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Title: The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work

Abstract

The 304 stainless steel (SS) type is widely used in oil and gas operations due to its excellent corrosion resistance. However, the presence of the fine sand particles and H{sub 2}S gas contained in crude oil could lead the erosion and abrasion in steel. In this study, cold rolled treatments were conducted to the 304 SS in order to increase the wear resistance of the steel. The cold work has resulted in thickness reduction to 20%, 40% and 60% of the original. Various microstructural characterizations were used to analyze the effect of deformation. The hardness characterization showed that the initial hardness value increased from 145 HVC to 395 HVC as the level of deformation increase. Further, the wear resistance increased with the deformation rate from 0% to 40% and subsequently decreased from 40% to 60% deformation rate. Microstructural characterization shows that the boundary change to coincide by 56 µm, 49 µm, 45 µm, and 43 µm width and the grain go to flatten and being folded like needles. The effect of deformation on the grain morphology and structure was also studied by optical metallography and X-Ray Diffraction. It is shown that the deformation by means of a cold rolled processmore » has transformed the austenite structure into martensitic structure.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. PPS Materials Science, FMIPA-Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)
  2. Mechanical Engineering Dept., FT-Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa,Cilegon 42435 (Indonesia)
  3. Pusat Penelitian Fisika,LIPI, Serpong (Indonesia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22609109
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1746; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: ICPR 2016: International conference on physics and applied physics research, Yogyakarta (Indonesia), 25-26 Jan 2016, ICIBio 2016: International conference on industrial biology, Yogyakarta (Indonesia), 25-26 Jan 2016, ICIAMath 2016: International conference on information system and applied mathematics, Yogyakarta (Indonesia), 25-26 Jan 2016; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ABRASION; AUSTENITE; CORROSION; CORROSION RESISTANCE; DEFORMATION; EROSION; HARDNESS; MARTENSITIC STEELS; METALLOGRAPHY; MICROSTRUCTURE; PETROLEUM; REDUCTION; STAINLESS STEEL-304; THICKNESS; WEAR; WEAR RESISTANCE; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Mubarok, Naila, Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@ui.ac.id, Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar, and Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini. The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4953947.
Mubarok, Naila, Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@ui.ac.id, Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar, & Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini. The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4953947.
Mubarok, Naila, Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@ui.ac.id, Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar, and Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini. 2016. "The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4953947.
@article{osti_22609109,
title = {The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work},
author = {Mubarok, Naila and Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@ui.ac.id and Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar and Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini},
abstractNote = {The 304 stainless steel (SS) type is widely used in oil and gas operations due to its excellent corrosion resistance. However, the presence of the fine sand particles and H{sub 2}S gas contained in crude oil could lead the erosion and abrasion in steel. In this study, cold rolled treatments were conducted to the 304 SS in order to increase the wear resistance of the steel. The cold work has resulted in thickness reduction to 20%, 40% and 60% of the original. Various microstructural characterizations were used to analyze the effect of deformation. The hardness characterization showed that the initial hardness value increased from 145 HVC to 395 HVC as the level of deformation increase. Further, the wear resistance increased with the deformation rate from 0% to 40% and subsequently decreased from 40% to 60% deformation rate. Microstructural characterization shows that the boundary change to coincide by 56 µm, 49 µm, 45 µm, and 43 µm width and the grain go to flatten and being folded like needles. The effect of deformation on the grain morphology and structure was also studied by optical metallography and X-Ray Diffraction. It is shown that the deformation by means of a cold rolled process has transformed the austenite structure into martensitic structure.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4953947},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1746,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • A comprehensive study was carried out on the strain-induced martensitic transformation, its reversion to austenite, the resultant grain refinement, and the enhancement of strength and strain-hardening ability through the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect in a commercial austenitic 304L stainless steel with emphasis on the mechanisms and the microstructural evolution. A straightforward magnetic measurement device, which is based on the measurement of the saturation magnetization, for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite after cold rolling and reversion annealing in metastable austenitic stainless steels was used, which its results were in good consistency with those of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. Amore » new parameter called the effective reduction in thickness was introduced, which corresponds to the reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite fraction based on the saturation in the martensitic transformation. By means of thermodynamics calculations, the reversion mechanisms were estimated and subsequently validated by experimental results. The signs of thermal martensitic transformation at cooling stage after reversion at 850 °C were found, which was attributed to the rise in the martensite start temperature due to the carbide precipitation. After the reversion treatment, the average grain sizes were around 500 nm and the nanometric grains of the size of ~ 65 nm were also detected. The intense grain refinement led to the enhanced mechanical properties and observation of the change in the work-hardening capacity and TRIP effect behavior. A practical map as a guidance for grain refining and characterizing the stability against grain growth was proposed, which shows the limitation of the reversion mechanism for refinement of grain size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through martensite treatment • A parameter descriptive of a reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite • Characterization of martensite by virtue of a new developed magnetic device • Investigation of mechanical properties and TRIP effect and the effect of grain size.« less
  • In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 pct for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, materials are required that are both strong and corrosion-resistant at >973 K (700 °C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase, NiAl and Ni 3Al precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The microstructure and microchemistry of recently developed alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Different thermo-mechanical treatments were performed on these steels to improve their mechanical performance. These reducedmore » the grain size significantly to the nanoscale (~100 nm) and the room temperature yield strength to above 1000 MPa. Lastly, a solutionizing anneal at 1473 K (1200 °C) was found to be effective for uniformly redistributing the Laves phase precipitates that form upon casting.« less
  • In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of > 50 pct for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, materials are required that are both strong and corrosion-resistant at > 973 K (700 A degrees C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase, NiAl and Ni3Al precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The microstructure and microchemistry of recently developed alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Different thermo-mechanical treatments were performed on these steels to improve their mechanicalmore » performance. These reduced the grain size significantly to the nanoscale (similar to 100 nm) and the room temperature yield strength to above 1000 MPa. A solutionizing anneal at 1473 K (1200 A degrees C) was found to be effective for uniformly redistributing the Laves phase precipitates that form upon casting. (C) The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2015« less