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Title: Broadening of length distributions of Au-catalyzed InAs nanowires

Abstract

We investigate kinetic broadening effects on the length distributions of gold-catalyzed InAs nanowires having different diameters. It is shown that the length distributions acquire bimodal shape when the longest nanowires exceed the diffusion length of indium adatoms on the nanowire sidewalls. Later on, the length distributions recover unimodal shapes. We develop a theoretical model that is capable of describing the observed behaviors by accounting for the diffusion-induced character of the vapor-liquid-solid growth.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [5];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. St. Petersburg Academic University, Khlopina 8/3, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
  2. (Russian Federation)
  3. Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth, Max-Born-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)
  4. (Sweden)
  5. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)
  6. (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22609124
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1748; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: STRANN 2016: 5. international conference on state-of-the-art trends of scientific research of artificial and natural nanoobjects, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation), 26-29 Apr 2016; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; CATALYSIS; DIFFUSION; DIFFUSION LENGTH; DISTRIBUTION; GOLD; INDIUM ARSENIDES; NANOWIRES; SOLIDS

Citation Formats

Berdnikov, Yury, E-mail: yuryberdnikov@gmail.com, Sibirev, Nikolay, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St-Petersburg, Schmidtbauer, Jan, Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund, Borg, Mattias, IBM Research – Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, 8803 Rüschlikon, Johansson, Jonas, Dubrovskii, Vladimir, St. Petersburg State University, Physical Faculty, Ulianovskaya Street 3, Petrodvorets, 198504 St. Petersburg, and ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, 197101 St. Petersburg. Broadening of length distributions of Au-catalyzed InAs nanowires. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4954353.
Berdnikov, Yury, E-mail: yuryberdnikov@gmail.com, Sibirev, Nikolay, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St-Petersburg, Schmidtbauer, Jan, Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund, Borg, Mattias, IBM Research – Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, 8803 Rüschlikon, Johansson, Jonas, Dubrovskii, Vladimir, St. Petersburg State University, Physical Faculty, Ulianovskaya Street 3, Petrodvorets, 198504 St. Petersburg, & ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, 197101 St. Petersburg. Broadening of length distributions of Au-catalyzed InAs nanowires. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954353.
Berdnikov, Yury, E-mail: yuryberdnikov@gmail.com, Sibirev, Nikolay, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St-Petersburg, Schmidtbauer, Jan, Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund, Borg, Mattias, IBM Research – Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, 8803 Rüschlikon, Johansson, Jonas, Dubrovskii, Vladimir, St. Petersburg State University, Physical Faculty, Ulianovskaya Street 3, Petrodvorets, 198504 St. Petersburg, and ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, 197101 St. Petersburg. Fri . "Broadening of length distributions of Au-catalyzed InAs nanowires". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954353.
@article{osti_22609124,
title = {Broadening of length distributions of Au-catalyzed InAs nanowires},
author = {Berdnikov, Yury, E-mail: yuryberdnikov@gmail.com and Sibirev, Nikolay and St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St-Petersburg and Schmidtbauer, Jan and Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund and Borg, Mattias and IBM Research – Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, 8803 Rüschlikon and Johansson, Jonas and Dubrovskii, Vladimir and St. Petersburg State University, Physical Faculty, Ulianovskaya Street 3, Petrodvorets, 198504 St. Petersburg and ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, 197101 St. Petersburg},
abstractNote = {We investigate kinetic broadening effects on the length distributions of gold-catalyzed InAs nanowires having different diameters. It is shown that the length distributions acquire bimodal shape when the longest nanowires exceed the diffusion length of indium adatoms on the nanowire sidewalls. Later on, the length distributions recover unimodal shapes. We develop a theoretical model that is capable of describing the observed behaviors by accounting for the diffusion-induced character of the vapor-liquid-solid growth.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4954353},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1748,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 17 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Jun 17 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • The Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of InAs nanowires is discussed. