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Title: A fluid model for the edge pressure pedestal height and width in tokamaks based on the transport constraint of particle, energy, and momentum balance

Abstract

A fluid model for the tokamak edge pressure profile required by the conservation of particles, momentum and energy in the presence of specified heating and fueling sources and electromagnetic and geometric parameters has been developed. Kinetics effects of ion orbit loss are incorporated into the model. The use of this model as a “transport” constraint together with a “Peeling-Ballooning (P-B)” instability constraint to achieve a prediction of edge pressure pedestal heights and widths in future tokamaks is discussed.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22598938
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; BALANCES; BALLOONING INSTABILITY; FLUIDS; FORECASTING; GEOMETRY; HEATING; HEIGHT; IONS; KINETICS; LIMITING VALUES; PARTICLES; TOKAMAK DEVICES; TRANSPORT THEORY; WIDTH

Citation Formats

Stacey, W. M., E-mail: weston.stacey@nre.gatech.edu. A fluid model for the edge pressure pedestal height and width in tokamaks based on the transport constraint of particle, energy, and momentum balance. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4954379.
Stacey, W. M., E-mail: weston.stacey@nre.gatech.edu. A fluid model for the edge pressure pedestal height and width in tokamaks based on the transport constraint of particle, energy, and momentum balance. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954379.
Stacey, W. M., E-mail: weston.stacey@nre.gatech.edu. Wed . "A fluid model for the edge pressure pedestal height and width in tokamaks based on the transport constraint of particle, energy, and momentum balance". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954379.
@article{osti_22598938,
title = {A fluid model for the edge pressure pedestal height and width in tokamaks based on the transport constraint of particle, energy, and momentum balance},
author = {Stacey, W. M., E-mail: weston.stacey@nre.gatech.edu},
abstractNote = {A fluid model for the tokamak edge pressure profile required by the conservation of particles, momentum and energy in the presence of specified heating and fueling sources and electromagnetic and geometric parameters has been developed. Kinetics effects of ion orbit loss are incorporated into the model. The use of this model as a “transport” constraint together with a “Peeling-Ballooning (P-B)” instability constraint to achieve a prediction of edge pressure pedestal heights and widths in future tokamaks is discussed.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4954379},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 6,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • A calculation of edge density and temperature profiles based on 'classical' physics - particle, momentum, and energy balances, heat conduction closure relations, and neutral particle transport - yielded a pedestal structure that is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that found experimentally in five DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] discharges, when experimental radial electric field and rotation profiles and experimentally inferred heat transport coefficients were used. The principal cause of the density pedestal was a peaking of the inward pinch velocity just inside the separatrix caused by the negative well in the experimental electric field, and the secondarymore » cause was a peaking of the radial particle flux caused by the ionization of incoming neutrals. There is some evidence that this peaking of the radial particle flux just inside the separatrix may also be responsible in part for the negative electric field in that location.« less
  • Energy and particle transport rates are decoupled in the H-mode edge since the ion thermal transport rate is primarily set by the neoclassical transport of the deuterium ions in the tail of the thermal energy distribution, while the net particle transport rate is set by anomalous transport of the colder bulk ions. Ion orbit loss drives the energy distributions away from Maxwellian, and describes the anisotropy, poloidal asymmetry and local minimum near the separatrix observed in the Ti profile. Non-Maxwellian distributions also drive large intrinsic edge flows, and the interaction of turbulence at the top of the pedestal with themore » intrinsic edge flow can generate an intrinsic core torque. The primary driver of the radial electric field (Er) in the pedestal and scrapeoff layer (SOL) are kinetic neoclassical effects, such as ion orbit loss of tail ions and parallel electron loss to the divertor. This paper describes the first multi-species kinetic neoclassical transport calculations for ELM-free H-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer on DIII-D using XGC0, a 5D full-f particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. Quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles is achieved by adding random-walk particle diffusion to the guiding-center drift motion. This interpretative technique quantifies the role of neoclassical, anomalous and neutral transport to the overall pedestal structure, and consequently illustrates the importance of including kinetic effects self-consistently in transport calculations around transport barriers.« less
  • Here, we compare two extreme regimes of non-suspended fluid-mediated particle transport, transport in light and heavy fluids (“saltation” and “bedload,” respectively), regarding their particle fluctuation energy balance. From direct numerical simulations, we surprisingly find that the ratio between collisional and fluid drag dissipation of fluctuation energy is significantly larger in saltation than in bedload, even though the contribution of interparticle collisions to transport of momentum and energy is much smaller in saltation due to the low concentration of particles in the transport layer. We conclude that the much higher frequency of high-energy particle-bed impacts (“splash”) in saltation is the causemore » for this counter-intuitive behavior. Moreover, from a comparison of these simulations to particle tracking velocimetry measurements which we performed in a wind tunnel under steady transport of fine and coarse sand, we find that turbulent fluctuations of the flow produce particle fluctuation energy at an unexpectedly high rate in saltation even under conditions for which the effects of turbulence are usually believed to be small.« less
  • The thermal and particle diffusivities driven by resistive fluid turbulence in diverted tokamak edge plasmas are calculated. Diverted tokamak geometry is characterized by increased global shear near the separatrix and the tendency of field lines to linger near the x point. For resistive fluid turbulence, the dominant effect is increased global shear, which causes a reduction in the effective step size of the turbulent diffusion process and corresponding improvements in heat and particle confinement close to the separatrix. Stability of resistive kink modes resonant near separatrix is also ensured by the increased global shear. The relevance of these considerations tomore » the L..-->..H transition and to the edge transport barrier in H-mode plasmas is discussed.« less
  • Previous studies of DIII-D L-mode plasmas have shown that a transport shortfall exists in that our current models of turbulent transport can significantly underestimate the energy transport in the near edge region. In this paper, the Trapped Gyro-Landau-Fluid (TGLF) drift wave transport model is used to simulate the near edge transport in a DIII-D L-mode experiment designed to explore the impact of varying the safety factor on the shortfall. We find that the shortfall systematically increases with increasing safety factor and is more pronounced for the electrons than for the ions. Within the shortfall dataset, a single high current casemore » has been found where no transport shortfall is predicted. Reduced neutral beam injection power has been identified as the key parameter separating this discharge from other discharges exhibiting a shortfall. Further analysis shows that the energy transport in the L-mode near edge region is not stiff according to TGLF. Unlike the H-mode core region, the predicted temperature profiles are relatively more responsive to changes in auxiliary heating power. In testing the fidelity of TGLF for the near edge region, we find that a recalibration of the collision model is warranted. A recalibration improves agreement between TGLF and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations performed using the GYRO code with electron-ion collisions. As a result, the recalibration only slightly impacts the predicted shortfall.« less