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Title: SU-F-T-526: A Comparative Study On Gating Efficiency of Varian RPM Device and Calypso System

Abstract

Purpose: In general, the linear accelerator is gated using respiratory signal obtained by way of external sensors to account for the breathing motion during radiotherapy. One of the commonly used gating devices is the Varian RPM device. Calypso system that uses electromagnetic tracking of implanted or surface transponders could also be used for gating. The aim of this study is to compare the gating efficiency of RPM device and the calypso system by phantom studies. Methods: An ArcCheck insert was used as the phantom with a Gafchromic film placed in its holder. The ArcCheck insert was placed on a Motion Sim platform and moved in the longitudinal direction simulating a respiratory motion with a period of 5 seconds and amplitude of ±6mm. The Gafchromic film was exposed to a 2 × 2cm{sup 2} field, i) with the phantom static, ii) phantom moving but ungated iii) gated with gating window of 2mm and 3mm. This was repeated with Calypso system using surface transponders with the same gating window. The Gafchromic films were read with an EPSON 11000 flatbed scanner and analysed with ‘Medphysto’ software. Results: The full width at half maximum (FWHM) as measured with film at the level of themore » film holder was 1.65cm when the phantom was static. FWHM measured with phantom moving and without gating was 1.16 cm and penumbra was 7 mm (80–20%) on both sides. When the beam was gated with 2 mm gating window the FWHM was 1.8 cm with RPM device and 1.9 cm with Calypso. Similarly, when the beam was gated with 3 mm window, the FWHM was 1.9cm with RPM device and 2cm with Calypso. Conclusion: This work suggests that the gating efficiency of RPM device is better than that of the Calypso with surface transponder, with reference to the latency in gating.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore (India)
  2. The Brunei Cancer Center (Brunei Darussalam)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22617034
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; COMPUTER CODES; FILMS; ION MICROPROBE ANALYSIS; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; PHANTOMS; RADIOTHERAPY; SENSORS

