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Title: SU-C-BRC-04: Efficient Dose Calculation Algorithm for FFF IMRT with a Simplified Bivariate Gaussian Source Model

Abstract

Purpose: To develop an efficient and accurate independent dose calculation algorithm with a simplified analytical source model for the quality assurance and safe delivery of Flattening Filter Free (FFF)-IMRT on an Elekta Versa HD. Methods: The source model consisted of a point source and a 2D bivariate Gaussian source, respectively modeling the primary photons and the combined effect of head scatter, monitor chamber backscatter and collimator exchange effect. The in-air fluence was firstly calculated by back-projecting the edges of beam defining devices onto the source plane and integrating the visible source distribution. The effect of the rounded MLC leaf end, tongue-and-groove and interleaf transmission was taken into account in the back-projection. The in-air fluence was then modified with a fourth degree polynomial modeling the cone-shaped dose distribution of FFF beams. Planar dose distribution was obtained by convolving the in-air fluence with a dose deposition kernel (DDK) consisting of the sum of three 2D Gaussian functions. The parameters of the source model and the DDK were commissioned using measured in-air output factors (Sc) and cross beam profiles, respectively. A novel method was used to eliminate the volume averaging effect of ion chambers in determining the DDK. Planar dose distributions of fivemore » head-and-neck FFF-IMRT plans were calculated and compared against measurements performed with a 2D diode array (MapCHECK™) to validate the accuracy of the algorithm. Results: The proposed source model predicted Sc for both 6MV and 10MV with an accuracy better than 0.1%. With a stringent gamma criterion (2%/2mm/local difference), the passing rate of the FFF-IMRT dose calculation was 97.2±2.6%. Conclusion: The removal of the flattening filter represents a simplification of the head structure which allows the use of a simpler source model for very accurate dose calculation. The proposed algorithm offers an effective way to ensure the safe delivery of FFF-IMRT.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624315
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; ALGORITHMS; GAUSS FUNCTION; HEAD; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; NECK; POINT SOURCES; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Li, F, Park, J, Barraclough, B, Lu, B, Li, J, Liu, C, and Yan, G. SU-C-BRC-04: Efficient Dose Calculation Algorithm for FFF IMRT with a Simplified Bivariate Gaussian Source Model. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955551.
Li, F, Park, J, Barraclough, B, Lu, B, Li, J, Liu, C, & Yan, G. SU-C-BRC-04: Efficient Dose Calculation Algorithm for FFF IMRT with a Simplified Bivariate Gaussian Source Model. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955551.
Li, F, Park, J, Barraclough, B, Lu, B, Li, J, Liu, C, and Yan, G. 2016. "SU-C-BRC-04: Efficient Dose Calculation Algorithm for FFF IMRT with a Simplified Bivariate Gaussian Source Model". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955551.
@article{osti_22624315,
title = {SU-C-BRC-04: Efficient Dose Calculation Algorithm for FFF IMRT with a Simplified Bivariate Gaussian Source Model},
author = {Li, F and Park, J and Barraclough, B and Lu, B and Li, J and Liu, C and Yan, G},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To develop an efficient and accurate independent dose calculation algorithm with a simplified analytical source model for the quality assurance and safe delivery of Flattening Filter Free (FFF)-IMRT on an Elekta Versa HD. Methods: The source model consisted of a point source and a 2D bivariate Gaussian source, respectively modeling the primary photons and the combined effect of head scatter, monitor chamber backscatter and collimator exchange effect. The in-air fluence was firstly calculated by back-projecting the edges of beam defining devices onto the source plane and integrating the visible source distribution. The effect of the rounded MLC leaf end, tongue-and-groove and interleaf transmission was taken into account in the back-projection. The in-air fluence was then modified with a fourth degree polynomial modeling the cone-shaped dose distribution of FFF beams. Planar dose distribution was obtained by convolving the in-air fluence with a dose deposition kernel (DDK) consisting of the sum of three 2D Gaussian functions. The parameters of the source model and the DDK were commissioned using measured in-air output factors (Sc) and cross beam profiles, respectively. A novel method was used to eliminate the volume averaging effect of ion chambers in determining the DDK. Planar dose distributions of five head-and-neck FFF-IMRT plans were calculated and compared against measurements performed with a 2D diode array (MapCHECK™) to validate the accuracy of the algorithm. Results: The proposed source model predicted Sc for both 6MV and 10MV with an accuracy better than 0.1%. With a stringent gamma criterion (2%/2mm/local difference), the passing rate of the FFF-IMRT dose calculation was 97.2±2.6%. Conclusion: The removal of the flattening filter represents a simplification of the head structure which allows the use of a simpler source model for very accurate dose calculation. The proposed algorithm offers an effective way to ensure the safe delivery of FFF-IMRT.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955551},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Radiation treatments are trending toward delivering higher doses per fraction under stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated treatment regimens. There is a need for accurate 3D in vivo patient dose verification using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. This work presents a model-based technique to compute full three-dimensional patient dose reconstructed from on-treatment EPID portal images (i.e., transmission images). Methods: EPID dose is converted to incident fluence entering the patient using a series of steps which include converting measured EPID dose to fluence at the detector plane and then back-projecting the primary source component of the EPID fluence upstream of themore » patient. Incident fluence is then recombined with predicted extra-focal fluence and used to calculate 3D patient dose via a collapsed-cone convolution method. This method is implemented in an iterative manner, although in practice it provides accurate results in a single iteration. The robustness of the dose reconstruction technique is demonstrated with several simple slab phantom and nine anthropomorphic phantom cases. Prostate, head and neck, and lung treatments are all included as well as a