skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Novel glyceryl glucoside is a low toxic alternative for cryopreservation agent

Abstract

Glyceryl glucoside (GG, α-D-glucosyglycerol) is a natural glycerol derivative found in alcoholic drinks. Recently GG has been used as an alternative for glycerol in cosmetic products. However, the safety of using GG is still unclear. Currently, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol are wildly used in cryopreservation. Despite GG being a derivative of glycerol, the ability of GG in cryopreservation is still unknown. By using a system of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), A549 cells and AG1522 cells, the study examined the cryoprotective effects of DMSO, glycerol and GG. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses induced by the three chemicals were also investigated with CHO to determine the safety of GG for cosmetic products. Our data suggests that GG has great cryopresearvation ability in the concentration of 30%–40% (v/v). For cytotoxic studies, DMSO showed the highest cytotoxicity above 3% (v/v) in cell doubling time delay among three chemicals. For the acute cytotoxicity with trypan blue dye exclusion assay, GG showed stronger cell killing effect within 24 h above 4% (v/v). For the continuous cytotoxicity with colony formation assay for 7 days, DMSO showed significantly reduced clonogenic ability above 2%. In genotoxicity studies, CHO treated with glycerol at 2% concentration induced three times higher frequencies of sistermore » chromatid exchange (SCE) than background levels. GG did not induce significant amounts of SCE compared to background. Micronuclei formation was equally observed in the 2% and above concentrations of glycerol and GG. Our data showed that GG has significant effects on cryopreservation compared to DMSO. Glycerol and GG have similar cytotoxicity effects to CHO, but glycerol induced genotoxic responses in the same concentration. Therefore, we conclude that GG may be a safer alternative compound to glycerol in cosmetic products and safer alternative to DMSO in cryopreservation. -- Highlights: •Glyceryl Glucoside is low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. •Glyceryl Glucoside is better cyroprotective agent than glycerol. •Glycerol has higher genotoxicity than Glyceryl Glucoside. •DMSO has higher cytotoxicity than Glyceryl Glucoside.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1618 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)
  2. Research and Development Group, Toyo Sugar Refining Co. Ltd., Tokyo 103-0046 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22598791
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 476; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ABUNDANCE; CELL KILLING; CHO CELLS; CHROMATIDS; COLONY FORMATION; CONCENTRATION RATIO; DMSO; GLYCEROL; HAMSTERS; OVARIES; SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGES; TOXICITY; TRYPAN BLUE