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction observations of phase transitions of the catalyst particles indicate that they can be liquid below the eutectic point of the Au-In alloy. The temperature range where the catalyst can be liquid covers the range where we observed nanowire formation (380-430 deg. C). The variation of nanowire growth rate with temperature is investigated. Pure axial nanowire growth is observed at high temperature while mixed axial/lateral growth occurs at low temperature. The change of the InAs nanowire shape with growth duration is studied. It ismore » shown that significant lateral growth of the lower part of the nanowire starts when its length exceeds a critical value, so that their shape presents a steplike profile along their axis. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the nanowire morphology as a result of the axial and lateral contributions of the nanowire growth.« less
  • Ultrathin ZnSe nanowires grown by Au-catalyzed molecular-beam epitaxy show an interesting growth behavior of diameter dependence of growth rates. The smaller the nanowire diameter, the faster is its growth rate. This growth behavior is totally different from that of the nanowires with diameters greater than 60 nm and cannot be interpreted by the classical theories of the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. For the Au-catalyzed nanowire growth at low temperatures, we found that the surface and interface incorporation and diffusion of the source atoms at the nanowire tips controlled the growth of ultrathin ZnSe nanowires.
  • We present a kinetic growth model having a particular emphasis on the influence of the group V element on the preferred crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires. The model circumvents the uncertainty in the group V contribution into the overall liquid chemical potential. We show why the nanowire elongation rate is limited by the group III transport, while the crystal structure depends on the effective group V to III imbalance. Within the model, we are able to explain some important structural trends in Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires. In particular, we show that high group V flux always favors wurtzite structure inmore » molecular-beam epitaxy. This tendency could be inverted in vapor deposition techniques due to suppression of the group III diffusion at high group V flux.« less
  • Multilayer Au–Ni–Au–Ni–Au nanowires with a controlled diameter of ∼100 nm were synthesized by electrochemical deposition in porous alumina templates. The length of each Ni-segment was controlled up to ∼230 nm, while the length of the Au segment sandwiched between two Ni segments was ∼180 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra confirmed the formation of purely crystalline nanowires. The magnetic properties of the multilayer Au–Ni–Au–Ni–Au nanowires were investigated in the temperature range 2–300 K. Room-temperature magnetic hysteresis confirmed the ferromagnetic nature of the nanowires. The plot of coercivity as a function of temperature (from 2 to 300 K) followedmore » law applicable for ferromagnetic nanostructures. The magnetization tended to increase as the temperature decreased, following the modified Bloch's law similar to ferromagnetic nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: (a) SEM image of Au–Ni–Au–Ni–Au nanowire with 230 nm Ni segment length and 180 nm Au sandwiched between Ni segments (b) Kneller's law (c) Bloch's law Display Omitted - Highlights: • Electrochemical fabrication of Au–Ni–Au–Ni–Au nanowires in alumina templates. • Formation of beadlike structure of Ni segments. • Coercivity versus T follows Kneller's law for ferromagnetic materials. • Magnetization as a function of temperature follows the modified Bloch's law.« less
  • The ternary Eu(Au/In) 2 (EuAu 0.46In 1.54 (2)) (I), EuAu 4(Au/In) 2 (EuAu 4+xIn 2–x with x = 0.75(2) (II), 0.93(2), and 1.03(2)), and Eu 5Au 16(Au/In) 6 (Eu 5Au 17.29In 4.71(3)) (III) have been synthesized, and their structures were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. I and II crystallize with the CeCu 2-type (Pearson Symbol oI12; Imma; Z = 4; a = 4.9018(4) Å; b = 7.8237(5) Å; c = 8.4457(5) Å) and the YbAl 4Mo 2-type (tI14; I4/ mmm; Z = 2; a = 7.1612(7) Å; c = 5.5268(7) Å) and exhibit significant Au/In disorder. I is composed ofmore » an Au/In-mixed diamond-related host lattice encapsulating Eu atoms, while the structure of II features ribbons of distorted, squared Au 8 prisms enclosing Eu, Au, and In atoms. Combination of these structural motifs leads to a new structure type as observed for Eu 5Au 16(Au/In) 6 (Eu 5Au 17.29In 4.71(3)) (oS108; Cmcm; Z = 4; a = 7.2283(4) Å; b = 9.0499(6) Å; c = 34.619(2) Å), which formally represents a one-dimensional intergrowth of the series EuAu 2–“EuAu 4In 2”. The site preferences of the disordered Au/In positions in II were investigated for different hypothetical “EuAu 4(Au/In) 2” models using the projector-augmented wave method and indicate that these structures attempt to optimize the frequencies of the heteroatomic Au–In contacts. Furthermore, a chemical bonding analysis on two “EuAu 5In” and “EuAu 4In 2” models employed the TB-LMTO-ASA method and reveals that the subtle interplay between the local atomic environments and the bond energies determines the structural and site preferences for these systems.« less