skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Electric field dynamics in nitride structures containing quaternary alloy (Al, In, Ga)N

Abstract

Molecular beam epitaxy growth and basic physical properties of quaternary AlInGaN layers, sufficiently thick for construction of electron blocking layers (EBL), embedded in ternary InGaN layers are presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement revealed good crystallographic structure and compositional uniformity of the quaternary layers contained in other nitride layers, which are typical for construction of nitride based devices. The AlInGaN layer was epitaxially compatible to InGaN matrix, strained, and no strain related dislocation creation was observed. The strain penetrated for limited depth, below 3 nm, even for relatively high content of indium (7%). For lower indium content (0.6%), the strain was below the detection limit by TEM strain analysis. The structures containing quaternary AlInGaN layers were studied by time dependent photoluminescence (PL) at different temperatures and excitation powers. It was shown that PL spectra contain three peaks: high energy donor bound exciton peak from the bulk GaN (DX GaN) and the two peaks (A and B) from InGaN layers. No emission from quaternary AlInGaN layers was observed. An accumulation of electrons on the EBL interface in high-In sample and formation of 2D electron gas (2DEG) was detected. The dynamics of 2DEG was studied by time resolved luminescence revealing strong dependence ofmore » emission energy on the 2DEG concentration. Theoretical calculations as well as power-dependence and temperature-dependence analysis showed the importance of electric field inside the structure. At the interface, the field was screened by carriers and could be changed by illumination. From these measurements, the dynamics of electric field was described as the discharge of carriers accumulated on the EBL.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3];  [4];  [2];  [4];  [1];  [3];  [2];  [1];  [2]
  1. Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)
  2. (Poland)
  3. Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)
  4. Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22597895
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; DEPLETION LAYER; DISLOCATIONS; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ELECTRONS; GALLIUM NITRIDES; INDIUM; MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY; MOLECULAR BEAMS; PEAKS; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; QUATERNARY ALLOY SYSTEMS; STRAINS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TIME DEPENDENCE; TIME RESOLUTION; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Borysiuk, J., E-mail: jolanta.borysiuk@ifpan.edu.pl, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw, Sakowski, K., Muziol, G., Krukowski, S., Dróżdż, P., Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw, Korona, K. P., Sobczak, K., Skierbiszewski, C., TopGaN Ltd., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw, Kaminska, A., and Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Dewajtis 5, 01-815 Warsaw. Electric field dynamics in nitride structures containing quaternary alloy (Al, In, Ga)N. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4955077.
Borysiuk, J., E-mail: jolanta.borysiuk@ifpan.edu.pl, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw, Sakowski, K., Muziol, G., Krukowski, S., Dróżdż, P., Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw, Korona, K. P., Sobczak, K., Skierbiszewski, C., TopGaN Ltd., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw, Kaminska, A., & Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Dewajtis 5, 01-815 Warsaw. Electric field dynamics in nitride structures containing quaternary alloy (Al, In, Ga)N. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4955077.
Borysiuk, J., E-mail: jolanta.borysiuk@ifpan.edu.pl, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw, Sakowski, K., Muziol, G., Krukowski, S., Dróżdż, P., Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw, Korona, K. P., Sobczak, K., Skierbiszewski, C., TopGaN Ltd., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw, Kaminska, A., and Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Dewajtis 5, 01-815 Warsaw. 2016. "Electric field dynamics in nitride structures containing quaternary alloy (Al, In, Ga)N". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4955077.
@article{osti_22597895,
title = {Electric field dynamics in nitride structures containing quaternary alloy (Al, In, Ga)N},
author = {Borysiuk, J., E-mail: jolanta.borysiuk@ifpan.edu.pl and Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw and Sakowski, K. and Muziol, G. and Krukowski, S. and Dróżdż, P. and Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw and Korona, K. P. and Sobczak, K. and Skierbiszewski, C. and TopGaN Ltd., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw and Kaminska, A. and Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Dewajtis 5, 01-815 Warsaw},
abstractNote = {Molecular beam epitaxy growth and basic physical properties of quaternary AlInGaN layers, sufficiently thick for construction of electron blocking layers (EBL), embedded in ternary InGaN layers are presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement revealed good crystallographic structure and compositional uniformity of the quaternary layers contained in other nitride layers, which are typical for construction of nitride based devices. The AlInGaN layer was epitaxially compatible to InGaN matrix, strained, and no strain related dislocation creation was observed. The strain penetrated for limited depth, below 3 nm, even for relatively high content of indium (7%). For lower indium content (0.6%), the strain was below the detection limit by TEM strain analysis. The structures containing quaternary AlInGaN layers were studied by time dependent photoluminescence (PL) at different temperatures and excitation powers. It was shown that PL spectra contain three peaks: high energy donor bound exciton peak from the bulk GaN (DX GaN) and the two peaks (A and B) from InGaN layers. No emission from quaternary AlInGaN layers was observed. An accumulation of electrons on the EBL interface in high-In sample and formation of 2D electron gas (2DEG) was detected. The dynamics of 2DEG was studied by time resolved luminescence revealing strong dependence of emission energy on the 2DEG concentration. Theoretical calculations as well as power-dependence and temperature-dependence analysis showed the importance of electric field inside the structure. At the interface, the field was screened by carriers and could be changed by illumination. From these measurements, the dynamics of electric field was described as the discharge of carriers accumulated on the EBL.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4955077},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 120,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • Phenomena due to the penetration of an alternating (longitudinal) electric field into a superconductor were studied theoretically and experimentally with a superconducting structure consisting of a Josephson bridge with an adjacent inhomogeneity at one end. The current-voltage characteristic of a bridge used at the same time to excite and detect the alternating electric field wave reflected from the inhomogeneity showed the theoretically predicted increase in the differential resistance in a voltage range of the order of tau/sub epsilon//sup -1/, where tau/sub epsilon/ is the energy relaxation time. This was utilized in order to estimate tau/sub epsilon/.
