577.
Dolney, D, Mayers, G, Newcomer, M, Bollinger, D, Desai, N, Maughan, R, Solberg, T, Hollebeek, R, Weiss, D, and Meekins, E. 2016. "SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955577.
@article{osti_22624337,
title = {SU-C-207A-02: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and a Novel, Low-Cost Range Telescope},
author = {Dolney, D and Mayers, G and Newcomer, M and Bollinger, D and Desai, N and Maughan, R and Solberg, T and Hollebeek, R and Weiss, D and Meekins, E},
abstractNote = {Purpose: While the energy of therapeutic proton beams can be adjusted to penetrate to any given depth in water, range uncertainties arise in patients due in part to imprecise knowledge of the stopping power of protons in human tissues [1]. Proton radiography is one approach to reduce the beam range uncertainty [2], thereby allowing for a reduction in treatment margins and dose escalation. Methods: The authors have adapted a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (“Micromegas”) for proton therapy beams and have demonstrated fine spatial and time resolution of magnetically scanned proton pencil beams, as well as wide dynamic range for dosimetry [3]. The authors have constructed a prototype imaging system comprised of 5 Micromegas layers. Proton radiographs were obtained downstream of solid water assemblies. The position-sensitive monitor chambers in the IBA proton delivery nozzle provide the beam entrance position. Results: Our technique achieves spatial resolution as low as 300 µm and water-equivalent thickness (WET) resolution as good as 0.02% (60 µm out of 31 cm total thickness). The dose delivered to the patient is kept below 2 cGy. The spatial resolution as a function of sample rate and number of delivered protons is found to be near the theoretical Cramer-Rao lower bound. By extrapolating the CR bound, we argue that the imaging dose could be further lowered to 1 mGy, while still achieving submillimeter spatial resolution, by achievable instrumentation and beam delivery modifications. Conclusion: For proton radiography, high spatial and WET resolution can be achieved, with minimal additional dose to patient, by using magnetically scanned proton pencil beams and Micromegas detectors.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955577},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: While the energy of therapeutic proton beams can be adjusted to penetrate to any given depth in water, range uncertainties arise in patients due in part to imprecise knowledge of the stopping power of protons in human tissues. Proton radiography is one approach to reduce the beam range uncertainty, thereby allowing for a reduction in treatment margins and dose escalation. Methods: The authors have adapted a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (“Micromegas”) for proton therapy beams and have demonstrated fine spatial and time resolution of magnetically scanned proton pencil beams, as well as wide dynamic rangemore » for dosimetry. In this work, proton radiographs were obtained using Micromegas 2D planes positioned downstream of solid water assemblies. The position-sensitive monitor chambers in the IBA proton delivery nozzle provide the beam entrance position. Results: Radiography with Micromegas detectors and actively scanned beams provide spatial resolution of up to 300 µm and water-equivalent thickness (WET) resolution as good as 0.02% (60 µm out of 31 cm total thickness), with the dose delivered to the patient kept below 2 cGy. The spatial resolution as a function of sample rate and number of delivered protons is found to be near the theoretical Cramer-Rao lower bound. Using the CR bound, we argue that the imaging dose could be further lowered to 1 mGy, while still achieving sub-mm spatial resolution, by relatively simple instrumentation upgrades and beam delivery modifications. Conclusion: For proton radiography, high spatial and WET resolution can be achieved, with minimal additional dose to patient, by using magnetically scanned proton pencil beams and Micromegas detectors.« less
  • Purpose: Ion beams exhibit a finite range and an inverted depth-dose profile, the Bragg peak. These favorable properties allow superior tumordose conformality, but introduce sensitivity to range uncertainties. Hence, imaging techniques play an increasingly important role to support the treatment planning and the in-vivo monitoring of the actual ion beam treatment. Methods: This work presents the experimental investigations carried out to address the feasibility of ion transmission imaging at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy center using an active raster scanning beam delivery system and a prototype range telescope set-up based on a stack of 61 parallel-plate ionization chambers (PPIC) interleaved withmore » 3 mm absorber plates of PMMA. Results: An extensive characterization of the set-up in terms of beam parameters and settings of the read-out electronics was performed and results will be presented. A data processing method to increase the range resolution (MIRR) of the PPIC stack was developed. In this approach, the position of the maximum of the Bragg curve is deduced from the ratio of measured signals in adjacent PPIC channels. MIRR evaluation is based on Bragg curves obtained from Monte Carlo simulations and validated with experimental data acquired with the PPIC stack using ion beams. MIRR was applied to the carbon ion radiography of an anthropomorphic Alderson head phantom yielding a resolution of 0.8 mm water equivalent thickness (WET) compared to the nominal value of 3.495 mm WET given by the thickness of the absorber slabs in the PPIC stack. An absolute comparison of the Alderson phantom carbon ion transmitted image with an X-ray digitally reconstructed radiography, both converted into WET, will also be shown. Conclusion: The obtained results are very promising and motivate further developments of the system towards an eventual clinical use.This work is supported by