skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: WE-H-BRC-08: Examining Credentialing Criteria and Poor Performance Indicators for IROC Houston’s Anthropomorphic Head and Neck Phantom

Abstract

Purpose: To analyze the most recent results of IROC Houston’s anthropomorphic H&N phantom to determine the nature of failing irradiations and the feasibility of altering pass/fail credentialing criteria. Methods: IROC Houston’s H&N phantom, used for IMRT credentialing for NCI-sponsored clinical trials, requires that an institution’s treatment plan must agree with measurement within 7% (TLD doses) and ≥85% pixels must pass 7%/4 mm gamma analysis. 156 phantom irradiations (November 2014 – October 2015) were re-evaluated using tighter criteria: 1) 5% TLD and 5%/4 mm, 2) 5% TLD and 5%/3 mm, 3) 4% TLD and 4%/4 mm, and 4) 3% TLD and 3%/3 mm. Failure/poor performance rates were evaluated with respect to individual film and TLD performance by location in the phantom. Overall poor phantom results were characterized qualitatively as systematic (dosimetric) errors, setup errors/positional shifts, global but non-systematic errors, and errors affecting only a local region. Results: The pass rate for these phantoms using current criteria is 90%. Substituting criteria 1-4 reduces the overall pass rate to 77%, 70%, 63%, and 37%, respectively. Statistical analyses indicated the probability of noise-induced TLD failure at the 5% criterion was <0.5%. Using criteria 1, TLD results were most often the cause of failure (86%more » failed TLD while 61% failed film), with most failures identified in the primary PTV (77% cases). Other criteria posed similar results. Irradiations that failed from film only were overwhelmingly associated with phantom shifts/setup errors (≥80% cases). Results failing criteria 1 were primarily diagnosed as systematic: 58% of cases. 11% were setup/positioning errors, 8% were global non-systematic errors, and 22% were local errors. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that 5% TLD and 5%/4 mm gamma criteria may be both practically and theoretically achievable. Further work is necessary to diagnose and resolve dosimetric inaccuracy in these trials, particularly for systematic dose errors. This work is funded by NCI Grant CA180803.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22617040
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CLINICAL TRIALS; DIAGNOSIS; ERRORS; FAILURES; HEAD; NECK; PERFORMANCE; PHANTOMS; POSITIONING; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Carson, M, Molineu, A, Taylor, P, Followill, D, and Kry, S. WE-H-BRC-08: Examining Credentialing Criteria and Poor Performance Indicators for IROC Houston’s Anthropomorphic Head and Neck Phantom. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957986.
Carson, M, Molineu, A, Taylor, P, Followill, D, & Kry, S. WE-H-BRC-08: Examining Credentialing Criteria and Poor Performance Indicators for IROC Houston’s Anthropomorphic Head and Neck Phantom. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957986.
Carson, M, Molineu, A, Taylor, P, Followill, D, and Kry, S. 2016. "WE-H-BRC-08: Examining Credentialing Criteria and Poor Performance Indicators for IROC Houston’s Anthropomorphic Head and Neck Phantom". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957986.
