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Title: SU-C-BRB-06: Dosimetric Impact of Breast Contour Reconstruction Errors in GammaPod Stereotactic Radiotherapy

Abstract

Purpose: The first GammaPod™ unit, a dedicated prone stereotactic treatment device for early stage breast cancer, has been installed and commissioned at University of Maryland School of Medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate potential dosimetric impact of inaccurate breast contour. Methods: In GammaPod treatments, patient’s beast is immobilized by a breast cup device (BCID) throughout the entire same-day imaging and treatment procedure. 28 different BICD sizes are available to accommodate patients with varying breast sizes. A mild suction helps breast tissue to conform to the shape of the cup with selected size. In treatment planning, dose calculation utilizes previously calculated dose distributions for available cup geometry rather than the breast shape from CT image. Patient CT images with breast cups indicate minor geometric discrepancy between the matched shape of the cup and the breast contour, i.e., the contour size is larger or smaller. In order to investigate the dosimetric impact of these discrepancies, we simulated such discrepancies and reassessed the dose to target as well as skin. Results: In vicinity of skin, hot/cold spots were found when matched cup size was smaller/larger than patient’s breast after comparing the corrected dose profiles from Monte Carlo simulation with themore » planned dose from TPS. The overdosing/underdosing of target could yield point dose differences as large as 5% due to these setup errors (D95 changes within 2.5%). Maximal skin dose was overestimated/underestimated up to 25%/45% when matched cup size was larger/smaller than real breast contour. Conclusion: The dosimetric evaluation suggests substantial underdosing/overdosing with inaccurate cup geometry during planning, which is acceptable for current clinical trial. Further studies are needed to evaluate such impact to treating small volume close to skin.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2];  [1];  [3]
  1. Xcision Medical Systems LLC, Columbia, MD (United States)
  2. University Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  3. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624323
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CLINICAL TRIALS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; ERRORS; MAMMARY GLANDS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Niu, Y, Becker, S, Mutaf, Y, Yu, C, and University Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. SU-C-BRB-06: Dosimetric Impact of Breast Contour Reconstruction Errors in GammaPod Stereotactic Radiotherapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955560.
Niu, Y, Becker, S, Mutaf, Y, Yu, C, & University Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. SU-C-BRB-06: Dosimetric Impact of Breast Contour Reconstruction Errors in GammaPod Stereotactic Radiotherapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955560.
Niu, Y, Becker, S, Mutaf, Y, Yu, C, and University Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. 2016. "SU-C-BRB-06: Dosimetric Impact of Breast Contour Reconstruction Errors in GammaPod Stereotactic Radiotherapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955560.
@article{osti_22624323,
title = {SU-C-BRB-06: Dosimetric Impact of Breast Contour Reconstruction Errors in GammaPod Stereotactic Radiotherapy},
author = {Niu, Y and Becker, S and Mutaf, Y and Yu, C and University Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The first GammaPod™ unit, a dedicated prone stereotactic treatment device for early stage breast cancer, has been installed and commissioned at University of Maryland School of Medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate potential dosimetric impact of inaccurate breast contour. Methods: In GammaPod treatments, patient’s beast is immobilized by a breast cup device (BCID) throughout the entire same-day imaging and treatment procedure. 28 different BICD sizes are available to accommodate patients with varying breast sizes. A mild suction helps breast tissue to conform to the shape of the cup with selected size. In treatment planning, dose calculation utilizes previously calculated dose distributions for available cup geometry rather than the breast shape from CT image. Patient CT images with breast cups indicate minor geometric discrepancy between the matched shape of the cup and the breast contour, i.e., the contour size is larger or smaller. In order to investigate the dosimetric impact of these discrepancies, we simulated such discrepancies and reassessed the dose to target as well as skin. Results: In vicinity of skin, hot/cold spots were found when matched cup size was smaller/larger than patient’s breast after comparing the corrected dose profiles from Monte Carlo simulation with the planned dose from TPS. The overdosing/underdosing of target could yield point dose differences as large as 5% due to these setup errors (D95 changes within 2.5%). Maximal skin dose was overestimated/underestimated up to 25%/45% when matched cup size was larger/smaller than real breast contour. Conclusion: The dosimetric evaluation suggests substantial underdosing/overdosing with inaccurate cup geometry during planning, which is acceptable for current clinical trial. Further studies are needed to evaluate such impact to treating small volume close to skin.