skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Formation of freestanding ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes for Cr(VI) removal

Abstract

Freestanding ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes (ZNTs) were produced using a simple anodization method in fluorinated ethylene glycol electrolyte containing 1 ml 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The pH of the bath was kept constant at 8. The potassium carbonate (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) was added into electrolyte to promote the detachment of anodic ZrO{sub 2} film from the underlying zirconium (Zr) substrate. The poor adherence of ZNTs layer was due to generation of CO{sub 2} gas that was thought to occur between metal|oxide interfaces. The effect of anodization voltages towards the detachment of ZNTs layer was systematically studied at 20 V, 40 V, 50 V and 60 V for 1 hour. The formation of CO{sub 2} gas is a function of anodization voltage, in which at 60 V, a good anodic film separation seen due to higher formation of CO{sub 2} gas. A preliminary study shown the capability of ZNTs in removing 5 ppm of Cr(VI) aqueous solution under illumination of UV light.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. School of Materials & Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Seri Ampangan, Nibong Tebal, Seberang Prai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22608592
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1733; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: IC-NET 2015: International conference on nano-electronic technology devices and materials 2015, Selangor (Malaysia), 27 Feb - 2 Mar 2015; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ANODIZATION; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; CARBON DIOXIDE; ELECTROLYTES; ETHYLENE; FILMS; GLYCOLS; ILLUMINANCE; INTERFACES; LAYERS; NANOTUBES; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; SUBSTRATES; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; ZIRCONIUM; ZIRCONIUM OXIDES

Citation Formats

Bashirom, Nurulhuda, E-mail: nurulhuda.usm2014@gmail.com, Ye, Beh Chin, E-mail: cyebeh@gmail.com, Razak, Khairunisak Abdul, E-mail: khairunisak@usm.my, and Lockman, Zainovia, E-mail: zainovia@usm.my. Formation of freestanding ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes for Cr(VI) removal. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4948847.
Bashirom, Nurulhuda, E-mail: nurulhuda.usm2014@gmail.com, Ye, Beh Chin, E-mail: cyebeh@gmail.com, Razak, Khairunisak Abdul, E-mail: khairunisak@usm.my, & Lockman, Zainovia, E-mail: zainovia@usm.my. Formation of freestanding ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes for Cr(VI) removal. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4948847.
Bashirom, Nurulhuda, E-mail: nurulhuda.usm2014@gmail.com, Ye, Beh Chin, E-mail: cyebeh@gmail.com, Razak, Khairunisak Abdul, E-mail: khairunisak@usm.my, and Lockman, Zainovia, E-mail: zainovia@usm.my. Wed . "Formation of freestanding ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes for Cr(VI) removal". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4948847.
@article{osti_22608592,
title = {Formation of freestanding ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes for Cr(VI) removal},
author = {Bashirom, Nurulhuda, E-mail: nurulhuda.usm2014@gmail.com and Ye, Beh Chin, E-mail: cyebeh@gmail.com and Razak, Khairunisak Abdul, E-mail: khairunisak@usm.my and Lockman, Zainovia, E-mail: zainovia@usm.my},
abstractNote = {Freestanding ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes (ZNTs) were produced using a simple anodization method in fluorinated ethylene glycol electrolyte containing 1 ml 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The pH of the bath was kept constant at 8. The potassium carbonate (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) was added into electrolyte to promote the detachment of anodic ZrO{sub 2} film from the underlying zirconium (Zr) substrate. The poor adherence of ZNTs layer was due to generation of CO{sub 2} gas that was thought to occur between metal|oxide interfaces. The effect of anodization voltages towards the detachment of ZNTs layer was systematically studied at 20 V, 40 V, 50 V and 60 V for 1 hour. The formation of CO{sub 2} gas is a function of anodization voltage, in which at 60 V, a good anodic film separation seen due to higher formation of CO{sub 2} gas. A preliminary study shown the capability of ZNTs in removing 5 ppm of Cr(VI) aqueous solution under illumination of UV light.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4948847},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1733,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jul 06 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jul 06 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • The authors investigate the phase composition of samples of the following ternary systems: ZrO/sub 2/-Sc/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, ZrO/sub 2/-Sc/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and ZrO/sub 2/-TiO/sub 2/-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The oxides Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dissolve to an appreciable extent in solid solutions based on the cubic modification of ZrO/sub 2/. The solubility of TiO/sub 2/ is determined by the value of the mean radius of the cation in the fluorite-like solid solution. The solubility of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in monoclinic ZrO/sub 2/ is very insignificant.
  • In the ZrO{sub 2}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} system, metastable t-ZrO{sub 2} solid solutions containing up to 11 mol% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallize at low temperatures from amorphous materials prepared by the hydrazine method. The lattice parameter c decreases linearly from 0.5149 to 0.5077 nm with increased Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, whereas the lattice parameter a is a constant value (a = 0.5077 nm) regardless of the starting composition. At higher temperatures, transformation (decomposition) of the solid solutions proceeds in the following way: t(ss) {yields} t(ss) + m + Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} {yields} m + Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Above 11 mol% Cr{submore » 2}O{sub 3} addition, c-ZrO{sub 2} phases are formed in the presence of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The t-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution powders have been characterized for particle size, shape, and surface area. They consist of very fine particles (15--30 nm) showing thin platelike morphology. Dense ZrO{sub 2}(3Y)-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite ceramics ({approx} 99.7% of theoretical) with an average grain size of 0.3 {micro}m have been fabricated by hot isostatic pressing for 2 h at 1,400 C and 196 MPa. Their fracture toughness increases with increased Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The highest K{sub 1c} value of 9.5 MPa {center_dot} m{sup 1/2} is achieved in the composite ceramics containing 10 mol% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}.« less
  • Cubic ZrO 2 can be formed at 1500 deg C from tetragonal ZrO 2 and transition metals of groups V and Vl or their monoxides only in the presence of TiO 2. The 1500 deg isotherm of the pseudo-tennary system ZrO 2- TiO 2-VO was investigated and the extent of the single-phase cubic ZrO 2 region was determined. In the system Ta-Ta 2O 5 the lower oxides cannot be formed by reacting Ta and Ta 2O 5 between 1450 deg and 1815 deg C.
  • Highlights: • Facile synthesis of C-doped TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials with high surface area. • Utilization of citric acid and ascorbic acid as fuels based on evolution of gases. • Enhanced visible activity for the oxidation of phenol and reduction of Cr(VI). • Study of simultaneous oxidation of phenol and reduction of Cr(VI) for the first time. • Proposed plausible mechanism for the simultaneous removal of phenol and Cr(VI). - Abstract: A single step synthesis of carbon doped TiO{sub 2} (anatase) nanomaterials have been reported by using combustion synthesis using ascorbic acid and citric acid fuels. X-ray diffraction studies indicated themore » formation of nanosized anatase titania, whereas, transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of nanosized TiO{sub 2} anatase. The carbon doping into TiO{sub 2} matrix was identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, whereas, thermogravimetric study quantified the carbon doping. Diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectra indicated the band gap of less than 3 eV, a prerequisite for the photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. The N{sub 2} adsorption studies revealed the high surface area (upto 290 m{sup 2}/g) of the synthesized photocatalysts. Typical photocatalytic activity data indicated that the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and phenol is advantageous than degradation of the individual pollutants.« less