@article{osti_22617040,
title = {WE-H-BRC-08: Examining Credentialing Criteria and Poor Performance Indicators for IROC Houston’s Anthropomorphic Head and Neck Phantom},
author = {Carson, M and Molineu, A and Taylor, P and Followill, D and Kry, S},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To analyze the most recent results of IROC Houston’s anthropomorphic H&N phantom to determine the nature of failing irradiations and the feasibility of altering pass/fail credentialing criteria. Methods: IROC Houston’s H&N phantom, used for IMRT credentialing for NCI-sponsored clinical trials, requires that an institution’s treatment plan must agree with measurement within 7% (TLD doses) and ≥85% pixels must pass 7%/4 mm gamma analysis. 156 phantom irradiations (November 2014 – October 2015) were re-evaluated using tighter criteria: 1) 5% TLD and 5%/4 mm, 2) 5% TLD and 5%/3 mm, 3) 4% TLD and 4%/4 mm, and 4) 3% TLD and 3%/3 mm. Failure/poor performance rates were evaluated with respect to individual film and TLD performance by location in the phantom. Overall poor phantom results were characterized qualitatively as systematic (dosimetric) errors, setup errors/positional shifts, global but non-systematic errors, and errors affecting only a local region. Results: The pass rate for these phantoms using current criteria is 90%. Substituting criteria 1-4 reduces the overall pass rate to 77%, 70%, 63%, and 37%, respectively. Statistical analyses indicated the probability of noise-induced TLD failure at the 5% criterion was <0.5%. Using criteria 1, TLD results were most often the cause of failure (86% failed TLD while 61% failed film), with most failures identified in the primary PTV (77% cases). Other criteria posed similar results. Irradiations that failed from film only were overwhelmingly associated with phantom shifts/setup errors (≥80% cases). Results failing criteria 1 were primarily diagnosed as systematic: 58% of cases. 11% were setup/positioning errors, 8% were global non-systematic errors, and 22% were local errors. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that 5% TLD and 5%/4 mm gamma criteria may be both practically and theoretically achievable. Further work is necessary to diagnose and resolve dosimetric inaccuracy in these trials, particularly for systematic dose errors. This work is funded by NCI Grant CA180803.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957986},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To design a Head and Neck (H&N) anthropomorphic QA phantom that the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC-H) can use to verify the quality of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) H&N treatments for institutions participating in NCI clinical trials. Methods: The phantom was created to serve as a remote auditing tool for IROC-H to evaluate an institution’s IMPT planning and delivery abilities. The design was based on the composition, size, and geometry of a generalized oropharyngeal tumor and contains critical structures (parotids and spinal cord). Radiochromic film in the axial and sagittal planes and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD)-100 capsulesmore » were embedded in the phantom and used to perform the dose delivery evaluation. A CT simulation was used to create a passive scatter and a spot scanning treatment plan with typical clinical constraints for H&N cancer. The IMPT plan was approved by a radiation oncologist and the phantom was irradiated multiple times. The measured dose distribution using a 7%/4mm gamma analysis (85% of pixels passing) and point doses were compared with the treatment planning system calculations. Results: The designed phantom could not achieve the target dose prescription and organ at risk dose constraints with the passive scatter treatment plan. The target prescription dose could be met but not the parotid dose constraint. The average TLD point dose ratio in the target was 0.975, well within the 5% acceptance criterion. The dose distribution analysis using various acceptance criteria, 5%/4mm, 5%/3mm, 7%/4mm and 7%/5mm, had average pixel passing rates of 85.9%, 81.8%, 89.6% and 91.6%, and respectively. Conclusion: An anthropomorphic IMPT H&N phantom was designed that can assess the dose delivery of proton sites wishing to participate in clinical trials using a 5% TLD dose and 7%/4mm gamma analysis acceptance criteria.« less
  • Purpose: Analyze the results from irradiations of an anthropomorphic liver phantom based on irradiation technique and number of isocenters used for the SBRT delivery. Methods: The phantom consists of a water-fillable plastic shell that has a polystyrene insert, representing the liver which includes two Solid WaterTM targets (PTV1 and PTV2) mimicking liver metastases. The two targets, PTV1 and PTV2 are non-coplanar and are an ovoid 2 cm in diameter and 2.5 cm long and a 3 cm diameter sphere, respectively. Each PTV houses one TLD and 2 planes of radiochromic film. The phantom and a motion table to simulate respiratorymore » motion is sent to institutions sthat are instructed to design and deliver a stereotactic treatment plan that delivers 6 Gy to ≥ 95% of each PTV. The maximum motion of the phantom on the motion table was 1 cm in the superior-inferior direction. Results: Irradiations from 93 institutions have been analyzed. The acceptance criteria are ±7% for the TLD and 85% of the pixels in a region surrounding each PTV passing a ±7%/4 mm global gamma analysis. Sixty-seven (71%) irradiations meet this criteria. The majority, 74 (80%), of the irradiations were performed with IMRT. 73% of the IMRT deliveries were within criteria and 68% of the 3D CRT delivery were within criteria. 32 of the irradiations had a single isocenter plan, 50 were performed with two isocenters and 11 irradiations were performed with CyberKnife and TomoTherapy units where the concept of isocenter is not applicable. The pass rate for the single, dual and no isocenter irradiations were 69%, 74% and 73%, respectively and are not statistically different. Conclusion: The pass rate for the anthropomorphic liver phantom is approximately 70%. There does not seem to be any correlation with number of isocenters used or irradiation technique used for the delivery. This work was supported by PHS CA180803 awarded by NCI, DHHS.« less
