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Title: Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

Abstract

The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [4];  [5];  [3];  [2]
  1. Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)
  2. (China)
  3. Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)
  4. Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China)
  5. SuperbIN Co., Ltd., Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22611399
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Advances; Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COVALENCE; DEPOSITION; ENERGY CONVERSION; EVAPORATION; LASER RADIATION; MANGANESE PHOSPHIDES; MELANIN; NANOPARTICLES; PENETRATION DEPTH; PORPHYRINS; RESOLUTION; RUTHENIUM; RUTHENIUM COMPLEXES; SOLAR CELLS; SUBSTRATES

Citation Formats

Yen, Chih-Ping, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan, Yu, Pin-Feng, Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan, Wang, Jyhpyng, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan, Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan, Lin, Jiunn-Yuan, Chen, Yen-Mu, Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw, and Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4961380.
Yen, Chih-Ping, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan, Yu, Pin-Feng, Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan, Wang, Jyhpyng, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan, Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan, Lin, Jiunn-Yuan, Chen, Yen-Mu, Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw, & Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4961380.
Yen, Chih-Ping, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan, Yu, Pin-Feng, Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan, Wang, Jyhpyng, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan, Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan, Lin, Jiunn-Yuan, Chen, Yen-Mu, Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw, and Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan. 2016. "Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4961380.
@article{osti_22611399,
title = {Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation},
author = {Yen, Chih-Ping and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan and Yu, Pin-Feng and Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan and Wang, Jyhpyng and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan and Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan and Lin, Jiunn-Yuan and Chen, Yen-Mu and Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw and Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan},
abstractNote = {The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4961380},
journal = {AIP Advances},
number = 8,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}
  • In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creatingmore » an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 {mu}m laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 {mu}m laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.« less
  • A hybrid plasma deposition process, combining matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of carbon nanopearls (CNPs) with magnetron sputtering of gold was investigated for growth of composite films, where 100 nm sized CNPs were encapsulated into a gold matrix. Composition and morphology of such composite films was characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Carbon deposits on a gold magnetron sputter target and carbon impurities in the gold matrices of deposited films were observed while codepositing from gold and frozen toluene-CNP MAPLE targets in pure argon. Electrostatic quadrupole plasma analysis was used tomore » determine that a likely mechanism for generation of carbon impurities was a reaction between toluene vapor generated from the MAPLE target and the argon plasma originating from the magnetron sputtering process. Carbon impurities of codeposited films were significantly reduced by introducing argon-oxygen mixtures into the deposition chamber; reactive oxygen species such as O and O+ effectively removed carbon contamination of gold matrix during the codeposition processes. Increasing the oxygen to argon ratio decreased the magnetron target sputter rate, and hence hybrid process optimization to prevent gold matrix contamination and maintain a high sputter yield is needed. High resolution TEM with energy dispersive spectrometry elemental mapping was used to study carbon distribution throughout the gold matrix as well as embedded CNP clusters. This research has demonstrated that a hybrid MAPLE and magnetron sputtering codeposition process is a viable means for synthesis of composite thin films from premanufactured nanoscale constituents, and that cross-process contaminations can be overcome with understanding of hybrid plasma process interaction mechanisms.« less
  • Highlights: • To gain the red-shifted absorption spectra, withdrawing unit was substituted in dye. • By the introduction of additional withdrawing unit, LUMOs level of dye are decreased. • Decreasing LUMOs level of dye caused the red-shifted absorption spectra of dye. • Novel acceptor, DCRD, showed better photovoltaic properties than cyanoacetic acid. - Abstract: In this work, two novel D-A-π-A dye sensitizers with triarylamine as an electron donor, isoindigo and cyano group as electron withdrawing units and cyanoacetic acid and 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene) rhodanine as an electron acceptor for an anchoring group (TICC, TICR) were designed and investigated with the ID6 dyemore » as the reference. The difference in HOMO and LUMO levels were compared according to the presence or absence of isoindigo in ID6 (TC and ID6). To gain insight into the factors responsible for photovoltaic performance, we used density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Owing to different LUMO levels for each acceptor, the absorption band and molar extinction coefficient of each dye was different. Among the dyes, TICR showed more red-shifted and broader absorption spectra than other dyes and had a higher molar extinction coefficient than the reference. It is expected that TICR would show better photovoltaic properties than the other dyes, including the reference dye.« less
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