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955560},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: A dedicated stereotactic gamma irradiation device, the GammaPod Trade-Mark-Sign from Xcision Medical Systems, was developed specifically to treat small breast cancers. This study presents the first evaluation of dosimetric and geometric characteristics from the initial prototype installed at University of Maryland Radiation Oncology Department. Methods: The GammaPod Trade-Mark-Sign stereotactic radiotherapy device is an assembly of a hemi-spherical source carrier containing 36 {sup 60}Co sources, a tungsten collimator, a dynamically controlled patient support table, and the breast immobilization system which also functions as a stereotactic frame. The source carrier contains the sources in six columns spaced longitudinally at 60 Degree-Signmore » intervals and it rotates together with the variable-size collimator to form 36 noncoplanar, concentric arcs focused at the isocenter. The patient support table enables motion in three dimensions to position the patient tumor at the focal point of the irradiation. The table moves continuously in three cardinal dimensions during treatment to provide dynamic shaping of the dose distribution. The breast is immobilized using a breast cup applying a small negative pressure, where the immobilization cup is embedded with fiducials also functioning as the stereotactic frame for the breast. Geometric and dosimetric evaluations of the system as well as a protocol for absorbed dose calibration are provided. Dosimetric verifications of dynamically delivered patient plans are performed for seven patients using radiochromic films in hypothetical preop, postop, and target-in-target treatment scenarios. Results: Loaded with 36 {sup 60}Co sources with cumulative activity of 4320 Ci, the prototype GammaPod Trade-Mark-Sign unit delivers 5.31 Gy/min at the isocenter using the largest 2.5 cm diameter collimator. Due to the noncoplanar beam arrangement and dynamic dose shaping features, the GammaPod Trade-Mark-Sign device is found to deliver uniform doses to targets with good conformity. The spatial accuracy of the device to locate the radiation isocenter is determined to be less than 1 mm. Single shot profiles with 2.5 cm collimator are measured with radiochromic film and found to be in good agreement with respect to the Monte Carlo based calculations (congruence of FWHM less than 1 mm). Dosimetric verifications corresponding to all hypothetical treatment plans corresponding to three target scenarios for each of the seven patients demonstrated good agreement with gamma index pass rates of better than 97% (99.0%{+-} 0.7%). Conclusions: Dosimetric evaluation of the first GammaPod Trade-Mark-Sign stereotactic breast radiotherapy unit was performed and the dosimetric and spatial accuracy of this novel technology is found to be feasible with respect to clinical radiotherapy standards. The observed level of agreement between the treatment planning system calculations and dosimetric measurements has confirmed that the system can deliver highly complex treatment plans with remarkable geometric and dosimetric accuracy.« less
  • Purpose: This paper introduces a new external beam radiotherapy device named GammaPod that is dedicated for stereotactic radiotherapy of breast cancer. Methods: The design goal of the GammaPod as a dedicated system for treating breast cancer is the ability to deliver ablative doses with sharp gradients under stereotactic image guidance. Stereotactic localization of the breast is achieved by a vacuum-assisted breast immobilization cup with built-in stereotactic frame. Highly focused radiation is achieved at the isocenter due to the cross-firing from 36 radiation arcs generated by rotating 36 individual Cobalt-60 beams. The dedicated treatment planning system optimizes an optimal path ofmore » the focal spot using an optimization algorithm borrowed from computational geometry such that the target can be covered by 90%-95% of the prescription dose and the doses to surrounding tissues are minimized. The treatment plan is intended to be delivered with continuous motion of the treatment couch. In this paper the authors described in detail the gamma radiation unit, stereotactic localization of the breast, and the treatment planning system of the GammaPod system. Results: A prototype GammaPod system was installed at University of Maryland Medical Center and has gone through a thorough functional, geometric, and dosimetric testing. The mechanical and functional performances of the system all meet the functional specifications. Conclusions: An image-guided breast stereotactic radiotherapy device, named GammaPod, has been developed to deliver highly focused and localized doses to a target in the breast under stereotactic image guidance. It is envisioned that the GammaPod technology has the potential to significantly shorten radiation treatments and even eliminate surgery by ablating the tumor and sterilizing the tumor bed simultaneously.« less