Citation Formats

Su, Cathy, Allum, Allison J., Aizawa, Yasushi, and Kato, Takamitsu A., E-mail: Takamitsu.Kato@Colostate.edu. Novel glyceryl glucoside is a low toxic alternative for cryopreservation agent. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2016.05.127.
Su, Cathy, Allum, Allison J., Aizawa, Yasushi, & Kato, Takamitsu A., E-mail: Takamitsu.Kato@Colostate.edu. Novel glyceryl glucoside is a low toxic alternative for cryopreservation agent. United States. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2016.05.127.
Su, Cathy, Allum, Allison J., Aizawa, Yasushi, and Kato, Takamitsu A., E-mail: Takamitsu.Kato@Colostate.edu. Fri . "Novel glyceryl glucoside is a low toxic alternative for cryopreservation agent". United States. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2016.05.127.
@article{osti_22598791,
title = {Novel glyceryl glucoside is a low toxic alternative for cryopreservation agent},
author = {Su, Cathy and Allum, Allison J. and Aizawa, Yasushi and Kato, Takamitsu A., E-mail: Takamitsu.Kato@Colostate.edu},
abstractNote = {Glyceryl glucoside (GG, α-D-glucosyglycerol) is a natural glycerol derivative found in alcoholic drinks. Recently GG has been used as an alternative for glycerol in cosmetic products. However, the safety of using GG is still unclear. Currently, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol are wildly used in cryopreservation. Despite GG being a derivative of glycerol, the ability of GG in cryopreservation is still unknown. By using a system of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), A549 cells and AG1522 cells, the study examined the cryoprotective effects of DMSO, glycerol and GG. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses induced by the three chemicals were also investigated with CHO to determine the safety of GG for cosmetic products. Our data suggests that GG has great cryopresearvation ability in the concentration of 30%–40% (v/v). For cytotoxic studies, DMSO showed the highest cytotoxicity above 3% (v/v) in cell doubling time delay among three chemicals. For the acute cytotoxicity with trypan blue dye exclusion assay, GG showed stronger cell killing effect within 24 h above 4% (v/v). For the continuous cytotoxicity with colony formation assay for 7 days, DMSO showed significantly reduced clonogenic ability above 2%. In genotoxicity studies, CHO treated with glycerol at 2% concentration induced three times higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) than background levels. GG did not induce significant amounts of SCE compared to background. Micronuclei formation was equally observed in the 2% and above concentrations of glycerol and GG. Our data showed that GG has significant effects on cryopreservation compared to DMSO. Glycerol and GG have similar cytotoxicity effects to CHO, but glycerol induced genotoxic responses in the same concentration. Therefore, we conclude that GG may be a safer alternative compound to glycerol in cosmetic products and safer alternative to DMSO in cryopreservation. -- Highlights: •Glyceryl Glucoside is low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. •Glyceryl Glucoside is better cyroprotective agent than glycerol. •Glycerol has higher genotoxicity than Glyceryl Glucoside. •DMSO has higher cytotoxicity than Glyceryl Glucoside.},
doi = {10.1016/J.BBRC.2016.05.127},
journal = {Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications},
number = 4,
volume = 476,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 05 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Aug 05 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Abstract not provided.
  • It is estimated that of the four million chemical compounds which have been synthesized or isolated from natural materials, more than 55,000 are produced commercially. Approximately 1,000 new compounds are introduced annually; pesticide formulations alone contain about 1,500 active chemical ingredients. Diagnostic x-rays are used extensively in medicine and dentistry. Over 2,000 chemicals are suspected carcinogens in laboratory animals--epidemiologic evidence suggests that 26 of these chemicals and/or industrial processes are carcinogenic in humans. More than 20 agents are known to be associated with birth defects in humans; 47 atmospheric contaminants have been identified in animal studies as recognized carcinogens andmore » 128 as mutagens; and, of the 765 contaminants identified in drinking water, 12 were recognized carcinogens, 31 suspected carcinogens, and 59 mutagens. Radiation has known carcinogenic and genetic effects at significant levels of exposure. Problems with toxic agents and radiation sources occur not only in industry, but also in medical and dental care (x-rays and drugs), agriculture (pesticides and herbicides), Government activities (biological and chemical agents), consumer products (incorrect use of consumer products which contain toxic substances), and natural sources (fungal products).« less
  • Tear gas has gained widespread acceptance as a means of controlling civilian crowds and subduing barricaded criminals. The most widely used forms of tear gas have been o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and omega-chloroacetophenone. Proponents of their use claim that, if used correctly, the noxious effects of exposure are transient and of no long-term consequences. The use of tear gas in recent situations of civil unrest, however, demonstrates that exposure to the weapon is difficult to control and indiscriminate, and the weapon is often not used correctly. Severe traumatic injury from exploding tear gas bombs as well as lethal toxic injury have been documented.more » Moreover, available toxicological data are deficient as to the potential of tear gas agents to cause long-term pulmonary, carcinogenic, and reproductive effects. Published and recent unpublished in vitro tests have shown o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile to be both clastogenic and mutagenic. Sadly, the nature of its use renders analytic epidemiologic investigation of exposed persons difficult. In 1969, eighty countries voted to include tear gas agents among chemical weapons banned under the Geneva Protocol. There is an ongoing need for investigation into the full toxicological potential of tear gas chemicals and renewed debate on whether their use can be condoned under any circumstances. 48 references.« less