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Title: An analysis of the growth of silver catalyzed In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As nanowires on Si (100) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

Abstract

A model is proposed here to understand the nucleation of III–V semiconductor nanowires (NW). Whereas the classical nucleation theory is not adequately sufficient in explaining the evolution of the shape of the NWs under different chemical environment such as flow rate or partial pressure of the precursors, the effect of adsorption and desorption mediated growth, and diffusion limited growth are taken into account to explain the morphology and the crystal structure of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As nanowires (NW) on Silicon (100) substrates grown by a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique. It is found that the monolayer nucleus that originates at the triple phase line covers the entire nucleus-substrate (NS) region at a specific level of supersaturation and there are cases when the monolayer covers a certain fraction of the NS interface. When the monolayer covers the total NS interface, NWs grow with perfect cylindrical morphology and whenever a fraction of the interface is covered by the nucleus, the NWs become curved as observed from high resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The supersaturation, i.e., the chemical potential is found to be governed by the concentration of precursors into the molten silver which in the present case is taken as a catalyst. Ourmore » study provides new insights into the growth of ternary NWs which will be helpful in understanding the behavior of growth of different semiconducting NWs.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)
  2. Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700098 (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22598835
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; ADSORPTION; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATION; DESORPTION; IMAGES; INTERFACES; MORPHOLOGY; NANOWIRES; ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS; PARTIAL PRESSURE; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; SILICON; SILVER; SUBSTRATES; SUPERSATURATION; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Sarkar, K., Banerji, P., E-mail: pallab@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in, Palit, M., and Chattopadhyay, S.. An analysis of the growth of silver catalyzed In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As nanowires on Si (100) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4961733.
Sarkar, K., Banerji, P., E-mail: pallab@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in, Palit, M., & Chattopadhyay, S.. An analysis of the growth of silver catalyzed In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As nanowires on Si (100) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4961733.
Sarkar, K., Banerji, P., E-mail: pallab@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in, Palit, M., and Chattopadhyay, S.. 2016. "An analysis of the growth of silver catalyzed In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As nanowires on Si (100) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4961733.
@article{osti_22598835,
title = {An analysis of the growth of silver catalyzed In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As nanowires on Si (100) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition},
author = {Sarkar, K. and Banerji, P., E-mail: pallab@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in and Palit, M. and Chattopadhyay, S.},
abstractNote = {A model is proposed here to understand the nucleation of III–V semiconductor nanowires (NW). Whereas the classical nucleation theory is not adequately sufficient in explaining the evolution of the shape of the NWs under different chemical environment such as flow rate or partial pressure of the precursors, the effect of adsorption and desorption mediated growth, and diffusion limited growth are taken into account to explain the morphology and the crystal structure of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As nanowires (NW) on Silicon (100) substrates grown by a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique. It is found that the monolayer nucleus that originates at the triple phase line covers the entire nucleus-substrate (NS) region at a specific level of supersaturation and there are cases when the monolayer covers a certain fraction of the NS interface. When the monolayer covers the total NS interface, NWs grow with perfect cylindrical morphology and whenever a fraction of the interface is covered by the nucleus, the NWs become curved as observed from high resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The supersaturation, i.e., the chemical potential is found to be governed by the concentration of precursors into the molten silver which in the present case is taken as a catalyst. Our study provides new insights into the growth of ternary NWs which will be helpful in understanding the behavior of growth of different semiconducting NWs.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4961733},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 8,
volume = 120,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}
