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Title: SU-C-201-07: Towards Clinical Cherenkov Emission Dosimetry: Stopping Power-To-Cherenkov Power Ratios and Beam Quality Specification of Clinical Electron Beams

Abstract

Purpose: We propose a Cherenkov emission (CE)-based reference dosimetry method, which in contrast to ionization chamber-based dosimetry, employs spectrum-averaged electron restricted mass collision stopping power-to-Cherenkov power ratios (SCRs), and we examine Monte Carlo-calculated SCRs and beam quality specification of clinical electron beams. Methods: The EGSnrc user code SPRRZnrc was modified to compute SCRs instead of stopping-power ratios (single medium: water; cut-off: CE threshold (observing Spencer-Attix conditions); CE power: Frank-Tamm). SCRs are calculated with BEAMnrc for realistic electron beams with nominal energies of 6–22 MeV from three Varian accelerators (TrueBeam Clinac 21EX, Clinac 2100C/D) and for mono-energetic beams of energies equal to the mean electron energy at the water surface. Sources of deviation between clinical and mono-energetic SCRs are analyzed quantitatively. A universal fit for the beam-quality index R{sub 50} in terms of the depth of 50% CE C{sub 50} is carried out. Results: SCRs at reference depth are overestimated by mono-energetic values by up to 0.2% for a 6-MeV beam and underestimated by up to 2.3% for a 22-MeV beam. The variation is mainly due to the clinical beam spectrum and photon contamination. Beam angular spread has a small effect across all depths and energies. The influence of the electronmore » spectrum becomes increasingly significant at large depths, while at shallow depths and high beam energies photon contamination is predominant (up to 2.0%). The universal data fit reveals a strong linear correlation between R{sub 50} and C{sub 50} (ρ > 0.99999). Conclusion: CE is inherent to radiotherapy beams and can be detected outside the beam with available optical technologies, which makes it an ideal candidate for out-of-beam high-resolution 3D dosimetry. Successful clinical implementation of CE dosimetry hinges on the development of robust protocols for converting measured CE to radiation dose. Our findings constitute a key step towards clinical CE dosimetry.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)
  2. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624312
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACCELERATORS; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; DOSIMETRY; ELECTRON BEAMS; ELECTRON SPECTRA; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SPECIFICATIONS; STOPPING POWER; WATER

Citation Formats

Zlateva, Y, Seuntjens, J, and El Naqa, I. SU-C-201-07: Towards Clinical Cherenkov Emission Dosimetry: Stopping Power-To-Cherenkov Power Ratios and Beam Quality Specification of Clinical Electron Beams. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955547.
Zlateva, Y, Seuntjens, J, & El Naqa, I. SU-C-201-07: Towards Clinical Cherenkov Emission Dosimetry: Stopping Power-To-Cherenkov Power Ratios and Beam Quality Specification of Clinical Electron Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955547.
Zlateva, Y, Seuntjens, J, and El Naqa, I. 2016. "SU-C-201-07: Towards Clinical Cherenkov Emission Dosimetry: Stopping Power-To-Cherenkov Power Ratios and Beam Quality Specification of Clinical Electron Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955547.
@article{osti_22624312,
title = {SU-C-201-07: Towards Clinical Cherenkov Emission Dosimetry: Stopping Power-To-Cherenkov Power Ratios and Beam Quality Specification of Clinical Electron Beams},
author = {Zlateva, Y and Seuntjens, J and El Naqa, I},
abstractNote = {Purpose: We propose a Cherenkov emission (CE)-based reference dosimetry method, which in contrast to ionization chamber-based dosimetry, employs spectrum-averaged electron restricted mass collision stopping power-to-Cherenkov power ratios (SCRs), and we examine Monte Carlo-calculated SCRs and beam quality specification of clinical electron beams. Methods: The EGSnrc user code SPRRZnrc was modified to compute SCRs instead of stopping-power ratios (single medium: water; cut-off: CE threshold (observing Spencer-Attix conditions); CE power: Frank-Tamm). SCRs are calculated with BEAMnrc for realistic electron beams with nominal energies of 6–22 MeV from three Varian accelerators (TrueBeam Clinac 21EX, Clinac 2100C/D) and for mono-energetic beams of energies equal to the mean electron energy at the water surface. Sources of deviation between clinical and mono-energetic SCRs are analyzed quantitatively. A universal fit for the beam-quality index R{sub 50} in terms of the depth of 50% CE C{sub 50} is carried out. Results: SCRs at reference depth are overestimated by mono-energetic values by up to 0.2% for a 6-MeV beam and underestimated by up to 2.3% for a 22-MeV beam. The variation is mainly due to the clinical beam spectrum and photon contamination. Beam angular spread has a small effect across all depths and energies. The influence of the electron spectrum becomes increasingly significant at large depths, while at shallow depths and high beam energies photon contamination is predominant (up to 2.0%). The universal data fit reveals a strong linear correlation between R{sub 50} and C{sub 50} (ρ > 0.99999). Conclusion: CE is inherent to radiotherapy beams and can be detected outside the beam with available optical technologies, which makes it an ideal candidate for out-of-beam high-resolution 3D dosimetry. Successful clinical implementation of CE dosimetry hinges on the development of robust protocols for converting measured CE to radiation dose. Our findings constitute a key step towards clinical CE dosimetry.