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Title: The effect of synthesis time on graphene growth from palm oil as green carbon precursor

Abstract

Graphene is the new material that arises after carbon nanotubes (CNTs) era and has extraordinary optical, electronic and mechanical properties compared to CNTs. The 2D graphene is the sp{sup 2} carbon allotropes compared to other dimensionality. It also can be in three forms that are zero-dimensional, one-dimensional or three-dimensional. The different dimensionality also called fullerenes, nanotubes and graphite. Therefore, the graphene is known as centre potential materials in expanding research area than others ever. The 2 cm × 2 cm silicon wafer was seeded with nickel (Ni) at different thickness by using sputter coater. The palm oil, carbon source, was placed in the precursor furnace and the silicon was placed in the second furnace (deposition furnace). The palm oil will mix with Nitrogen gas was used as carrier gas in the CVD under certain temperature and pressure to undergo pyrolysis proses. The deposition temperature was set at 1000 °C. The deposition time varied from 3 minutes, 5 minutes and 7 minutes. The graphene was growth at ambient pressure in the CVD system. Electron microscopy and Raman Spectrometer revealed the structural properties and surface morphology of the grapheme on the substrate. The D and G band appear approximately at 1350 cm{supmore » −1} and 1850 cm{sup −1}. It can be concluded that the growth of graphene varies at different deposition time.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ;  [4];  [1];  [5]
  1. NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)
  2. (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)
  3. Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT) Universiti Malaya - UM, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
  4. Department of Biochemistry, College of Science King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)
  5. (Malaysia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22608615
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1733; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: IC-NET 2015: International conference on nano-electronic technology devices and materials 2015, Selangor (Malaysia), 27 Feb - 2 Mar 2015; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; APPROXIMATIONS; CARBON NANOTUBES; CARBON SOURCES; CARRIERS; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; FULLERENES; GRAPHENE; GRAPHITE; NICKEL; NITROGEN; PYROLYSIS; SILICON; SPECTROMETERS; SPUTTERING; SUBSTRATES; SURFACES; SYNTHESIS; THICKNESS; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Salifairus, M. J., E-mail: salifairus-mj85@yahoo.co.uk, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, NANO-ElecTronic Centre - Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Hamid, S. B. Abd, Alrokayan, Salman A. H., Khan, Haseeb A., Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com, and NANO-ElecTronic Centre - Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor. The effect of synthesis time on graphene growth from palm oil as green carbon precursor. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4948884.
Salifairus, M. J., E-mail: salifairus-mj85@yahoo.co.uk, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, NANO-ElecTronic Centre - Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Hamid, S. B. Abd, Alrokayan, Salman A. H., Khan, Haseeb A., Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com, & NANO-ElecTronic Centre - Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor. The effect of synthesis time on graphene growth from palm oil as green carbon precursor. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4948884.
Salifairus, M. J., E-mail: salifairus-mj85@yahoo.co.uk, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, NANO-ElecTronic Centre - Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Hamid, S. B. Abd, Alrokayan, Salman A. H., Khan, Haseeb A., Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com, and NANO-ElecTronic Centre - Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor. 2016. "The effect of synthesis time on graphene growth from palm oil as green carbon precursor". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4948884.
