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Title: SU-C-BRC-03: Development of a Novel Strategy for On-Demand Monte Carlo and Deterministic Dose Calculation Treatment Planning and Optimization for External Beam Photon and Particle Therapy

Abstract

Purpose: Accurate and fast dose calculation is a prerequisite of precision radiation therapy in modern photon and particle therapy. While Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation provides high dosimetric accuracy, the drastically increased computational time hinders its routine use. Deterministic dose calculation methods are fast, but problematic in the presence of tissue density inhomogeneity. We leverage the useful features of deterministic methods and MC to develop a hybrid dose calculation platform with autonomous utilization of MC and deterministic calculation depending on the local geometry, for optimal accuracy and speed. Methods: Our platform utilizes a Geant4 based “localized Monte Carlo” (LMC) method that isolates MC dose calculations only to volumes that have potential for dosimetric inaccuracy. In our approach, additional structures are created encompassing heterogeneous volumes. Deterministic methods calculate dose and energy fluence up to the volume surfaces, where the energy fluence distribution is sampled into discrete histories and transported using MC. Histories exiting the volume are converted back into energy fluence, and transported deterministically. By matching boundary conditions at both interfaces, deterministic dose calculation account for dose perturbations “downstream” of localized heterogeneities. Hybrid dose calculation was performed for water and anthropomorphic phantoms. Results: We achieved <1% agreement between deterministic and MCmore » calculations in the water benchmark for photon and proton beams, and dose differences of 2%–15% could be observed in heterogeneous phantoms. The saving in computational time (a factor ∼4–7 compared to a full Monte Carlo dose calculation) was found to be approximately proportional to the volume of the heterogeneous region. Conclusion: Our hybrid dose calculation approach takes advantage of the computational efficiency of deterministic method and accuracy of MC, providing a practical tool for high performance dose calculation in modern RT. The approach is generalizable to all modalities where heterogeneities play a large role, notably particle therapy.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624314
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; ANIMAL TISSUES; APPROXIMATIONS; DISTURBANCES; HYBRIDIZATION; MONTE CARLO METHOD; OPTIMIZATION; PHANTOMS; PLANNING; PLANT TISSUES; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Yang, Y M, Bush, K, Han, B, and Xing, L. SU-C-BRC-03: Development of a Novel Strategy for On-Demand Monte Carlo and Deterministic Dose Calculation Treatment Planning and Optimization for External Beam Photon and Particle Therapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955550.
Yang, Y M, Bush, K, Han, B, & Xing, L. SU-C-BRC-03: Development of a Novel Strategy for On-Demand Monte Carlo and Deterministic Dose Calculation Treatment Planning and Optimization for External Beam Photon and Particle Therapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955550.
Yang, Y M, Bush, K, Han, B, and Xing, L. Wed . "SU-C-BRC-03: Development of a Novel Strategy for On-Demand Monte Carlo and Deterministic Dose Calculation Treatment Planning and Optimization for External Beam Photon and Particle Therapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955550.
@article{osti_22624314,
title = {SU-C-BRC-03: Development of a Novel Strategy for On-Demand Monte Carlo and Deterministic Dose Calculation Treatment Planning and Optimization for External Beam Photon and Particle Therapy},
author = {Yang, Y M and Bush, K and Han, B and Xing, L},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Accurate and fast dose calculation is a prerequisite of precision radiation therapy in modern photon and particle therapy. While Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation provides high dosimetric accuracy, the drastically increased computational time hinders its routine use. Deterministic dose calculation methods are fast, but problematic in the presence of tissue density inhomogeneity. We leverage the useful features of deterministic methods and MC to develop a hybrid dose calculation platform with autonomous utilization of MC and deterministic calculation depending on the local geometry, for optimal accuracy and speed. Methods: Our platform utilizes a Geant4 based “localized Monte Carlo” (LMC) method that isolates MC dose calculations only to volumes that have potential for dosimetric inaccuracy. In our approach, additional structures are created encompassing heterogeneous volumes. Deterministic methods calculate dose and energy fluence up to the volume surfaces, where the energy fluence distribution is sampled into discrete histories and transported using MC. Histories exiting the volume are converted back into energy fluence, and transported deterministically. By matching boundary conditions at both interfaces, deterministic dose calculation account for dose perturbations “downstream” of localized heterogeneities. Hybrid dose calculation was performed for water and anthropomorphic phantoms. Results: We achieved <1% agreement between deterministic and MC calculations in the water benchmark for photon and proton beams, and dose differences of 2%–15% could be observed in heterogeneous phantoms. The saving in computational time (a factor ∼4–7 compared to a full Monte Carlo dose calculation) was found to be approximately proportional to the volume of the heterogeneous region. Conclusion: Our hybrid dose calculation approach takes advantage of the computational efficiency of deterministic method and accuracy of MC, providing a practical tool for high performance dose calculation in modern RT. The approach is generalizable to all modalities where heterogeneities play a large role, notably particle therapy.