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955547},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • A method for the selection of average stopping-power (L-bar/rho)/sup med//sub air/ and energy-absorption coefficient ( mu-bar/sub en//rho)/sup med//sub air/ ratios has been developed. The quality of the x-ray beam is characterized by the ratio of ionization chamber readings at depths of 20 and 10 cm in water (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/. For convenience, a relationship is established between experimental (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ and the nominal accelerating potential (MV) of the accelerator. Experimental (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ are related to (L-bar/rho)/sup med//sub air/ and ( mu-bar/sub en//rho)/sup med//sub air/ in a three-step process. First, using experimental and theoretical spectra in the range /supmore » 60/Co to 45 MV, (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ were calculated for primary and first-scatter photons, and a graph of experimental versus calculated (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ for these same spectra was constructed. Second, (L-bar/rho)/sup med//sub air/ and ( mu-bar/sub en//rho)/sup med//sub air/ were calculated for a large number of primary spectra (for most of which experimental (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ were not available) and a graph constructed that related these quantities and (TMR)/sup 20//sub 10/ calculated as above for this group of spectra. Third, using the graphs from the preceding steps, graphs relating the calculated (L-bar/rho)/sup med//sub air/ and ( mu-bar/sub en//rho)/sup med//sub air/ with experimental (TMR)/sup 20/3exclamation/sub 0/ were constructed. Data are presented for water, polystyrene, acrylic, graphite, A-150, C-552, Bakelite, and nylon for beams with nominal accelerating potentials in the range 2--45 MV.« less
  • Purpose: To test the use of a three-dimensional (3D) optical cone beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm, for estimation of the imparted 3D dose distribution from megavoltage photon beams in a water tank for quality assurance, by imaging the induced Cherenkov-excited fluorescence (CEF). Methods: An intensified charge-coupled device coupled to a standard nontelecentric camera lens was used to tomographically acquire two-dimensional (2D) projection images of CEF from a complex multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 600 MU/min. The resulting projections were used to reconstruct the 3D CEF light distribution, amore » potential surrogate of imparted dose, using a Feldkamp–Davis–Kress cone beam back reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the reconstructed light distributions were compared to the expected dose values from one-dimensional diode scans, 2D film measurements, and the 3D distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system using a gamma index analysis. A Monte Carlo derived correction was applied to the Cherenkov reconstructions to account for beam hardening artifacts. Results: 3D light volumes were successfully reconstructed over a 400 × 400 × 350 mm{sup 3} volume at a resolution of 1 mm. The Cherenkov reconstructions showed agreement with all comparative methods and were also able to recover both inter- and intra-MLC leaf leakage. Based upon a 3%/3 mm criterion, the experimental Cherenkov light measurements showed an 83%–99% pass fraction depending on the chosen threshold dose. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the use of optical cone beam computed tomography using CEF for the profiling of the imparted dose distribution from large area megavoltage photon beams in water.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate from first principles, corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements, the feasibility of developing a relative Cherenkov emission (CE) dosimetry protocol for electron beam radiotherapy. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of mono-energetic electrons incident on water were carried out in Geant4. Percent depth Cherenkov emission (PDCE) and dose (PDD) distributions were scored for incidence energies of 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV. PDCE-to-PDD analytical conversion models were developed from least-squares data fits generated for PDD as a function of PDCE at the same depth and at different depths. Experimental techniques for validation of thesemore » models are examined. Results: Same-depth PDD versus PDCE data fits indicate that although the relationship is linear to first order (correlation r > 0.9 for all energies), it is much more accurately approximated by separate linear and quadratic models for the build-up and drop-off regions, respectively (r > 0.999), which is theoretically underpinned. To understand the source of this relationship and its basis for developing robust conversion models, an approximate quadratic first-principles model was derived and found in agreement with MC/measured data (20% deviation at worst). Conversely, data fits of PDD versus different-depth PDCE unveiled a depth-invariant effective point of measurement of 1.5–2.1 mm downstream with 4–18 MeV incidence, respectively (r > 0.999 in the drop-off region). We