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Title: Efficient control of ultrafast optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide by infrared reduction

Abstract

Simultaneous occurrence of saturable absorption nonlinearity and two-photon absorption nonlinearity in the same medium is well sought for the devices like optical limiter and laser mode-locker. Pristine graphene sheet consisting entirely of sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms has already been identified having large optical nonlinearity. However, graphene oxide (GO), a precursor of graphene having both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3}-hybridized carbon atom, is increasingly attracting cross-discipline researchers for its controllable properties by reduction of oxygen containing groups. In this work, GO has been prepared by modified Hummers method, and it has been further reduced by infrared (IR) radiation. Characterization of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by means of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Visible absorption measurements confirms an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. Here, we report precise control of non-linear optical properties of RGO in femtosecond regime with increased degrees of IR reduction measured by open aperture z-scan technique. Depending on the intensity, both saturable absorption and two-photon absorption effects are found to contribute to the non-linearity of all the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (∼127 GW/cm{sup 2}) while two-photon absorption becomes prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm{sup 2} to 302 GW/cm{sup 2}). The values of two-photon absorption co-efficient (∼0.0022–0.0037 cm/GW for GO,more » and ∼0.0128–0.0143 cm/GW for RGO) and the saturation intensity (∼57 GW/cm{sup 2} for GO, and ∼194 GW/cm{sup 2} for RGO) increase with increasing reduction, indicating GO and RGO as novel tunable photonic devices. We have also explained the reason of tunable nonlinear optical properties by using amorphous carbon model.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22597883
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ABSORPTION; APERTURES; CONTROL; GRAPHENE; INFRARED RADIATION; LASERS; NONLINEAR OPTICS; NONLINEAR PROBLEMS; OPTICAL PROPERTIES; OXIDES; OXYGEN; PHOTONS; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; REDUCTION; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Bhattachraya, S., Maiti, R., Das, A. C., Saha, S., Mondal, S., Ray, S. K., Bhaktha, S. N. B., and Datta, P. K., E-mail: pkdatta.iitkgp@gmail.com. Efficient control of ultrafast optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide by infrared reduction. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4955140.
Bhattachraya, S., Maiti, R., Das, A. C., Saha, S., Mondal, S., Ray, S. K., Bhaktha, S. N. B., & Datta, P. K., E-mail: pkdatta.iitkgp@gmail.com. Efficient control of ultrafast optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide by infrared reduction. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4955140.
Bhattachraya, S., Maiti, R., Das, A. C., Saha, S., Mondal, S., Ray, S. K., Bhaktha, S. N. B., and Datta, P. K., E-mail: pkdatta.iitkgp@gmail.com. Thu . "Efficient control of ultrafast optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide by infrared reduction". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4955140.
@article{osti_22597883,
title = {Efficient control of ultrafast optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide by infrared reduction},
author = {Bhattachraya, S. and Maiti, R. and Das, A. C. and Saha, S. and Mondal, S. and Ray, S. K. and Bhaktha, S. N. B. and Datta, P. K., E-mail: pkdatta.iitkgp@gmail.com},
abstractNote = {Simultaneous occurrence of saturable absorption nonlinearity and two-photon absorption nonlinearity in the same medium is well sought for the devices like optical limiter and laser mode-locker. Pristine graphene sheet consisting entirely of sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms has already been identified having large optical nonlinearity. However, graphene oxide (GO), a precursor of graphene having both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3}-hybridized carbon atom, is increasingly attracting cross-discipline researchers for its controllable properties by reduction of oxygen containing groups. In this work, GO has been prepared by modified Hummers method, and it has been further reduced by infrared (IR) radiation. Characterization of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by means of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Visible absorption measurements confirms an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. Here, we report precise control of non-linear optical properties of RGO in femtosecond regime with increased degrees of IR reduction measured by open aperture z-scan technique. Depending on the intensity, both saturable absorption and two-photon absorption effects are found to contribute to the non-linearity of all the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (∼127 GW/cm{sup 2}) while two-photon absorption becomes prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm{sup 2} to 302 GW/cm{sup 2}). The values of two-photon absorption co-efficient (∼0.0022–0.0037 cm/GW for GO, and ∼0.0128–0.0143 cm/GW for RGO) and the saturation intensity (∼57 GW/cm{sup 2} for GO, and ∼194 GW/cm{sup 2} for RGO) increase with increasing reduction, indicating GO and RGO as novel tunable photonic devices. We have also explained the reason of tunable nonlinear optical properties by using amorphous carbon model.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4955140},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 120,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jul 07 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Jul 07 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}