range of delivery techniques including VMAT and dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Results: Results indicate that the patient dose reconstruction algorithm compares well with treatment planning system computed doses for controlled test situations. For simple phantom and square field tests, agreement was excellent with a 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rate ≥98.9%. On anthropomorphic phantoms, the 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rates ranged from 79.9% to 99.9% in the planning target volume (PTV) region and 96.5% to 100% in the low dose region (>20% of prescription, excluding PTV and skin build-up region). Conclusions: An algorithm to reconstruct delivered patient 3D doses from EPID exit dosimetry measurements was presented. The method was applied to phantom and patient data sets, as well as for dynamic IMRT and VMAT delivery techniques. Results indicate that the EPID dose reconstruction algorithm presented in this work is suitable for clinical implementation.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of the Acuros XB version 11 (AXB11) advanced dose calculation algorithm by comparing with Monte Caro (MC) calculations. The comparisons were performed with dose distributions for a virtual inhomogeneity phantom and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in head and neck. Methods: Recently, AXB based on Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation has been installed in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Oncology System, USA). The dose calculation accuracy of AXB11 was tested by the EGSnrc-MC calculations. In additions, AXB version 10 (AXB10) and Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) were also used. First the accuracy of an inhomogeneity correction formore » AXB and AAA algorithms was evaluated by comparing with MC-calculated dose distributions for a virtual inhomogeneity phantom that includes water, bone, air, adipose, muscle, and aluminum. Next the IMRT dose distributions for head and neck were compared with the AXB and AAA algorithms and MC by means of dose volume histograms and three dimensional gamma analysis for each structure (CTV, OAR, etc.). Results: For dose distributions with the virtual inhomogeneity phantom, AXB was in good agreement with those of MC, except the dose in air region. The dose in air region decreased in order of MC« less
  • Purpose: In current IMRT and VMAT settings, the use of sophisticated dose calculation procedure is inevitable in order to account complex treatment field created by MLCs. As a consequence, independent volumetric dose verification procedure is time consuming which affect the efficiency of clinical workflow. In this study, the authors present an efficient Pencil Beam based dose calculation algorithm that minimizes the computational procedure while preserving the accuracy. Methods: The computational time of Finite Size Pencil Beam (FSPB) algorithm is proportional to the number of infinitesimal identical beamlets that constitute the arbitrary field shape. In AB-FSPB, the dose distribution from eachmore » beamlet is mathematically modelled such that the sizes of beamlets to represent arbitrary field shape are no longer needed to be infinitesimal nor identical. In consequence, it is possible to represent arbitrary field shape with combinations of different sized and minimal number of beamlets. Results: On comparing FSPB with AB-FSPB, the complexity of the algorithm has been reduced significantly. For 25 by 25 cm2 squared shaped field, 1 beamlet of 25 by 25 cm2 was sufficient to calculate dose in AB-FSPB, whereas in conventional FSPB, minimum 2500 beamlets of 0.5 by 0.5 cm2 size were needed to calculate dose that was comparable to the Result computed from Treatment Planning System (TPS). The algorithm was also found to be GPU compatible to maximize its computational speed. On calculating 3D dose of IMRT (∼30 control points) and VMAT plan (∼90 control points) with grid size 2.0 mm (200 by 200 by 200), the dose could be computed within 3∼5 and 10∼15 seconds. Conclusion: Authors have developed an efficient Pencil Beam type dose calculation algorithm called AB-FSPB. The fast computation nature along with GPU compatibility has shown performance better than conventional FSPB. This completely enables the implantation of AB-FSPB in the clinical environment for independent volumetric dose verification.« less
  • Indicator atcokriging is an alternative to disjunctive kriging for estimation of spatial distributions. One way to determine which of these techniques is more accurate for estimation of spatial distributions is to apply each to a particular type of data. A procedure is developed for evaluation of disjunctive kriging and indicator atcokriging for such an application. Application of this procedure to earthquake ground motion data found disjunctive kriging to be at least as accurate as indicator atcokriging for estimation of spatial distributions for peak horizontal acceleration. Indicator atcokriging was superior for all other types of earthquake ground motion data.
  • Inter- and intra-leaf transmission and head scatter can play significant roles in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)-based treatment deliveries. In order to accurately calculate the dose in the IMRT planning process, it is therefore important that the detailed geometry of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC), in addition to other components in the accelerator treatment head, be accurately modeled. In this paper, we have used the Monte Carlo method (MC) to develop a comprehensive model of the Varian 120 leaf MLC and have compared it against measurements in homogeneous phantom geometries under different IMRT delivery circumstances. We have developed a geometry modulemore » within the DPM MC code to simulate the detailed MLC design and the collimating jaws. Tests consisting of leakage, leaf positioning and static MLC shapes were performed to verify the accuracy of transport within the MLC model. The calculations show agreement within 2% in the high dose region for both film and ion-chamber measurements for these static shapes. Clinical IMRT treatment plans for the breast [both segmental MLC (SMLC) and dynamic MLC (DMLC)], prostate (SMLC) and head and neck split fields (SMLC) were also calculated and compared with film measurements. Such a range of cases were chosen to investigate the accuracy of the model as a function of modulation in the beamlet pattern, beamlet width, and field size. The overall agreement is within 2%/2 mm of the film data for all IMRT beams except the head and neck split field, which showed differences up to 5% in the high dose regions. Various sources of uncertainties in these comparisons are discussed.« less