  • The room temperature crystal structures of six A{sub 2}MMoO{sub 6} and A{sub 2}MWO{sub 6} ordered double perovskites were determined from X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. Ba{sub 2}MgWO{sub 6} and Ba{sub 2}CaMoO{sub 6} both adopt cubic symmetry (space group Fm3-bar m, tilt system a{sup 0}a{sup 0}a{sup 0}). Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6} has nearly the same tolerance factor (t=0.972) as Ba{sub 2}CaMoO{sub 6} (t=0.974), yet it surprisingly crystallizes with I4/m symmetry indicative of out-of-phase rotations of the MO{sub 6} octahedra about the c-axis (a{sup 0}a{sup 0}c{sup -}). Sr{sub 2}ZnMoO{sub 6} (t=0.979) also adopts I4/m symmetry; whereas, Sr{sub 2}ZnWO{sub 6} (t=0.976) crystallizes withmore » monoclinic symmetry (P2{sub 1}/n) with out-of-phase octahedral tilting distortions about the a- and b-axes, and in-phase tilting about the c-axis (a{sup -}a{sup -}c{sup +}). Ca{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6} (t=0.867) also has P2{sub 1}/n symmetry with large tilting distortions about all three crystallographic axes and distorted CaO{sub 6} octahedra. Analysis of 93 double perovskites and their crystal structures showed that while the type and magnitude of the octahedral tilting distortions are controlled primarily by the tolerance factor, the identity of the A-cation acts as the secondary structure directing factor. When A=Ba{sup 2+} the boundary between cubic and tetragonal symmetries falls near t=0.97, whereas when A=Sr{sup 2+} this boundary falls somewhere between t=1.018 and t=0.992. - Graphical abstract: A survey of the tolerance factor of 41 Mo/W- and 52 Nb/Ta-containing quaternary perovskites plotted as a function of the difference between the two six-coordinate M-cation ionic radii. Compounds with cubic symmetry are represented by diamonds, those with tetragonal symmetry are represented by squares, those with I2/m monoclinic symmetry are represented by Multiplication-Sign , and those with P2{sub 1}/n monoclinic symmetry are represented by triangles. White symbols represent compositions where A=Ba{sup 2+}, gray symbols represent compositions where A=Sr{sup 2+}, and black symbols represent where A=Ca{sup 2+}. The filled circle represents rhombohedral Ba{sub 2}BiTaO{sub 6} (t=0.961; space group-R3-bar ; tilt system-a{sup -}a{sup -}a{sup -}). References for the compounds included in this figure are listed in the Supporting Information File. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reports the structures of six double perovskites containing either Mo{sup 6+} or W{sup 6+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds with similar tolerance factors (t) exhibited different symmetries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect was observed in Sr{sub 2}ZnMO{sub 6} and Ba{sub 2}CaMO{sub 6} (M=Mo or W). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contains a structural survey of 93 double perovskites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Octahedral tilting distortions are controlled by t and the nature of the A-cation.« less
  • The torsional mechanical properties of hexagonal single-walled boron nitride nanotubes (SWBNNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and their hybrid structures (SWBN-CNTs) are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Two approaches - force approach and energy approach, are adopted to calculate the shear moduli of SWBNNTs and SWCNTs, the discrepancy between two approaches is analyzed. The results show that the shear moduli of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), including SWBNNTs and SWCNTs are dependent on the diameter, especially for armchair SWNTs. The armchair SWNTs show the better ability of resistance the twisting comparable to the zigzag SWNTs. The effects of diameter and length onmore » the critical values of torque of SWNTs are obtained by comparing the torsional behaviors of SWNTs with different diameters and different lengths. It is observed that the MD results of the effect of diameter and length on the critical values of torque agrees well with the prediction of continuum shell model. The shear modulus of SWBN-CNT has a significant dependence on the percentages of SWCNT and the hybrid style has also an influence on shear modulus. The critical values of torque of SWBN-CNTs increase with the increase of the percentages of SWCNT. This phenomenon can be interpreted by the function relationship between the torque of different bonds (B-N-X, C-C-X, C-B-X, C-N-X) and the angles of bonds.« less
  • It is known that Al-Li alloys possess high elastic modulus and low density, and the metastable [delta][prime] (Al[sub 3]Li) precipitate in these alloys affords considerable strengthening effect. However, with the strengthening resulting from the precipitation of [delta][prime] which is coherent with the matrix, these alloys suffer from low ductility and fracture toughness. It seems that the loss of ductility is the slip localization which occurs as a result of slip planes during deformation in connection with the specific hardening mechanism. As a result it indicates typical intergranular fracture. On the one hand, zirconium is used in many aluminum alloys tomore » inhibit recrystallization during alloy processing. When zirconium is present in the alloy grain refinement occurs, which consequently, is considered as a factor that reduces the slip distance, and lowers the stress concentration across grain boundaries and at grain boundary triple points. Nevertheless, if only zirconium is added in Al-Li alloy it still shows intergranular fracture. By Zedaris et al., equilibrium phase Al[sub 3](Zr,V) in Al-Zr alloy containing V reduces the lattice mismatch along the c-axis with Al and, the L1[sub 2]-structure metastable precipitates Al[sub 3](Zr,V) in Al-Zr-V alloys are stable at elevated temperature. Therefore, it is interesting to elucidate the effect of V in Al-Li-Zr alloy at the precipitation structures and mechanical properties of these alloys.« less