skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work

Abstract

The 304 stainless steel (SS) type is widely used in oil and gas operations due to its excellent corrosion resistance. However, the presence of the fine sand particles and H{sub 2}S gas contained in crude oil could lead the erosion and abrasion in steel. In this study, cold rolled treatments were conducted to the 304 SS in order to increase the wear resistance of the steel. The cold work has resulted in thickness reduction to 20%, 40% and 60% of the original. Various microstructural characterizations were used to analyze the effect of deformation. The hardness characterization showed that the initial hardness value increased from 145 HVC to 395 HVC as the level of deformation increase. Further, the wear resistance increased with the deformation rate from 0% to 40% and subsequently decreased from 40% to 60% deformation rate. Microstructural characterization shows that the boundary change to coincide by 56 µm, 49 µm, 45 µm, and 43 µm width and the grain go to flatten and being folded like needles. The effect of deformation on the grain morphology and structure was also studied by optical metallography and X-Ray Diffraction. It is shown that the deformation by means of a cold rolled processmore » has transformed the austenite structure into martensitic structure.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. PPS Materials Science, FMIPA-Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)
  2. Mechanical Engineering Dept., FT-Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa,Cilegon 42435 (Indonesia)
  3. Pusat Penelitian Fisika,LIPI, Serpong (Indonesia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22609109
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1746; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: ICPR 2016: International conference on physics and applied physics research, Yogyakarta (Indonesia), 25-26 Jan 2016, ICIBio 2016: International conference on industrial biology, Yogyakarta (Indonesia), 25-26 Jan 2016, ICIAMath 2016: International conference on information system and applied mathematics, Yogyakarta (Indonesia), 25-26 Jan 2016; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ABRASION; AUSTENITE; CORROSION; CORROSION RESISTANCE; DEFORMATION; EROSION; HARDNESS; MARTENSITIC STEELS; METALLOGRAPHY; MICROSTRUCTURE; PETROLEUM; REDUCTION; STAINLESS STEEL-304; THICKNESS; WEAR; WEAR RESISTANCE; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Mubarok, Naila, Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@ui.ac.id, Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar, and Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini. The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4953947.
Mubarok, Naila, Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@ui.ac.id, Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar, & Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini. The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4953947.
Mubarok, Naila, Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@ui.ac.id, Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar, and Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini. Fri . "The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4953947.
@article{osti_22609109,
title = {The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work},
author = {Mubarok, Naila and Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@ui.ac.id and Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar and Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini},
abstractNote = {The 304 stainless steel (SS) type is widely used in oil and gas operations due to its excellent corrosion resistance. However, the presence of the fine sand particles and H{sub 2}S gas contained in crude oil could lead the erosion and abrasion in steel. In this study, cold rolled treatments were conducted to the 304 SS in order to increase the wear resistance of the steel. The cold work has resulted in thickness reduction to 20%, 40% and 60% of the original. Various microstructural characterizations were used to analyze the effect of deformation. The hardness characterization showed that the initial hardness value increased from 145 HVC to 395 HVC as the level of deformation increase. Further, the wear resistance increased with the deformation rate from 0% to 40% and subsequently decreased from 40% to 60% deformation rate. Microstructural characterization shows that the boundary change to coincide by 56 µm, 49 µm, 45 µm, and 43 µm width and the grain go to flatten and being folded like needles. The effect of deformation on the grain morphology and structure was also studied by optical metallography and X-Ray Diffraction. It is shown that the deformation by means of a cold rolled process has transformed the austenite structure into martensitic structure.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4953947},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1746,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 17 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Jun 17 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Tensile and creep properties of Types 304 and 316 stainless steel in the as-received (mill-annealed) and reannealed (laboratory-annealed) conditions are related by P/sub RA/ = A + BP/sub AR/, where P/sub RA/ and P/sub AR/ are properties in the reannealed and as-received conditions, respectively, and A and B are material constants. Constant B was shown to give a measure of change in tensile properties due to grain-size differences, whereas A, although related to grain size, primarily gave a measure of cold work. The mill-annealed condition of plate and pipe products of Types 304 and 316 stainless steel showed 3 tomore » 4 percent residual cold work, presumably resulting from bending and straightening operations, as opposed to approximately 10 percent for the bar product of Type 316 stainless steel. The changes in creep properties on reannealing were shown to be consistent with corresponding changes observed in yield strength and grain sizes. Constants A and B have been summarized for tensile and creep properties of plate, pipe, and bar products of Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. 12 figures, 5 tables.« less
  • A comprehensive study was carried out on the strain-induced martensitic transformation, its reversion to austenite, the resultant grain refinement, and the enhancement of strength and strain-hardening ability through the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect in a commercial austenitic 304L stainless steel with emphasis on the mechanisms and the microstructural evolution. A straightforward magnetic measurement device, which is based on the measurement of the saturation magnetization, for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite after cold rolling and reversion annealing in metastable austenitic stainless steels was used, which its results were in good consistency with those of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. Amore » new parameter called the effective reduction in thickness was introduced, which corresponds to the reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite fraction based on the saturation in the martensitic transformation. By means of thermodynamics calculations, the reversion mechanisms were estimated and subsequently validated by experimental results. The signs of thermal martensitic transformation at cooling stage after reversion at 850 °C were found, which was attributed to the rise in the martensite start temperature due to the carbide precipitation. After the reversion treatment, the average grain sizes were around 500 nm and the nanometric grains of the size of ~ 65 nm were also detected. The intense grain refinement led to the enhanced mechanical properties and observation of the change in the work-hardening capacity and TRIP effect behavior. A practical map as a guidance for grain refining and characterizing the stability against grain growth was proposed, which shows the limitation of the reversion mechanism for refinement of grain size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through martensite treatment • A parameter descriptive of a reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite • Characterization of martensite by virtue of a new developed magnetic device • Investigation of mechanical properties and TRIP effect and the effect of grain size.« less
  • The influence of prior cold work (PCW) on low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of type 304 stainless steel has been studied at 300, 823, 923, and 1,023 K by conducting total axial strain-controlled tests in solution annealed (SA, 0 pct PCW) condition and on specimens having three levels of PCW, namely, 10, 20, and 30 pct. A triangular waveform with a constant frequency of 0.1 Hz was employed for all of the tests performed over strain amplitudes in the range of [plus minus]0.25 to [plus minus]1.25%. These studies have revealed that fatigue life is strongly dependent on PCW, temperature, and strainmore » amplitude employed in testing. The SA material generally displayed better endurance in terms of total and plastic strain amplitudes than the material in 10, 20, and 30% PCW conditions at all of the temperatures. However, at 300 K at very low strain amplitudes, PCW material exhibited better total strain fatigue resistance. At 823 K, LCF life decreased with increasing PCW, whereas at 923 K, 10% PCW displayed the lowest life. An improvement in life occurred for prior deformation exceeding 10% at all strain amplitudes at 923 K. Fatigue life showed a noticeable decrease with increasing temperature up to 1,023 K in PCW state. On the other hand, SA material displayed a minimum in fatigue life at 923 K. The fatigue life results of SA as well as all of the PCW conditions obeyed the Basquin and Coffin-Manson relationships at 300, 823, and 923 K. A study is made of cyclic stress-strain behavior in SA and PCW states and the relationship between the cyclic strain-hardening exponent and fatigue behavior at different temperatures has been explored. The influence of environment on fatigue crack initiation and propagation behavior has been examined.« less