skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application

Abstract

The availability of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber (ENR-LC) has provided a better opportunity for using epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) with silica to reinforce natural rubber for tyre application. ENR-LC mixed directly with silica to rubber by high speed stirrer without using any coupling agent. Some rubber compounds were prepared by mixing a large amount of precipitated amorphous white silica with natural rubber. The silica was prepared in aqueous dispersion and the filler was perfectly dispersed in the ENR-LC. The performance of the composites was evaluated in this work for the viability of ENR-LC/Si in tyre compounding. Compounding was carried out on a two roll mill, where the additives and curing agents was later mixed. Characterization of these composites was performed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for dispersion as well as mechanical testing. C-ENR/Si showed efficient as primary reinforcing filler in ENR with regard to modulus and tensile strength, resulting on an increase in the stiffness of the rubbers compared to ENR latex. Overall improvement in the mechanical properties for the ENR-LC over the control crosslinked rubber sample was probably due to synergisms of silica reinforcement and crosslinking of the polymeric matrix phase.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. High Value Added Rubber Products and Nanostructured Materials, Stesen Penyelidikan RRIM, LGM 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor (Malaysia)
  2. Environmental Technology & Sustainability, Technology & Engineering Division, Malaysian Rubber Board, Stesen Penyelidikan RRIM, LGM 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor (Malaysia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22608574
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1733; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: IC-NET 2015: International conference on nano-electronic technology devices and materials 2015, Selangor (Malaysia), 27 Feb - 2 Mar 2015; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ADDITIVES; AVAILABILITY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COUPLING; CROSS-LINKING; DISPERSIONS; ELECTRONS; FIELD EMISSION; FILLERS; FLEXIBILITY; NATURAL RUBBER; PRECIPITATION; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SILICA; SYNERGISM; TRANSMISSION; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Azira, A. A., E-mail: azira@lgm.gov.my, Kamal, M. M., E-mail: mazlina@lgm.gov.my, and Verasamy, D., E-mail: devaraj@lgm.gov.my. Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4948822.
Azira, A. A., E-mail: azira@lgm.gov.my, Kamal, M. M., E-mail: mazlina@lgm.gov.my, & Verasamy, D., E-mail: devaraj@lgm.gov.my. Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4948822.
Azira, A. A., E-mail: azira@lgm.gov.my, Kamal, M. M., E-mail: mazlina@lgm.gov.my, and Verasamy, D., E-mail: devaraj@lgm.gov.my. 2016. "Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4948822.
@article{osti_22608574,
title = {Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application},
author = {Azira, A. A., E-mail: azira@lgm.gov.my and Kamal, M. M., E-mail: mazlina@lgm.gov.my and Verasamy, D., E-mail: devaraj@lgm.gov.my},
abstractNote = {The availability of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber (ENR-LC) has provided a better opportunity for using epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) with silica to reinforce natural rubber for tyre application. ENR-LC mixed directly with silica to rubber by high speed stirrer without using any coupling agent. Some rubber compounds were prepared by mixing a large amount of precipitated amorphous white silica with natural rubber. The silica was prepared in aqueous dispersion and the filler was perfectly dispersed in the ENR-LC. The performance of the composites was evaluated in this work for the viability of ENR-LC/Si in tyre compounding. Compounding was carried out on a two roll mill, where the additives and curing agents was later mixed. Characterization of these composites was performed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for dispersion as well as mechanical testing. C-ENR/Si showed efficient as primary reinforcing filler in ENR with regard to modulus and tensile strength, resulting on an increase in the stiffness of the rubbers compared to ENR latex. Overall improvement in the mechanical properties for the ENR-LC over the control crosslinked rubber sample was probably due to synergisms of silica reinforcement and crosslinking of the polymeric matrix phase.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4948822},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1733,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • X-ray microtomography and ImageJ 1.39 u is used as a tool to quantify volume percentage of B{sub 4}C as fillers in thermoplastic-natural rubber blend composites. The use of percentage of area occupied by fillers as obtain from ImageJ from the microtomography sliced images enables the proposed technique to easily obtain the amount volume percentage of B{sub 4}C in the composite non-destructively. Comparison with other technique such as density measurement and chemical analysis proves the proposed technique as one of the promising approach.
  • The inclusion of highly anisotropic clay nanoparticles (nanoclays) in cross-linked natural rubber (NR) provides a more homogeneous distributed network structure and induces an early onset as well as enhancement of crystallization under uniaxial deformation. The molecular structure of the polymer network and its morphological changes during deformation were characterized by using broadband dielectric spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction, respectively. It was found that the presence of nanoclay introduces a dual crystallization mechanism due to the alignment of nanoparticles during stretching. The improved properties in NR-nanoclay nanocomposites can be attributed to both microstructural and morphological changes induced bymore » nanoclay as well as to the nanoclay mobility in the NR matrix during crystallization. The interplay of these factors during deformation contributes to the formation of a supernetwork structure containing cross-linked chemical chains, nanofiller, and crystallizable networks with similar length scales.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • This study investigates the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) nanocomposites reinforced with multi-walled nanotubes. The TPNR nanocomposites were prepared using melt blending method from polypropylene (PP), natural rubber (NR) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as a compatibilizer, respectively, with 1% of Multi-wall nanotubes. The nanocomposite was prepared using the indirect technique (IDT) with the optimum processing parameters at 180 deg. C with 80 rpm mixing speed and 11 minutes processing time. The results have showed that the good dispersion on nanotubes was achieved by ultrasonic treatment. The optimization of ultrasonic time indicatedmore » that the maximum tensile and impact properties occurred with 1 h ultrasonic treatment. The Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength have increased by almost 11%, 21%, 43% and 50%, respectively. The results from our study indicate that nanotubes have as excellent reinforcement filler in TPNR matrix.« less