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Title: Flash characteristics of plasma induced by hypervelocity impact

Abstract

Using a two-stage light gas gun, a series of hypervelocity impact experiments was conducted in which 6.4-mm-diameter spherical 2024-aluminum projectiles impact 23-mm-thick targets made of the same material at velocities of 5.0, 5.6, and 6.3 km/s. Both an optical pyrometer composed of six photomultiplier tubes and a spectrograph were used to measure the flash of the plasma during hypervelocity impact. Experimental results show that, at a projectile velocity of 6.3 km/s, the strong flash lasted about 10 μs and reached a temperature of 4300 K. Based on the known emission lines of AL I, spectral methods can provide the plasma electron temperature. An electron-temperature comparison between experiment and theoretical calculation indicates that single ionization and secondary ionization are the two main ionizing modes at velocities 5.0–6.3 km/s.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)
  2. (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22599926
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; ELECTRON TEMPERATURE; ELECTRONS; EMISSION; GUNS; IONIZATION; OPTICAL PYROMETERS; PHOTOMULTIPLIERS; PLASMA; PROJECTILES; SPHERICAL CONFIGURATION; TEMPERATURE RANGE OVER 4000 K; TUBES; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Zhang, Kai, Beijing Automotive Technology Center, Beijing 100021, Long, Renrong, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn, Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn, Xue, Yijiang, and Ju, Yuanyuan. Flash characteristics of plasma induced by hypervelocity impact. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4960297.
Zhang, Kai, Beijing Automotive Technology Center, Beijing 100021, Long, Renrong, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn, Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn, Xue, Yijiang, & Ju, Yuanyuan. Flash characteristics of plasma induced by hypervelocity impact. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960297.
Zhang, Kai, Beijing Automotive Technology Center, Beijing 100021, Long, Renrong, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn, Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn, Xue, Yijiang, and Ju, Yuanyuan. 2016. "Flash characteristics of plasma induced by hypervelocity impact". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960297.
@article{osti_22599926,
title = {Flash characteristics of plasma induced by hypervelocity impact},
author = {Zhang, Kai and Beijing Automotive Technology Center, Beijing 100021 and Long, Renrong, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn and Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn and Xue, Yijiang and Ju, Yuanyuan},
abstractNote = {Using a two-stage light gas gun, a series of hypervelocity impact experiments was conducted in which 6.4-mm-diameter spherical 2024-aluminum projectiles impact 23-mm-thick targets made of the same material at velocities of 5.0, 5.6, and 6.3 km/s. Both an optical pyrometer composed of six photomultiplier tubes and a spectrograph were used to measure the flash of the plasma during hypervelocity impact. Experimental results show that, at a projectile velocity of 6.3 km/s, the strong flash lasted about 10 μs and reached a temperature of 4300 K. Based on the known emission lines of AL I, spectral methods can provide the plasma electron temperature. An electron-temperature comparison between experiment and theoretical calculation indicates that single ionization and secondary ionization are the two main ionizing modes at velocities 5.0–6.3 km/s.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4960297},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 8,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}
  • The characteristics of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact were studied through both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Based on thermodynamics and statistical physics, a thermal ionization model was proposed to explore the relationships of ionization degree and plasma conductivity to temperature with consideration of the velocity distribution law in the thermodynamic equilibrium state. In order to derive the temperature, internal energy, and density of the plasma generated by the impact for the above relationships, a 3-D model for the impact of an aluminum spherical projectile on an aluminum target was established and five cases with different impact angles were numericallymore » simulated. Then, the temperature calculated from the internal energy and the Thomas Fermi (TF) model, the internal energy and the density of the plasma were put into the function of the ionization degree to study the characteristics of plasma. Finally, based on the experimental data, a good agreement was obtained between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results, and the feasibility of this theoretical model was verified.« less
  • Molecular dynamics method is used to study the threshold for plasma phase transition of aluminum single crystal induced by hypervelocity impact. Two effective simulation methods, piston-driven method and multi-scale shock technique, are used to simulate the shock wave. The simulation results from the two methods agree well with the experimental data, indicating that the shock wave velocity is linearly dependent on the particle velocity. The atom is considered to be ionized if the increase of its internal energy is larger than the first ionization energy. The critical impact velocity for plasma phase transition is about 13.0 km/s, corresponding to the thresholdmore » of pressure and temperature which is about 220 GPa and 11.0 × 10{sup 3 }K on the shock Hugoniot, respectively.« less
  • A 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code was developed to investigate plasma generation by considering a chemical reaction process in hypervelocity impacts of an aluminum projectile on an aluminum target. The chemical reaction process was described by the reaction rate based on the Arrhenius equation and used to calculate the plasma generation during the impact simulation. The predicted result was verified by empirical formulas and a new empirical formula was proposed based on the comparisons and analyses. The influence of the impact angle was discussed for different impact velocities. Then, the application of both the new and original empirical formulas formore » protection design from plasma generated by hypervelocity impact was discussed, which demonstrated that the code and model were useful in the prediction of hypervelocity impacts on spacecraft.« less
  • For describing hypervelocity impact (relative low-speed as related to space debris and much lower than travelling speed of meteoroids) phenomenon associated with plasma generation, a self-developed 3D code was advanced to numerically simulate projectiles impacting on a rigid wall. The numerical results were combined with a new ionization model which was developed in an early study to calculate the ionized materials during the impact. The calculated results of ionization were compared with the empirical formulas concluded by experiments in references and a good agreement was obtained. Then based on the reliable 3D numerical code, a series of impacts with differentmore » projectile configurations were simulated to investigate the influence of impact conditions on hypervelocity impact generated plasma. It was found that the form of empirical formula needed to be modified. A new empirical formula with a critical impact velocity was advanced to describe the velocity dependence of plasma generation and the parameters of the modified formula were ensured by the comparison between the numerical predictions and the empirical formulas. For different projectile configurations, the changes of plasma charges with time are different but the integrals of charges on time almost stayed in the same level.« less