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Title: Study of runaway electrons using the conditional average sampling method in the Damavand tokamak

Abstract

Some experiments for studying the runaway electron (RE) effects have been performed using the poloidal magnetic probes system installed around the plasma column in the Damavand tokamak. In these experiments, the so-called runaway-dominated discharges were considered in which the main part of the plasma current is carried by REs. The induced magnetic effects on the poloidal pickup coils signals are observed simultaneously with the Parail–Pogutse instability moments for REs and hard X-ray bursts. The output signals of all diagnostic systems enter the data acquisition system with 2 Msample/(s channel) sampling rate. The temporal evolution of the diagnostic signals is analyzed by the conditional average sampling (CAS) technique. The CASed profiles indicate RE collisions with the high-field-side plasma facing components at the instability moments. The investigation has been carried out for two discharge modes—low-toroidal-field (LTF) and high-toroidal-field (HTF) ones—related to both up and down limits of the toroidal magnetic field in the Damavand tokamak and their comparison has shown that the RE confinement is better in HTF discharges.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2]
  1. University of Isfahan, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advance Sciences and Technologies (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
  2. Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
  3. University of Isfahan, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22614020
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Plasma Physics Reports; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS; ELECTRIC CURRENTS; ELECTRON COLLISIONS; FIRST WALL; HARD X RADIATION; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETIC PROBES; PLASMA; RUNAWAY ELECTRONS; S CHANNEL; SAMPLING; SIGNALS; TOKAMAK DEVICES

Citation Formats

Pourshahab, B., E-mail: bpourshahab@gmail.com, Sadighzadeh, A., Abdi, M. R., E-mail: r.abdi@phys.ui.ac.ir, and Rasouli, C. Study of runaway electrons using the conditional average sampling method in the Damavand tokamak. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1134/S1063780X17030102.
Pourshahab, B., E-mail: bpourshahab@gmail.com, Sadighzadeh, A., Abdi, M. R., E-mail: r.abdi@phys.ui.ac.ir, & Rasouli, C. Study of runaway electrons using the conditional average sampling method in the Damavand tokamak. United States. doi:10.1134/S1063780X17030102.
Pourshahab, B., E-mail: bpourshahab@gmail.com, Sadighzadeh, A., Abdi, M. R., E-mail: r.abdi@phys.ui.ac.ir, and Rasouli, C. Wed . "Study of runaway electrons using the conditional average sampling method in the Damavand tokamak". United States. doi:10.1134/S1063780X17030102.
@article{osti_22614020,
title = {Study of runaway electrons using the conditional average sampling method in the Damavand tokamak},
author = {Pourshahab, B., E-mail: bpourshahab@gmail.com and Sadighzadeh, A. and Abdi, M. R., E-mail: r.abdi@phys.ui.ac.ir and Rasouli, C.},
abstractNote = {Some experiments for studying the runaway electron (RE) effects have been performed using the poloidal magnetic probes system installed around the plasma column in the Damavand tokamak. In these experiments, the so-called runaway-dominated discharges were considered in which the main part of the plasma current is carried by REs. The induced magnetic effects on the poloidal pickup coils signals are observed simultaneously with the Parail–Pogutse instability moments for REs and hard X-ray bursts. The output signals of all diagnostic systems enter the data acquisition system with 2 Msample/(s channel) sampling rate. The temporal evolution of the diagnostic signals is analyzed by the conditional average sampling (CAS) technique. The CASed profiles indicate RE collisions with the high-field-side plasma facing components at the instability moments. The investigation has been carried out for two discharge modes—low-toroidal-field (LTF) and high-toroidal-field (HTF) ones—related to both up and down limits of the toroidal magnetic field in the Damavand tokamak and their comparison has shown that the RE confinement is better in HTF discharges.},
doi = {10.1134/S1063780X17030102},
journal = {Plasma Physics Reports},
number = 3,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5more » mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.« less
  • The time and position behavior of runaway electrons at the Parail–Pogutse instability moments has been investigated using experimental observations in plasma current, loop voltage, the Hard X-ray (HXR) radiations, and 18 poloidal pickup coils signals received by data acquisition system simultaneously. The conditional average sampling (CAS) method was used to analyze the output data. Moreover, a filament current code was modified to study the runaway electrons beam movement in the event of instabilities. The results display a rapid drift of runaway beam toward the inner wall of the vacuum vessel and the collision with the wall components at the instabilitymore » moments. The existence of the collisions in these experiments is evident in the HXR bursts which are considered as the main trigger for CAS Analysis. Also, the variation of HXR bursts with the toroidal magnetic field shows that the hard X-ray bursts drop with increase in the toroidal magnetic field and runaway electrons confinement quality.« less
  • Set of experiments has been developed to study existing runaway electrons in ''Damavand'' tokamak plasma upon characteristics of hard x-ray emissions produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles and limiters. As a first step, spatial distribution of hard x-ray emissions on the equatorial plane of the torus was considered. Obtained spectra of hard x-ray emissions for different alignments of shielded detector indicate isotropic emissivity in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with wide angle cone of bremsstrahlung radiations, deduced from the mean value of energy of the runaway electrons. The mean energy was calculated frommore » the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. In the second stage in order to investigate time evolution of energy of the runaway electrons, similar technique were applied to obtain hard x-ray energy in every 3 ms intervals, from the beginning to the end of plasma. The mean energy of the runaway electrons increases during the ramp up phase and reaches its maximum between 3 and 9 ms after plasma formation. Also considering the time dependence of the counted photons in each energy range shows that energetic photons are emitted during the ramp up phase of the plasma current in Damavand tokamak.« less
  • In this work, a nonlinear model is introduced to determine the vertical position of the plasma column in Damavand tokamak. Using this model as a simulator, a nonlinear neural network controller has been designed. In the first stage, the electronic drive and sensory circuits of Damavand tokamak are modified. These circuits can control the vertical position of the plasma column inside the vacuum vessel. Since the vertical position of plasma is an unstable parameter, a direct closed loop system identification algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a nonlinear model is identified for plasma vertical position, based on the multilayermore » perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) structure. Estimation of simulator parameters has been performed by back-propagation error algorithm using Levenberg-Marquardt gradient descent optimization technique. The model is verified through simulation of the whole closed loop system using both simulator and actual plant in similar conditions. As the final stage, a MLP neural network controller is designed for simulator model. In the last step, online training is performed to tune the controller parameters. Simulation results justify using of the NN controller for the actual plant.« less
  • Hard-X-ray spectrometry is a tool widely used for diagnostic of runaway electrons in existing tokamaks. In future machines, ITER and DEMO, HXR spectrometry will be useful providing information on runaway electron energy, runaway beam current and its profile during disruption.