@article{osti_22608615,
title = {The effect of synthesis time on graphene growth from palm oil as green carbon precursor},
author = {Salifairus, M. J., E-mail: salifairus-mj85@yahoo.co.uk and Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA and NANO-ElecTronic Centre - Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA and Hamid, S. B. Abd and Alrokayan, Salman A. H. and Khan, Haseeb A. and Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com and NANO-ElecTronic Centre - Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor},
abstractNote = {Graphene is the new material that arises after carbon nanotubes (CNTs) era and has extraordinary optical, electronic and mechanical properties compared to CNTs. The 2D graphene is the sp{sup 2} carbon allotropes compared to other dimensionality. It also can be in three forms that are zero-dimensional, one-dimensional or three-dimensional. The different dimensionality also called fullerenes, nanotubes and graphite. Therefore, the graphene is known as centre potential materials in expanding research area than others ever. The 2 cm × 2 cm silicon wafer was seeded with nickel (Ni) at different thickness by using sputter coater. The palm oil, carbon source, was placed in the precursor furnace and the silicon was placed in the second furnace (deposition furnace). The palm oil will mix with Nitrogen gas was used as carrier gas in the CVD under certain temperature and pressure to undergo pyrolysis proses. The deposition temperature was set at 1000 °C. The deposition time varied from 3 minutes, 5 minutes and 7 minutes. The graphene was growth at ambient pressure in the CVD system. Electron microscopy and Raman Spectrometer revealed the structural properties and surface morphology of the grapheme on the substrate. The D and G band appear approximately at 1350 cm{sup −1} and 1850 cm{sup −1}. It can be concluded that the growth of graphene varies at different deposition time.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4948884},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1733,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • The doping effect of copper on the structure of a nickel-alumina catalyst, which was prepared from Feitknecht compound precursor with a hydrotalcite-like layered structure and on the catalytic growth of carbon fibers from methane have been investigated. An in-situ thermal balance was employed in the study of the carbon fiber growth process. It has been found that the addition of a small amount of copper into the nickel-alumina catalyst promotes the activity and that more than 36 wt% of CFs was produced when 2 mol% copper was added into a catalyst with a Ni/Al molar ratio of 3:1. Too muchmore » copper was found to decrease the activity of the catalyst toward solid carbon formation. The amount of carbon fibers produced on the catalyst, before its deactivation, decreases with the increase of the reaction temperature. When hydrogen instead of nitrogen was used as the dilution gas, the activity of the catalyst decreased and the reaction temperature had to be increased. The addition of copper lowers the effect of hydrogen. TEM micrographs showed that small particles are easier to activate than larger ones in the reaction. The possible effect of alloying between copper and nickel is discussed.« less
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  • Incorporation of organic waste amendments to a horticultural soil, prior to expected risk periods, could immobilise mineral N, ultimately reducing nitrogen (N) losses as nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and leaching. Two organic waste amendments were selected, a fresh green waste (FGW) and green waste compost (GWC) as they had suitable biochemical attributes to initiate N immobilisation into the microbial biomass and organic N forms. These characteristics include a high C:N ratio (FGW 44:1, GWC 35:1), low total N (<1%), and high lignin content (>14%). Both products were applied at 3 t C/ha to a high N (plus N fertiliser) ormore » low N (no fertiliser addition) Vertisol soil in PVC columns. Cumulative N{sub 2}O production over the 28 day incubation from the control soil was 1.5 mg/N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}, and 11 mg/N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2} from the control + N. The N{sub 2}O emission decreased with GWC addition (P < 0.05) for the high N soil, reducing cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions by 38% by the conclusion of the incubation. Analysis of mineral N concentrations at 7, 14 and 28 days identified that both FGW and GWC induced microbial immobilisation of N in the first 7 days of incubation regardless of whether the soil environment was initially high or low in N; with the FGW immobilising up to 30% of available N. It is likely that the reduced mineral N due to N immobilisation led to a reduced substrate for N{sub 2}O production during the first week of the trial, when soil N{sub 2}O emissions peaked. An additional finding was that FGW + N did not decrease cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions compared to the control + N, potentially due to the fact that it stimulated microbial respiration resulting in anaerobic micro sites in the soil and ultimately N{sub 2}O production via denitrification. Therefore, both materials could be used as post harvest amendments in horticulture to minimise N loss through nitrate-N leaching in the risk periods between crop rotations. The mature GWC has potential to reduce N{sub 2}O, an important greenhouse gas.« less
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  • Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an attractive substrate for graphene, as the interaction between these materials is weak enough for high carrier mobility to be retained in graphene but strong enough to allow for some epitaxial relationship. We deposited graphene on exfoliated h-BN by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), we analyzed the atomistic details of the process by ab initio density functional theory (DFT), and we linked the DFT and MBE results by random walk theory. Graphene appears to nucleate around defects in virgin h-BN. The DFT analysis reveals that sticking of carbon to perfect h-BN is strongly reduced by desorption,more » so that pre-existing seeds are needed for the nucleation. The dominant nucleation seeds are C{sub N}C{sub B} and O{sub N}C{sub N} pairs and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusions in the virgin substrate.« less