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Title: High-speed x-ray imaging with the Keck pixel array detector (Keck PAD) for time-resolved experiments at synchrotron sources

Abstract

Modern storage rings are readily capable of providing intense x-ray pulses, tens of picoseconds in duration, millions of times per second. Exploiting the temporal structure of these x-ray sources opens avenues for studying rapid structural changes in materials. Many processes (e.g. crack propagation, deformation on impact, turbulence, etc.) differ in detail from one sample trial to the next and would benefit from the ability to record successive x-ray images with single x-ray sensitivity while framing at 5 to 10 MHz rates. To this end, we have pursued the development of fast x-ray imaging detectors capable of collecting bursts of images that enable the isolation of single synchrotron bunches and/or bunch trains. The detector technology used is the hybrid pixel array detector (PAD) with a charge integrating front-end, and high-speed, in-pixel signal storage elements. A 384×256 pixel version, the Keck-PAD, with 150 µm × 150 µm pixels and 8 dedicated in-pixel storage elements is operational, has been tested at CHESS, and has collected data for compression wave studies. An updated version with 27 dedicated storage capacitors and identical pixel size has been fabricated.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)
  2. (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22608418
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1741; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: SRI2015: 12. international conference on synchrotron radiation instrumentation, New York, NY (United States), 6-10 Jul 2015; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; COMPRESSION; CRACK PROPAGATION; DEFORMATION; IMAGES; PULSES; SENSITIVITY; STORAGE RINGS; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES; SYNCHROTRONS; TIME RESOLUTION; TURBULENCE; X RADIATION; X-RAY SOURCES

Citation Formats

Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu, Tate, Mark W., Purohit, Prafull, Shanks, Katherine S., Weiss, Joel T., Chamberlain, Darol, Gruner, Sol M., and Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. High-speed x-ray imaging with the Keck pixel array detector (Keck PAD) for time-resolved experiments at synchrotron sources. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4952908.
Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu, Tate, Mark W., Purohit, Prafull, Shanks, Katherine S., Weiss, Joel T., Chamberlain, Darol, Gruner, Sol M., & Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. High-speed x-ray imaging with the Keck pixel array detector (Keck PAD) for time-resolved experiments at synchrotron sources. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4952908.
Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu, Tate, Mark W., Purohit, Prafull, Shanks, Katherine S., Weiss, Joel T., Chamberlain, Darol, Gruner, Sol M., and Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. 2016. "High-speed x-ray imaging with the Keck pixel array detector (Keck PAD) for time-resolved experiments at synchrotron sources". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4952908.
@article{osti_22608418,
title = {High-speed x-ray imaging with the Keck pixel array detector (Keck PAD) for time-resolved experiments at synchrotron sources},
author = {Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu and Tate, Mark W. and Purohit, Prafull and Shanks, Katherine S. and Weiss, Joel T. and Chamberlain, Darol and Gruner, Sol M. and Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source},
abstractNote = {Modern storage rings are readily capable of providing intense x-ray pulses, tens of picoseconds in duration, millions of times per second. Exploiting the temporal structure of these x-ray sources opens avenues for studying rapid structural changes in materials. Many processes (e.g. crack propagation, deformation on impact, turbulence, etc.) differ in detail from one sample trial to the next and would benefit from the ability to record successive x-ray images with single x-ray sensitivity while framing at 5 to 10 MHz rates. To this end, we have pursued the development of fast x-ray imaging detectors capable of collecting bursts of images that enable the isolation of single synchrotron bunches and/or bunch trains. The detector technology used is the hybrid pixel array detector (PAD) with a charge integrating front-end, and high-speed, in-pixel signal storage elements. A 384×256 pixel version, the Keck-PAD, with 150 µm × 150 µm pixels and 8 dedicated in-pixel storage elements is operational, has been tested at CHESS, and has collected data for compression wave studies. An updated version with 27 dedicated storage capacitors and identical pixel size has been fabricated.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4952908},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1741,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • A wide-dynamic-range imaging X-ray detector designed for recording successive frames at rates up to 10 MHz is described. X-ray imaging with frame rates of up to 6.5 MHz have been experimentally verified. The pixel design allows for up to 8–12 frames to be stored internally at high speed before readout, which occurs at a 1 kHz frame rate. An additional mode of operation allows the integration capacitors to be re-addressed repeatedly before readout which can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of cyclical processes. This detector, along with modern storage ring sources which provide short (10–100 ps) and intense X-ray pulses atmore » megahertz rates, opens new avenues for the study of rapid structural changes in materials. The detector consists of hybridized modules, each of which is comprised of a 500 µm-thick silicon X-ray sensor solder bump-bonded, pixel by pixel, to an application-specific integrated circuit. The format of each module is 128 × 128 pixels with a pixel pitch of 150 µm. In the prototype detector described here, the three-side buttable modules are tiled in a 3 × 2 array with a full format of 256 × 384 pixels. Lastly, we detail the characteristics, operation, testing and application of the detector.« less
  • This paper describes the development of a large area hybrid pixel detector designed for time-resolved synchrotron x-ray scattering experiments in which limited frames, with a high framing rate, are required. The final design parameters call for a 1024{times}1024 pixel array device with 150-micron pixels that is 100{percent} quantum efficient for x-rays with energy up to 20 keV, with a framing rate in the microsecond range. The device will consist of a fully depleted diode array bump bonded to a CMOS electronic storage capacitor array with eight frames per pixel. The two devices may be separated by a x-ray blocking layermore » that protects the radiation-sensitive electronics layer from damage. The signal is integrated in the electronics layer and stored in one of eight CMOS capacitors. After eight frames are taken, the data are then read out, using clocking electronics external to the detector, and stored in a RAM disk. Results will be presented on the development of a prototype 4{times}4 pixel electronics layer that is capable of storing at least 10,000 12-keV x-ray photons for a capacity of over 50 million electrons with a noise corresponding to 2 x-ray photons per pixel. The diode detective layer and electronics storage layer along with the radiation damage and blocking layers will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}« less
  • Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame,more » in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm){sup 2} pixels.« less
  • The final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0004079 is presented. The goal of the grant was to perform research, development and application of novel imaging x-ray detectors so as to effectively utilize the high intensity and brightness of the national synchrotron radiation facilities to enable previously unfeasible time-resolved x-ray research. The report summarizes the development of the resultant imaging x-ray detectors. Two types of detector platforms were developed: The first is a detector platform (called a Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector, or MM-PAD) that can image continuously at over a thousand images per second while maintaining high efficiency for wide dynamicmore » range signals ranging from 1 to hundreds of millions of x-rays per pixel per image. Research on an even higher dynamic range variant is also described. The second detector platform (called the Keck Pixel Array Detector) is capable of acquiring a burst of x-ray images at a rate of millions of images per second.« less