  • Purpose: To describe the proton phantoms that IROC Houston uses to approve and credential proton institutions to participate in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: Photon phantoms cannot necessarily be used for proton measurements because protons react differently than photons in some plastics. As such plastics that are tissue equivalent for protons were identified. Another required alteration is to ensure that the film dosimeters are housed in the phantom with no air gap to avoid proton streaming. Proton-equivalent plastics/materials used include RMI Solid Water, Techron HPV, blue water, RANDO soft tissue material, balsa wood, compressed cork and polyethylene. Institutions wishing to bemore » approved or credentialed request a phantom and are prioritized for delivery. At the institution, the phantom is imaged, a treatment plan is developed, positioned on the treatment couch and the treatment is delivered. The phantom is returned and the measured dose distributions are compared to the institution’s electronically submitted treatment plan dosimetry data. Results: IROC Houston has developed an extensive proton phantom approval/credentialing program consisting of five different phantoms designs: head, prostate, lung, liver and spine. The phantoms are made with proton equivalent plastics that have HU and relative stopping powers similar (within 5%) of human tissues. They also have imageable targets, avoidance structures, and heterogeneities. TLD and radiochromic film are contained in the target structures. There have been 13 head, 33 prostate, 18 lung, 2 liver and 16 spine irradiations with either passive scatter, or scanned proton beams. The pass rates have been: 100%, 69.7%, 72.2%, 50%, and 81.3%, respectively. Conclusion: IROC Houston has responded to the recent surge in proton facilities by developing a family of anthropomorphic phantoms that are able to be used for remote audits of proton beams. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA081647.« less
  • Purpose: To describe the results of IROC Houston’s international and domestic end-to-end QA phantom irradiations. Methods: IROC Houston has anthropomorphic lung, liver, head and neck, prostate, SRS and spine phantoms that are used for credentialing and quality assurance purposes. The phantoms include structures that closely mimic targets and organs at risk and are made from tissue equivalent materials: high impact polystyrene, solid water, cork and acrylic. Motion tables are used to mimic breathing motion for some lung and liver phantoms. Dose is measured with TLD and radiochromic film in various planes within the target of the phantoms. Results: The mostmore » common phantom requested is the head and neck followed by the lung phantom. The head and neck phantom was sent to 800 domestic and 148 international sites between 2011 and 2015, with average pass rates of 89% and 92%, respectively. During the past five years, a general upward trend exists regarding demand for the lung phantom for both international and domestic sites with international sites more than tripling from 5 (2011) to 16 (2015) and domestic sites doubling from 66 (2011) to 152 (2015). The pass rate for lung phantoms has been consistent from year to year despite this large increase in the number of phantoms irradiated with an average pass rate of 85% (domestic) and 95% (international) sites. The percentage of lung phantoms used in combination with motions tables increased from 38% to 79% over the 5 year time span. Conclusion: The number of domestic and international sites irradiating the head and neck and lung phantoms continues to increase and the pass rates remained constant. These end-to-end QA tests continue to be a crucial part of clinical trial credentialing and institution quality assurance. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI.« less
  • Purpose: To determine the impact of treatment planning algorithm on the accuracy of heterogeneous dose calculations in the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) thorax phantom. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the results of 304 irradiations of the RPC thorax phantom at 221 different institutions as part of credentialing for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials; the irradiations were all done using 6-MV beams. Treatment plans included those for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as well as 3-dimensional conformal therapy (3D-CRT). Heterogeneous plans were developed using Monte Carlo (MC), convolution/superposition (CS), and the anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA), as well as pencil beammore » (PB) algorithms. For each plan and delivery, the absolute dose measured in the center of a lung target was compared to the calculated dose, as was the planar dose in 3 orthogonal planes. The difference between measured and calculated dose was examined as a function of planning algorithm as well as use of IMRT. Results: PB algorithms overestimated the dose delivered to the center of the target by 4.9% on average. Surprisingly, CS algorithms and AAA also showed a systematic overestimation of the dose to the center of the target, by 3.7% on average. In contrast, the MC algorithm dose calculations agreed with measurement within 0.6% on average. There was no difference observed between IMRT and 3D CRT calculation accuracy. Conclusion: Unexpectedly, advanced treatment planning systems (those using CS and AAA algorithms) overestimated the dose that was delivered to the lung target. This issue requires attention in terms of heterogeneity calculations and potentially in terms of clinical practice.« less