present an analytical first-principles justification for this shift. This method led to errors of <1% in drop-off region PDD (<2% for PDD<20% with 4 MeV incidence) and <0.2 mm in practical range prediction. Conclusion: We present robust quantitative prediction models, derived from first-principles and supported by simulation and measurement, for relative dose from Cherenkov emission by high-energy electrons. This constitutes a major step towards development of protocols for routine clinical quality assurance as well as real-time in vivo Cherenkov dosimetry in radiotherapy. The authors acknowledge partial support by Fonds de recherche du Quebec - Nature et technologies (FRQNT), CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), CREATE Integrated Sensor Systems grant of NSERC, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), and NSERC.« less
  • Purpose: A method was developed utilizing Cherenkov imaging for rapid and thorough determination of the two gantry angles that produce the most uniform treatment plane during dual-field total skin electron beam therapy (TSET). Methods: Cherenkov imaging was implemented to gather 2D measurements of relative surface dose from 6 MeV electron beams on a white polyethylene sheet. An intensified charge-coupled device camera time-gated to the Linac was used for Cherenkov emission imaging at sixty-two different gantry angles (1° increments, from 239.5° to 300.5°). Following a modified Stanford TSET technique, which uses two fields per patient position for full body coverage, compositemore » images were created as the sum of two beam images on the sheet; each angle pair was evaluated for minimum variation across the patient region of interest. Cherenkov versus dose correlation was verified with ionization chamber measurements. The process was repeated at source to surface distance (SSD) = 441, 370.5, and 300 cm to determine optimal angle spread for varying room geometries. In addition, three patients receiving TSET using a modified Stanford six-dual field technique with 6 MeV electron beams at SSD = 441 cm were imaged during treatment. Results: As in previous studies, Cherenkov intensity was shown to directly correlate with dose for homogenous flat phantoms (R{sup 2} = 0.93), making Cherenkov imaging an appropriate candidate to assess and optimize TSET setup geometry. This method provided dense 2D images allowing 1891 possible treatment geometries to be comprehensively analyzed from one data set of 62 single images. Gantry angles historically used for TSET at their institution were 255.5° and 284.5° at SSD = 441 cm; however, the angles optimized for maximum homogeneity were found to be 252.5° and 287.5° (+6° increase in angle spread). Ionization chamber measurements confirmed improvement in dose homogeneity across the treatment field from a range of 24.4% at the initial angles, to only 9.8% with the angles optimized. A linear relationship between angle spread and SSD was observed, ranging from 35° at 441 cm, to 39° at 300 cm, with no significant variation in percent-depth dose at midline (R{sup 2} = 0.998). For patient studies, factors influencing in vivo correlation between Cherenkov intensity and measured surface dose are still being investigated. Conclusions: Cherenkov intensity correlates to relative dose measured at depth of maximum dose in a uniform, flat phantom. Imaging of phantoms can thus be used to analyze and optimize TSET treatment geometry more extensively and rapidly than thermoluminescent dosimeters or ionization chambers. This work suggests that there could be an expanded role for Cherenkov imaging as a tool to efficiently improve treatment protocols and as a potential verification tool for routine monitoring of unique patient treatments.« less
  • Purpose: Patients who undergo n-BCA glue embolization as part of treatment for AVMs are later referred for proton therapy. Knowing the relative stopping power of the glue accurately allows us to perform accurate dose calculations. In this study we experimentally determine the relative stopping power of an n-BCA mixture in a 126 MeV and 149.6 MeV proton beams. Methods: One unit of the TRUFILL™ n-BCA liquid embolic system consists of 1g unit of n-BCA, 1g unit of Tantalum powder and one 10mL vial of Ethiodized oil. The physician mixed 3:1 Ethiodized oil to n-BCA. Five units (20cc) of the n-BCAmore » liquid embolic glue were prepared and placed in a 6cm x 3cm x3cm Lucite container. The container was placed in front of a water tank in the proton beam path. A diamond detector (active volume 0.004mm3) was used to measure distal edge of depth dose of a modulated 126 MeV proton beam collimated using a 3cm brass aperture. The procedure was repeated with a container carrying the same amount of water placed in front of the water tank. The difference in the depth dose measured with glue and with water was used to determine the relative stopping power of the glue. The same determination was done earlier at 149.6 MeV using a different smaller sample (4cc) of n-BCA. Results: The relative stopping power of this particular n-BCA mixture was determined to be 1.06 at both 126 MeV and 149.6 MeV. We are working on obtaining the composition data of the n-BCA glue so we can perform Monte Carlo calculations. Conclusion: Accurate value of the stopping power of the n-BCA glue in the proton beam was determined to be 1.06. It will improve the accuracy of dose calculations in proton radiosurgery procedures on AVM patients with n-BCA embolization.« less