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Title: Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates

Abstract

The crystal structures of the hydrated cationic surfactant benzethonium (Bzth) chloride, bromide, hydroxide, and citrate have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared with their structures in solution well above their critical micelle concentration. The differences in the nature of the various anions of the four Bzth-X materials lead to unique anion environments and 3-D molecular arrangements. The water molecule in the monoclinic Bzth-Cl or Bzth-Br forms is hydrogen bonded to the halides and particularly to the hydrogens of the methoxy groups of the Bzth moiety notwithstanding the weak Brønsted acidity of the methoxy hydrogens. The citrate strongly interacts with the hydrogens of the methoxy group forming an embedded anionic spherical cluster of a radius of 2.6 Å. The Bzth-OH crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice with two water molecules and reveals free water molecules forming hydrogen bonded channels through the Bzth-OH crystal along the c-axis. The distances between the cationic nitrogen and the halides are 4.04 Å and 4.20 Å, significantly longer than expected for typical van der Waals distances of 3.30 Å. The structures show weakly interacting, alternating apolar and polar layers, which run parallel to the crystallographic a-b planes or a-c planes. The Bzth-X salts were alsomore » examined in aqueous solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1.0 % (v/v) glycerol well above their critical micelle concentration by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The [1,1,1] planes for the Bzth Cl or Br, the [0,0,2] and [1,1,0] planes for the Bzth-citrate, the [2,-1,0] planes and the [0,0,1] planes for the Bzth-OH found in the crystalline phase were also present in the solution phase, accordingly, the preservation of these phases are a strong indication of periodicity in the solution phase.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. The University of Salford, Joule Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Environment, Manchester M5 4 WT (United Kingdom)
  2. (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22611574
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Advances; Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ANIONS; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; BROMIDES; CHLORIDES; CITRATES; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; CRYSTALS; ETHANOL; GLYCEROL; HEXAGONAL LATTICES; HYDRATES; HYDROXIDES; LAYERS; MONOCLINIC LATTICES; NITROGEN; SMALL ANGLE SCATTERING; SOLIDS; VAN DER WAALS FORCES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Paradies, Henrich H., E-mail: hparadies@aol.com, E-mail: hparadies@jacobs-university.de, Jacobs University Bremen, Life Sciences and Chemistry Department, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen, and Reichelt, Hendrik. Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4954882.
Paradies, Henrich H., E-mail: hparadies@aol.com, E-mail: hparadies@jacobs-university.de, Jacobs University Bremen, Life Sciences and Chemistry Department, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen, & Reichelt, Hendrik. Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954882.
Paradies, Henrich H., E-mail: hparadies@aol.com, E-mail: hparadies@jacobs-university.de, Jacobs University Bremen, Life Sciences and Chemistry Department, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen, and Reichelt, Hendrik. Wed . "Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954882.
@article{osti_22611574,
title = {Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates},
author = {Paradies, Henrich H., E-mail: hparadies@aol.com, E-mail: hparadies@jacobs-university.de and Jacobs University Bremen, Life Sciences and Chemistry Department, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen and Reichelt, Hendrik},
abstractNote = {The crystal structures of the hydrated cationic surfactant benzethonium (Bzth) chloride, bromide, hydroxide, and citrate have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared with their structures in solution well above their critical micelle concentration. The differences in the nature of the various anions of the four Bzth-X materials lead to unique anion environments and 3-D molecular arrangements. The water molecule in the monoclinic Bzth-Cl or Bzth-Br forms is hydrogen bonded to the halides and particularly to the hydrogens of the methoxy groups of the Bzth moiety notwithstanding the weak Brønsted acidity of the methoxy hydrogens. The citrate strongly interacts with the hydrogens of the methoxy group forming an embedded anionic spherical cluster of a radius of 2.6 Å. The Bzth-OH crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice with two water molecules and reveals free water molecules forming hydrogen bonded channels through the Bzth-OH crystal along the c-axis. The distances between the cationic nitrogen and the halides are 4.04 Å and 4.20 Å, significantly longer than expected for typical van der Waals distances of 3.30 Å. The structures show weakly interacting, alternating apolar and polar layers, which run parallel to the crystallographic a-b planes or a-c planes. The Bzth-X salts were also examined in aqueous solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1.0 % (v/v) glycerol well above their critical micelle concentration by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The [1,1,1] planes for the Bzth Cl or Br, the [0,0,2] and [1,1,0] planes for the Bzth-citrate, the [2,-1,0] planes and the [0,0,1] planes for the Bzth-OH found in the crystalline phase were also present in the solution phase, accordingly, the preservation of these phases are a strong indication of periodicity in the solution phase.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4954882},
journal = {AIP Advances},
number = 6,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}