the German Research Foundation and the German Academic Exchange Service. This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and limitations of a commercially-available treatment planning system’s (TPS’s) dose calculation algorithm for proton pencil-beam scanning (PBS) and present a novel technique to efficiently derive a clinically-acceptable beam model. Methods: In-air fluence profiles of PBS spots were modeled in the TPS alternately as single-(SG) and double-Gaussian (DG) functions, based on fits to commissioning data. Uniform-fluence, single-energy-layer square fields of various sizes and energies were calculated with both beam models and delivered to water. Dose was measured at several depths. Motivated by observed discrepancies in measured-versus-calculated dose comparisons, a third model was constructed based on double-Gaussianmore » parameters contrived through a novel technique developed to minimize these differences (DGC). Eleven cuboid-dose-distribution-shaped fields with varying range/modulation and field size were subsequently generated in the TPS, using each of the three beam models described, and delivered to water. Dose was measured at the middle of each spread-out Bragg peak. Results: For energies <160 MeV, the DG model fit square-field measurements to <2% at all depths, while the SG model could disagree by >6%. For energies >160 MeV, both SG and DG models fit square-field measurements to <1% at <4 cm depth, but could exceed 6% deeper. By comparison, disagreement with the DGC model was always <3%. For the cuboid plans, calculation-versus-measured percent dose differences exceeded 7% for the SG model, being larger for smaller fields. The DG model showed <3% disagreement for all field sizes in shorter-range beams, although >5% differences for smaller fields persisted in longer-range beams. In contrast, the DGC model predicted measurements to <2% for all beams. Conclusion: Neither the TPS’s SG nor DG models, employed as intended, are ideally suited for routine clinical use. However, via a novel technique to be presented, its DG model can be tuned judiciously to yield acceptable results.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the robustness of head and neck plans for treatment with intensity modulated proton therapy to range and setup errors, and to establish robustness parameters for the planning of future head and neck treatments. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated were evaluated in terms of robustness to range and setup errors. Error bar dose distributions were generated for each plan, from which several metrics were extracted and used to define a robustness database of acceptable parameters over all analyzed plans. The patients were treated in sequentially delivered series, and plans were evaluated for both the first seriesmore » and for the combined error over the whole treatment. To demonstrate the application of such a database in the head and neck, for 1 patient, an alternative treatment plan was generated using a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach and plans of differing numbers of fields. Results: The robustness database for the treatment of head and neck patients is presented. In an example case, comparison of single and multiple field plans against the database show clear improvements in robustness by using multiple fields. A comparison of sequentially delivered series and an SIB approach for this patient show both to be of comparable robustness, although the SIB approach shows a slightly greater sensitivity to uncertainties. Conclusions: A robustness database was created for the treatment of head and neck patients with intensity modulated proton therapy based on previous clinical experience. This will allow the identification of future plans that may benefit from alternative planning approaches to improve robustness.« less
  • Purpose: Multiple Coulomb scattering is the largest contributor to blurring in proton imaging. Here we tested a maximum likelihood least squares estimator (MLLSE) to improve the spatial resolution of proton radiography (pRad) and proton computed tomography (pCT). Methods: The object is discretized into voxels and the average relative stopping power through voxel columns defined from the source to the detector pixels is optimized such that it maximizes the likelihood of the proton energy loss. The length spent by individual protons in each column is calculated through an optimized cubic spline estimate. pRad images were first produced using Geant4 simulations. Anmore » anthropomorphic head phantom and the Catphan line-pair module for 3-D spatial resolution were studied and resulting images were analyzed. Both parallel and conical beam have been investigated for simulated pRad acquisition. Then, experimental data of a pediatric head phantom (CIRS) were acquired using a recently completed experimental pCT scanner. Specific filters were applied on proton angle and energy loss data to remove proton histories that underwent nuclear interactions. The MTF10% (lp/mm) was used to evaluate and compare spatial resolution. Results: Numerical simulations showed improvement in the pRad spatial resolution for the parallel (2.75 to 6.71 lp/cm) and conical beam (3.08 to 5.83 lp/cm) reconstructed with the MLLSE compared to averaging detector pixel signals. For full tomographic reconstruction, the improved pRad were used as input into a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction algorithm. The Catphan pCT reconstruction based on the MLLSE-enhanced projection showed spatial resolution improvement for the parallel (2.83 to 5.86 lp/cm) and conical beam (3.03 to 5.15 lp/cm). The anthropomorphic head pCT displayed important contrast gains in high-gradient regions. Experimental results also demonstrated significant improvement in spatial resolution of the pediatric head radiography. Conclusion: The proposed MLLSE shows promising potential to increase the spatial resolution (up to 244%) in proton imaging.« less