  • After successful demonstration of GaAs nanowire (NW) epitaxial growth on indium tin oxide (ITO) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, we systematically investigate the effect of growth parameters' effect on the GaAs NW, including temperature, precursor molar flow rates, growth time, and Au catalyst size. 40 nm induced GaAs NWs are observed with zinc-blende structure. Based on vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, a kinetic model is used to deepen our understanding of the incorporation of growth species and the role of various growth parameters in tuning the GaAs NW growth rate. Thermally activated behavior has been investigated by variation of growth temperature. Activation energiesmore » of 40 nm Au catalyst induced NWs are calculated at different trimethylgallium (TMGa) molar flow rates about 65 kJ/mol. The GaAs NWs growth rates increase with TMGa molar flow rates whereas the growth rates are almost independent of growth time. Due to Gibbs-Thomson effect, the GaAs NW growth rates increase with Au nanoparticle size at different temperatures. Critical radius is calculated as 2.14 nm at the growth condition of 430 °C and 1.36 μmol/s TMGa flow rate. It is also proved experimentally that Au nanoparticle below the critical radius such as 2 nm cannot initiate the growth of NWs on ITO. This theoretical and experimental growth parameters investigation enables great controllability over GaAs NWs grown on transparent conductive substrate where the methodology can be expanded to other III–V material NWs and is critical for potential hybrid solar cell application.« less
  • We report the first surface-selective depositions of Pd and Ag films from metal-organic precursors. We also describe mechanistic studies of this process by in situ kinetic and spectroscopic studies conducted in ultrahigh vacuum. We have studied three precursors containing the hexafluoroacetylacetonato (hfac) ligand: Pd(hfac)[sub 2] (1), Ag(hfac)(PMe[sub 3]) (2), and AF(hfac)(PMe[sub 3])[sub 2] (3). These compounds (especially 1) are reasonably volatile and sublime readily in vacuo at temperatures of 20-50[degree]C. Chemical vapor depositions from these precursors have been conducted at 200-245[degree]C both under vacuum (10[sup [minus]4] Torr) and in the presence of H[sub 2]. In the presence of H[sub 2],more » Pd(hfac)[sub 2] readily gives micron-thick films of pure palladium metal on glass, silicon, copper, tungsten, aluminum, and nickel at temperatures as low as 200[degrees]C. Mass spectrometic analysis of the byproducts suggests that deposition of Pd involves the reaction of Pd(hfac)[sub 2] with H[sub 2] to form hexafluoroacetylacetone (hfacH). Similar surface-independent depositions of Ag films are observed for the silver precursors under an H[sub 2] atmosphere. This redox transmetalation route may be generally applicable provided that the redox potentials are favorable and that the surface atoms can be carried away as a volatile hfac complex. 33 refs., 1 fig.« less
  • In this study, self-assembled inclined (1-10-3)-oriented GaN nanorods (NRs) were grown on nanoimprinted (10-10) m-sapphire substrates using catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. According to X-ray phi-scans, the inclined GaN NRs were tilted at an angle of ∼57.5° to the [10-10]{sub sapp} direction. Specifically, the GaN NRs grew in a single inclined direction to the [11-20]{sub sapp}. Uni-directionally inclined NRs were formed through the one-sided (10-11)-faceted growth of the interfacial a-GaN plane layer. It was confirmed that a thin layer of a-GaN was formed on r-facet nanogrooves of the m-sapphire substrate by nitridation. The interfacial a-GaN nucleation affected both the inclinedmore » angle and the growth direction of the inclined GaN NRs. Using X-ray diffraction and selective area electron diffraction, the epitaxial relationship between the inclined (1-10-3) GaN NRs and interfacial a-GaN layer on m-sapphire substrates was systematically investigated. Moreover, the inclined GaN NRs were observed to be mostly free of stacking fault-related defects using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • ZnO nanowires were grown on GaAs(0 0 2) substrates using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and on Si(0 0 1) substrates using thermal evaporation of source powders, respectively. It was demonstrated that well-aligned single crystalline nanowires could be grown with controlled sizes using a typical thin film deposition technique without catalysts. Arsenic doping of the ZnO nanowires grown on GaAs substrate was possible using post-growth heat-treatment, proposing a possible way of producing p-type ZnO nanowires. It was also shown that simplified process of carrier-free thermal evaporation without catalyst could be employed to grow nanowires with high yield while maintaining goodmore » crystalline and optical properties. Application potential of the nanowires as probes of atomic force microscopes (AFMs) was discussed by predicting their structural compatibility with AFM cantilevers based on continuum elasticity. It was predicted that the nanowires fabricated herein are structurally compatible with typical AFM cantilevers suggesting that they are promising candidates for high aspect ratio probes.« less