# Shear-free axial model in massive Brans–Dicke gravity

## Abstract

This paper explores the influences of dark energy on the shear-free axially symmetric evolution by considering self-interacting Brans–Dicke gravity as a dark energy candidate. We describe energy source of the model and derive all the effective dynamical variables as well as effective structure scalars. It is found that scalar field is one of the sources of anisotropy and dissipation. The resulting effective structure scalars help to study the dynamics associated with dark energy in any axial configuration. In order to investigate shear-free evolution, we formulate a set of governing equations along with heat transport equation. We discuss consequences of shear-free condition upon different SBD fluid models like dissipative non-geodesic and geodesic models. For dissipative non-geodesic case, the rotational distribution turns out to be the necessary and sufficient condition for radiating model. The dissipation depends upon inhomogeneous expansion. The geodesic model is found to be irrotational and non-radiating. The non-dissipative geodesic model leads to FRW model for positive values of the expansion parameter.

- Authors:

- Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)
- (Pakistan)

- Publication Date:

- OSTI Identifier:
- 22617449

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Resource Relation:
- Journal Name: Annals of Physics; Journal Volume: 376; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; AXIAL SYMMETRY; GEODESICS; GRAVITATION; HEAT TRANSFER; NONLUMINOUS MATTER

### Citation Formats

```
Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk, Manzoor, Rubab, E-mail: rubab.manzoor@umt.edu.pk, and Department of Mathematics, University of Management and Technology, Johar Town Campus, Lahore-54782.
```*Shear-free axial model in massive Brans–Dicke gravity*. United States: N. p., 2017.
Web. doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2016.10.024.

```
Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk, Manzoor, Rubab, E-mail: rubab.manzoor@umt.edu.pk, & Department of Mathematics, University of Management and Technology, Johar Town Campus, Lahore-54782.
```*Shear-free axial model in massive Brans–Dicke gravity*. United States. doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2016.10.024.

```
Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk, Manzoor, Rubab, E-mail: rubab.manzoor@umt.edu.pk, and Department of Mathematics, University of Management and Technology, Johar Town Campus, Lahore-54782. Sun .
"Shear-free axial model in massive Brans–Dicke gravity". United States.
doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2016.10.024.
```

```
@article{osti_22617449,
```

title = {Shear-free axial model in massive Brans–Dicke gravity},

author = {Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk and Manzoor, Rubab, E-mail: rubab.manzoor@umt.edu.pk and Department of Mathematics, University of Management and Technology, Johar Town Campus, Lahore-54782},

abstractNote = {This paper explores the influences of dark energy on the shear-free axially symmetric evolution by considering self-interacting Brans–Dicke gravity as a dark energy candidate. We describe energy source of the model and derive all the effective dynamical variables as well as effective structure scalars. It is found that scalar field is one of the sources of anisotropy and dissipation. The resulting effective structure scalars help to study the dynamics associated with dark energy in any axial configuration. In order to investigate shear-free evolution, we formulate a set of governing equations along with heat transport equation. We discuss consequences of shear-free condition upon different SBD fluid models like dissipative non-geodesic and geodesic models. For dissipative non-geodesic case, the rotational distribution turns out to be the necessary and sufficient condition for radiating model. The dissipation depends upon inhomogeneous expansion. The geodesic model is found to be irrotational and non-radiating. The non-dissipative geodesic model leads to FRW model for positive values of the expansion parameter.},

doi = {10.1016/J.AOP.2016.10.024},

journal = {Annals of Physics},

number = ,

volume = 376,

place = {United States},

year = {Sun Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2017},

month = {Sun Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2017}

}