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955550},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: Eclipse proton Monte Carlo AcurosPT 13.7 was commissioned and experimentally validated for an IBA dedicated PBS nozzle in water. Topas 1.3 was used to isolate the cause of differences in output and penumbra between simulation and experiment. Methods: The spot profiles were measured in air at five locations using Lynx. PTW-34070 Bragg peak chamber (Freiburg, Germany) was used to collect the relative integral Bragg peak for 15 proton energies from 100 MeV to 225 MeV. The phase space parameters (σx, σθ, ρxθ) number of protons per MU, energy spread and calculated mean energy provided by AcurosPT were identically implementedmore » into Topas. The absolute dose, profiles and field size factors measured using ionization chamber arrays were compared with both AcurosPT and Topas. Results: The beam spot size, σx, and the angular spread, σθ, in air were both energy-dependent: in particular, the spot size in air at isocentre ranged from 2.8 to 5.3 mm, and the angular spread ranged from 2.7 mrad to 6 mrad. The number of protons per MU increased from ∼9E7 at 100 MeV to ∼1.5E8 at 225 MeV. Both AcurosPT and TOPAS agree with experiment within 2 mm penumbra difference or 3% dose difference for scenarios including central axis depth dose and profiles at two depths in multi-spot square fields, from 40 to 200 mm, for all the investigated single-energy and multi-energy beams, indicating clinically acceptable source model and radiation transport algorithm in water. Conclusion: By comparing measured data and TOPAS simulation using the same source model, the AcurosPT 13.7 was validated in water within 2 mm penumbra difference or 3% dose difference. Benchmarks versus an independent Monte Carlo code are recommended to study the agreement in output, filed size factors and penumbra differences. This project is partially supported by the Varian grant under the master agreement between University of Pennsylvania and Varian.« less
  • Purpose: Due to the difficulty of creating an accurate multi-aperture block in treatment planning systems (TPS), spatially fractionated radiation therapy (GRID Therapy) is limited to clinical setups using simple monitor unit calculations. In this work, we present a novel approach to accurately model a grid block in a TPS and evaluate its dosimetric accuracy. Methods: An acrylic GRID block was fashioned such that the hole size and spacing were the same dimensions of the brass GRID block (dotDecimal) at isocenter. Holes were non-divergent and drilled 1 cm deep. CT scans (RT Lightspeed, GE Healthcare) of the block were acquired usingmore » axial slices with a thickness of 0.625 mm. These were imported into Eclipse (version 11, Varian Medical Systems) and holes were auto-contoured into structures. The GRID block was created in Eclipse by forming apertures around the hole structures using a simple three step process. Treatment plans were created in a water-equivalent phantom using 6 and 10 MV beams, delivered with a linear accelerator (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems) and measured using a water tank, film and a diode array. Results: Comparisons of percent depth dose curves and profiles at depths of maximum dose, 5cm, and 10cm for field sizes ranging from 5 cm{sup 2} to 25 cm{sup 2} using water and film were within 3% of their respective positions in Eclipse. GRID plans utilizing various jaw sizes and MLC blocking measured with film and a diode array showed pass rates with an average of 97% using Gamma analysis at 3%/ 3 mm and no lower than 93%. Conclusion: We have developed a simple yet accurate method of incorporating a GRID block into a commercially available TPS and demonstrated that the TPS accurately reflects the dose delivered. This will allow for real-time planning using patient scans and encourage new methods for GRID therapy. Support provided by dotDecimal, Sanford, FL.« less