  • Purpose: GammaPod™, the first stereotactic radiotherapy device for early stage breast cancer treatment, has been recently installed and commissioned at our institution. A multidisciplinary working group applied the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) approach to perform a risk analysis. Methods: FMEA was applied to the GammaPod™ treatment process by: 1) generating process maps for each stage of treatment; 2) identifying potential failure modes and outlining their causes and effects; 3) scoring the potential failure modes using the risk priority number (RPN) system based on the product of severity, frequency of occurrence, and detectability (ranging 1–10). An RPN of highermore » than 150 was set as the threshold for minimal concern of risk. For these high-risk failure modes, potential quality assurance procedures and risk control techniques have been proposed. A new set of severity, occurrence, and detectability values were re-assessed in presence of the suggested mitigation strategies. Results: In the single-day image-and-treat workflow, 19, 22, and 27 sub-processes were identified for the stages of simulation, treatment planning, and delivery processes, respectively. During the simulation stage, 38 potential failure modes were found and scored, in terms of RPN, in the range of 9-392. 34 potential failure modes were analyzed in treatment planning with a score range of 16-200. For the treatment delivery stage, 47 potential failure modes were found with an RPN score range of 16-392. The most critical failure modes consisted of breast-cup pressure loss and incorrect target localization due to patient upper-body alignment inaccuracies. The final RPN score of these failure modes based on recommended actions were assessed to be below 150. Conclusion: FMEA risk analysis technique was applied to the treatment process of GammaPod™, a new stereotactic radiotherapy technology. Application of systematic risk analysis methods is projected to lead to improved quality of GammaPod™ treatments. Ying Niu and Cedric Yu are affiliated with Xcision Medical Systems.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric effects of translational and rotational patient positioning errors on the treatment of spinal and paraspinal metastases using computed tomography image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy. The results of this study provide guidance for the treatment planning process and recognition of the dosimetric consequences of daily patient treatment setup errors. Methods and Materials: The data from 20 patients treated for metastatic spinal cancer using image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy were investigated in this study. To simulate the dosimetric effects of residual setup uncertainties, 36 additional plans (total, 756 plans) were generated for each isocenter (total, 21 isocenters) on themore » planning computed tomography images, which included isocenter lateral, anteroposterior, superoinferior shifts, and patient roll, yaw, and pitch rotations. Tumor volume coverage and the maximal dose to the organs at risk were compared with those of the original plan. Six daily treatments were also investigated to determine the dosimetric effect with or without the translational and rotational corrections. Results: A 2-mm error in translational patient positioning error in any direction can result in >5% tumor coverage loss and >25% maximal dose increase to the organs at risk. Rotational correction is very important for patients with multiple targets and for the setup of paraspinal patients when the isocenter is away from bony structures. Compared with the original plans, the daily treatment data indicated that translational adjustments could correct most of the setup errors to mean divergences of -1.4% for tumor volume coverage and -0.3% for the maximal dose to the organs at risk. Conclusion: For the best dosimetric results, spinal stereotactic treatments should have setup translational errors of {<=}1 mm and rotational errors of {<=}2 deg.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric effects on target volume and organs at risk (OARs) due to roll rotational errors in treatment setup of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Methods: There were a total of 23 volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for lung SBRT examined in this retrospective study. Each CT image of VMAT plans was intentionally rotated by ±1°, ±2°, and ±3° to simulate roll rotational setup errors. The axis of rotation was set at the center of T-spine. The target volume and OARs in the rotated CT images were re-defined by deformable registration of originalmore » contours. The dose distributions on each set of rotated images were re-calculated to cover the planning target volume (PTV) with the prescription dose before and after the couch translational correction. The dose-volumetric changes of PTVs and spinal cords were analyzed. Results: The differences in D95% of PTVs by −3°, −2°, −1°, 1°, 2°, and 3° roll rotations before the couch translational correction were on average −11.3±11.4%, −5.46±7.24%, −1.11±1.38% −3.34±3.97%, −9.64±10.3%, and −16.3±14.7%, respectively. After the couch translational correction, those values were −0.195±0.544%, −0.159±0.391%, −0.188±0.262%, −0.310±0.270%, −0.407±0.331%, and −0.433±0.401%, respectively. The maximum dose difference of spinal cord among the 23 plans even after the couch translational correction was 25.9% at −3° rotation. Conclusions: Roll rotational setup errors in lung SBRT significantly influenced the coverage of target volume using VMAT technique. This could be in part compensated by the translational couch correction. However, in spite of the translational correction, the delivered doses to the spinal cord could be more than the calculated doses. Therefore if rotational setup errors exist during lung SBRT using VMAT technique, the rotational correction would rather be considered to prevent over-irradiation of normal tissues than the translational correction.« less