Citation Formats

Ravindran, P, Wui Ann, W, and Lim, Y. SU-F-T-526: A Comparative Study On Gating Efficiency of Varian RPM Device and Calypso System. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956711.
Ravindran, P, Wui Ann, W, & Lim, Y. SU-F-T-526: A Comparative Study On Gating Efficiency of Varian RPM Device and Calypso System. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956711.
Ravindran, P, Wui Ann, W, and Lim, Y. 2016. "SU-F-T-526: A Comparative Study On Gating Efficiency of Varian RPM Device and Calypso System". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956711.
@article{osti_22617034,
title = {SU-F-T-526: A Comparative Study On Gating Efficiency of Varian RPM Device and Calypso System},
author = {Ravindran, P and Wui Ann, W and Lim, Y},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In general, the linear accelerator is gated using respiratory signal obtained by way of external sensors to account for the breathing motion during radiotherapy. One of the commonly used gating devices is the Varian RPM device. Calypso system that uses electromagnetic tracking of implanted or surface transponders could also be used for gating. The aim of this study is to compare the gating efficiency of RPM device and the calypso system by phantom studies. Methods: An ArcCheck insert was used as the phantom with a Gafchromic film placed in its holder. The ArcCheck insert was placed on a Motion Sim platform and moved in the longitudinal direction simulating a respiratory motion with a period of 5 seconds and amplitude of ±6mm. The Gafchromic film was exposed to a 2 × 2cm{sup 2} field, i) with the phantom static, ii) phantom moving but ungated iii) gated with gating window of 2mm and 3mm. This was repeated with Calypso system using surface transponders with the same gating window. The Gafchromic films were read with an EPSON 11000 flatbed scanner and analysed with ‘Medphysto’ software. Results: The full width at half maximum (FWHM) as measured with film at the level of the film holder was 1.65cm when the phantom was static. FWHM measured with phantom moving and without gating was 1.16 cm and penumbra was 7 mm (80–20%) on both sides. When the beam was gated with 2 mm gating window the FWHM was 1.8 cm with RPM device and 1.9 cm with Calypso. Similarly, when the beam was gated with 3 mm window, the FWHM was 1.9cm with RPM device and 2cm with Calypso. Conclusion: This work suggests that the gating efficiency of RPM device is better than that of the Calypso with surface transponder, with reference to the latency in gating.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956711},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: In a previous study we have demonstrated the feasibility of using EPID to QA electron beam parameters on a single Varian TrueBeam LINAC. This study aims to provide further investigation on (1) reproducibility of using EPID to detect electron beam energy changes on multiple machines and (2) evaluation of appropriate calibration methods to compare results from different EPIDs. Methods: Ad-hoc mode electron beam images were acquired in developer mode with XML code. Electron beam data were collected on a total of six machines from four institutions. A custom-designed double-wedge phantom was placed on the EPID detector. Two calibration methodsmore » - Pixel Sensitivity Map (PSM) and Large Source-to-Imager Distance Flood Field (LSID-FF) - were used. To test the sensitivity of EPID in detecting energy drifts, Bending Magnet Current (BMC) was detuned to invoke energy changes corresponding to ∼±1.5 mm change in R50% of PDD on two machines from two institutions. Percent depth ionization (PDI) curves were then analyzed and compared with the respective baseline images using LSID-FF calibration. For reproducibility testing, open field EPID images and images with a standard testing phantom were collected on multiple machines. Images with and without PSM correction for same energies on different machines were overlaid and compared. Results: Two pixel shifts were observed in PDI curve when energy changes exceeded the TG142 tolerance. PSM showed the potential to correct the differences in pixel response of different imagers. With PSM correction, the histogram of images differences obtained from different machines showed narrower distributions than those images without PSM correction. Conclusion: EPID is sensitive for electron energy changes and the results are reproducible on different machines. When overlaying images from different machines, PSM showed the ability to partially eliminate the intrinsic variation of various imagers. Research Funding from Varian Medical Systems Inc.Dr. Sasa Mutic receives compensation for providing patient safety training services from Varian Medical Systems, the sponsor of this study.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate an Enhanced Dynamic Wedge (EDW) as part of machine commission process with feature study. Methods: The EDW system in this study was from a Truebeam, which is the Linear accelerator manufactured by Varian Medical Systems. The EDW feature vectors includes selected elements. These elements were dosimetric output spots check, field size, wedge angles, dose rate, collimator orientation, and different energy settings. Point dose measurement was done by a PTW farmer chamber, and profiles were measured by Gafchromic EBT2 films positing at different depths of the Solidwater based on the study elements. The output spot measurements were donemore » with PTW farmer chamber with Solidwater setting for all orientation and wedge angles in the EDW system. The profiles comparisons were done by IMRT measurement function in RIT software at version 6.3. And the films were scanned by Vidar scanner. Dosimetry calculation were done by using the same Solidwater scanned by GE LightSpeed CT in Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS). Then measurements were compared to simulation results in TPS. Results: The energy average percentage difference between chamber measurement and TPS was 0.16% with standard deviation (SD) at 0.93%. For selected features, the average percentage difference between film measurement and computation was 0.93% with SD at 1.55% in horizontal profiles, and 1.18% with SD at 0.98% at vertical profiles. The average gamma difference for film measurement and TPS computing results was at 0.924 with SD at 0.314. Conclusion: A feature vector was developed to describe the commission of EDW, and developing a complete set of features for sufficiency of commission of a LINAC function could provide optimal commission instance with acceptable confident level of clinical application of the machine. Given the institution specific vector pattern and big data process, it could provide wide range clinical outcome comparison information in application of EDW.« less
  • Purpose: The Calypso 4D Localization System is being developed to provide accurate, precise, objective, and continuous target localization during radiotherapy. This study involves the first human use of the system, to evaluate the localization accuracy of this technique compared with radiographic localization and to assess its ability to obtain real-time prostate-motion information. Methods and Materials: Three transponders were implanted in each of 20 patients. Eleven eligible patients of the 20 patients participated in a study arm that compared radiographic triangulated transponder locations to electromagnetically recorded transponder locations. Transponders were tracked for 8-min periods. Results: The implantations were all successful, withmore » no major complications. Intertransponder distances were largely stable. Comparison of the patient localization on the basis of transponder locations as per the Calypso system with the radiographic transponder localization showed an average ({+-}SD) 3D difference of 1.5 {+-} 0.9 mm. Upon tracking during 8 min, 2 of the 11 patients showed significant organ motion (>1 cm), with some motion lasting longer that 1 min. Conclusion: Calypso transponders can be used as magnetic intraprostatic fiducials. Clinical evaluation of this novel 4D nonionizing electromagnetic localization system with transponders indicates a comparable localization accuracy to isocenter (within 2 mm) compared with X-ray localiza0010ti.« less
  • Purpose: To report the clinical experience with an electromagnetic treatment target positioning and continuous monitoring system in patients with localized prostate cancer receiving external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The Calypso System is a target positioning device that continuously monitors the location of three implanted electromagnetic transponders at a rate of 10 Hz. The system was used at five centers to position 41 patients over a full course of therapy. Electromagnetic positioning was compared to setup using skin marks and to stereoscopic X-ray localization of the transponders. Continuous monitoring was performed in 35 patients. Results: The difference between skin markmore » vs. the Calypso System alignment was found to be >5 mm in vector length in more than 75% of fractions. Comparisons between the Calypso System and X-ray localization showed good agreement. Qualitatively, the continuous motion was unpredictable and varied from persistent drift to transient rapid movements. Displacements {>=}3 and {>=}5 mm for cumulative durations of at least 30 s were observed during 41% and 15% of sessions. In individual patients, the number of fractions with displacements {>=}3 mm ranged from 3% to 87%; whereas the number of fractions with displacements {>=}5 mm ranged from 0% to 56%. Conclusion: The Calypso System is a clinically efficient and objective localization method for positioning prostate patients undergoing radiotherapy. Initial treatment setup can be performed rapidly, accurately, and objectively before radiation delivery. The extent and frequency of prostate motion during radiotherapy delivery can be easily monitored and used for motion management.« less
  • Purpose: To determine position and velocity-dependent effects in the overall accuracy of the Calypso Electromagnetic localization system, under conditions that emulate transponder motion during normal free breathing. Methods and Materials: Three localization transponders were mounted on a remote-controlled turntable that could move the transponders along a circular trajectory at speeds up to 3 cm/s. A stationary calibration established the coordinates of multiple points on each transponder's circular path. Position measurements taken while the transponders were in motion at a constant speed were then compared with the stationary coordinates. Results: No statistically significant changes in the transponder positions in (x,y,z) weremore » detected when the transponders were in motion. Conclusions: The accuracy of the localization system is unaffected by transponder motion.« less