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Title: Three-dimensional atomic force microscopy mapping at the solid-liquid interface with fast and flexible data acquisition

Abstract

We present the implementation of a three-dimensional mapping routine for probing solid-liquid interfaces using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. Our implementation enables fast and flexible data acquisition of up to 20 channels simultaneously. The acquired data can be directly synchronized with commercial atomic force microscope controllers, making our routine easily extendable for related techniques that require additional data channels, e.g., Kelvin probe force microscopy. Moreover, the closest approach of the tip to the sample is limited by a user-defined threshold, providing the possibility to prevent potential damage to the tip. The performance of our setup is demonstrated by visualizing the hydration structure above the calcite (10.4) surface in water.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ;  [1]
  1. Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)
  2. (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22597976
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; CALCITE; DATA ACQUISITION; FREQUENCY MODULATION; HYDRATION; IMPLEMENTATION; INTERFACES; LIQUIDS; MAPPING; PROBES; SOLIDS; SURFACES; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; THREE-DIMENSIONAL LATTICES; WATER

Citation Formats

Söngen, Hagen, E-mail: soengen@uni-mainz.de, Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz, Nalbach, Martin, Adam, Holger, and Kühnle, Angelika. Three-dimensional atomic force microscopy mapping at the solid-liquid interface with fast and flexible data acquisition. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4952954.
Söngen, Hagen, E-mail: soengen@uni-mainz.de, Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz, Nalbach, Martin, Adam, Holger, & Kühnle, Angelika. Three-dimensional atomic force microscopy mapping at the solid-liquid interface with fast and flexible data acquisition. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4952954.
Söngen, Hagen, E-mail: soengen@uni-mainz.de, Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz, Nalbach, Martin, Adam, Holger, and Kühnle, Angelika. 2016. "Three-dimensional atomic force microscopy mapping at the solid-liquid interface with fast and flexible data acquisition". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4952954.
@article{osti_22597976,
title = {Three-dimensional atomic force microscopy mapping at the solid-liquid interface with fast and flexible data acquisition},
author = {Söngen, Hagen, E-mail: soengen@uni-mainz.de and Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz and Nalbach, Martin and Adam, Holger and Kühnle, Angelika},
abstractNote = {We present the implementation of a three-dimensional mapping routine for probing solid-liquid interfaces using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. Our implementation enables fast and flexible data acquisition of up to 20 channels simultaneously. The acquired data can be directly synchronized with commercial atomic force microscope controllers, making our routine easily extendable for related techniques that require additional data channels, e.g., Kelvin probe force microscopy. Moreover, the closest approach of the tip to the sample is limited by a user-defined threshold, providing the possibility to prevent potential damage to the tip. The performance of our setup is demonstrated by visualizing the hydration structure above the calcite (10.4) surface in water.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4952954},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 6,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surfacemore » as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single-and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. As a result, a multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information.« less
  • Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has provided deep insights into the role local electronic, ionic and electrochemical processes play on the global functionality of materials and devices, even down to the atomic scale. Conventional KPFM utilizes heterodyne detection and bias feedback to measure the contact potential difference (CPD) between tip and sample. This measurement paradigm, however, permits only partial recovery of the information encoded in bias- and time-dependent electrostatic interactions between the tip and sample and effectively down-samples the cantilever response to a single measurement of CPD per pixel. This level of detail is insufficient for electroactive materials, devices, ormore » solid-liquid interfaces, where non-linear dielectrics are present or spurious electrostatic events are possible. Here, we simulate and experimentally validate a novel approach for spatially resolved KPFM capable of a full information transfer of the dynamic electric processes occurring between tip and sample. General acquisition mode, or G-Mode, adopts a big data approach utilising high speed detection, compression, and storage of the raw cantilever deflection signal in its entirety at high sampling rates (> 4 MHz), providing a permanent record of the tip trajectory. We develop a range of methodologies for analysing the resultant large multidimensional datasets involving classical, physics-based and information-based approaches. Physics-based analysis of G-Mode KPFM data recovers the parabolic bias dependence of the electrostatic force for each cycle of the excitation voltage, leading to a multidimensional dataset containing spatial and temporal dependence of the CPD and capacitance channels. We use multivariate statistical methods to reduce data volume and separate the complex multidimensional data sets into statistically significant components that can then be mapped onto separate physical mechanisms. Overall, G-Mode KPFM offers a new paradigm to study dynamic electric phenomena in electroactive interfaces as well as offer a promising approach to extend KPFM to solid-liquid interfaces.« less
  • The crystalline phases and domain configuration in the morphotropic phase boundary composition Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.34PbTiO3 (PMN-0.34PT) single crystal have been investigated by synchrotronbased X-ray 3D Reciprocal Space Mapping (3D-RSM) and Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. The coexistence of tetragonal (T) and monoclinic MC phases in this PMN-0.34PT single crystal is confirmed. The affiliation of each diffraction spot in the 3D-RSM was identified with the assistance of qualitative simulation. Most importantly, the twinning structure between different domains in such a mixed phase PMN-PT crystal is firmly clarified, and the spatial distribution of different twin domains is demonstrated. In addition, the lattice parameters of T andmore » MC phases in PMN-0.34PT single crystal as well as the tilting angles of crystal lattices caused by the interfacial lattice mismatch are determined.« less
  • The crystalline phases and domain configuration in the morphotropic phase boundary composition Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.34PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-0.34PT) single crystal have been investigated by synchrotron-based X-ray 3D Reciprocal Space Mapping (3D-RSM) and Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. The coexistence of tetragonal (T) and monoclinic M{sub C} phases in this PMN-0.34PT single crystal is confirmed. The affiliation of each diffraction spot in the 3D-RSM was identified with the assistance of qualitative simulation. Most importantly, the twinning structure between different domains in such a mixed phase PMN-PT crystal is firmly clarified, and the spatial distribution of different twin domains is demonstrated. In addition, themore » lattice parameters of T and M{sub C} phases in PMN-0.34PT single crystal as well as the tilting angles of crystal lattices caused by the interfacial lattice mismatch are determined.« less