  • Purpose: To develop a general method for human tissue characterization with dual-and multi-energy CT and evaluate its performance in determining elemental compositions and the associated proton stopping power relative to water (SPR) and photon mass absorption coefficients (EAC). Methods: Principal component analysis is used to extract an optimal basis of virtual materials from a reference dataset of tissues. These principal components (PC) are used to perform two-material decomposition using simulated DECT data. The elemental mass fraction and the electron density in each tissue is retrieved by measuring the fraction of each PC. A stoichiometric calibration method is adapted to themore » technique to make it suitable for clinical use. The present approach is compared with two others: parametrization and three-material decomposition using the water-lipid-protein (WLP) triplet. Results: Monte Carlo simulations using TOPAS for four reference tissues shows that characterizing them with only two PC is enough to get a submillimetric precision on proton range prediction. Based on the simulated DECT data of 43 references tissues, the proposed method is in agreement with theoretical values of protons SPR and low-kV EAC with a RMS error of 0.11% and 0.35%, respectively. In comparison, parametrization and WLP respectively yield RMS errors of 0.13% and 0.29% on SPR, and 2.72% and 2.19% on EAC. Furthermore, the proposed approach shows potential applications for spectral CT. Using five PC and five energy bins reduces the SPR RMS error to 0.03%. Conclusion: The proposed method shows good performance in determining elemental compositions from DECT data and physical quantities relevant to radiotherapy dose calculation and generally shows better accuracy and unbiased results compared to reference methods. The proposed method is particularly suitable for Monte Carlo calculations and shows promise in using more than two energies to characterize human tissue with CT.« less
  • Purpose: This study evaluated the performance of the electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in RayStation v4.0 for an Elekta machine with Agility™ treatment head. Methods: The machine has five electron energies (6–8 MeV) and five applicators (6×6 to 25×25 cm {sup 2}). The dose (cGy/MU at d{sub max}), depth dose and profiles were measured in water using an electron diode at 100 cm SSD for nine square fields ≥2×2 cm{sup 2} and four complex fields at normal incidence, and a 14×14 cm{sup 2} field at 15° and 30° incidence. The dose was also measured for three square fields ≥4×4more » cm{sup 2} at 98, 105 and 110 cm SSD. Using selected energies, the EBT3 radiochromic film was used for dose measurements in slab-shaped inhomogeneous phantoms and a breast phantom with surface curvature. The measured and calculated doses were analyzed using a gamma criterion of 3%/3 mm. Results: The calculated and measured doses varied by <3% for 116 of the 120 points, and <5% for the 4×4 cm{sup 2} field at 110 cm SSD at 9–18 MeV. The gamma analysis comparing the 105 pairs of in-water isodoses passed by >98.1%. The planar doses measured from films placed at 0.5 cm below a lung/tissue layer (12 MeV) and 1.0 cm below a bone/air layer (15 MeV) showed excellent agreement with calculations, with gamma passing by 99.9% and 98.5%, respectively. At the breast-tissue interface, the gamma passing rate is >98.8% at 12–18 MeV. The film results directly validated the accuracy of MU calculation and spatial dose distribution in presence of tissue inhomogeneity and surface curvature - situations challenging for simpler pencil-beam algorithms. Conclusion: The electron Monte Carlo algorithm in RayStation v4.0 is fully validated for clinical use for the Elekta Agility™ machine. The comprehensive validation included small fields, complex fields, oblique beams, extended distance, tissue inhomogeneity and surface curvature.« less
  • Purpose: Monitoring the delivered dose is an important task for the adaptive radiotherapy (ART) and for determining time to re-plan. A software tool which enables automatic delivered dose calculation using cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been developed and tested. Methods: The tool consists of four components: a CBCT Colleting Module (CCM), a Plan Registration Moduel (PRM), a Dose Calculation Module (DCM), and an Evaluation and Action Module (EAM). The CCM is triggered periodically (e.g. every 1:00 AM) to search for newly acquired CBCTs of patients of interest and then export the DICOM files of the images and related registrations defined inmore » ARIA followed by triggering the PRM. The PRM imports the DICOM images and registrations, links the CBCTs to the related treatment plan of the patient in the planning system (RayStation V4.5, RaySearch, Stockholm, Sweden). A pre-determined CT-to-density table is automatically generated for dose calculation. Current version of the DCM uses a rigid registration which regards the treatment isocenter of the CBCT to be the isocenter of the treatment plan. Then it starts the dose calculation automatically. The AEM evaluates the plan using pre-determined plan evaluation parameters: PTV dose-volume metrics and critical organ doses. The tool has been tested for 10 patients. Results: Automatic plans are generated and saved in the order of the treatment dates of the Adaptive Planning module of the RayStation planning system, without any manual intervention. Once the CTV dose deviates more than 3%, both email and page alerts are sent to the physician and the physicist of the patient so that one can look the case closely. Conclusion: The tool is capable to perform automatic dose tracking and to alert clinicians when an action is needed. It is clinically useful for off-line adaptive therapy to catch any gross error. Practical way of determining alarming level for OAR is under development.« less