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Title: 3D printing of gas jet nozzles for laser-plasma accelerators

Abstract

Recent results on laser wakefield acceleration in tailored plasma channels have underlined the importance of controlling the density profile of the gas target. In particular, it was reported that the appropriate density tailoring can result in improved injection, acceleration, and collimation of laser-accelerated electron beams. To achieve such profiles, innovative target designs are required. For this purpose, we have reviewed the usage of additive layer manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, in order to produce gas jet nozzles. Notably we have compared the performance of two industry standard techniques, namely, selective laser sintering (SLS) and stereolithography (SLA). Furthermore we have used the common fused deposition modeling to reproduce basic gas jet designs and used SLA and SLS for more sophisticated nozzle designs. The nozzles are characterized interferometrically and used for electron acceleration experiments with the SALLE JAUNE terawatt laser at Laboratoire d’Optique Appliquée.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 Boulevard des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22597835
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ACCELERATION; ADDITIVES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DENSITY; DEPOSITION; DESIGN; ELECTRON BEAMS; ELECTRONS; INJECTION; JETS; LASERS; LAYERS; MANUFACTURING; NOZZLES; PLASMA GUNS; SINTERING; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Döpp, A., Guillaume, E., Thaury, C., Gautier, J., Ta Phuoc, K., and Malka, V.. 3D printing of gas jet nozzles for laser-plasma accelerators. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4958649.
Döpp, A., Guillaume, E., Thaury, C., Gautier, J., Ta Phuoc, K., & Malka, V.. 3D printing of gas jet nozzles for laser-plasma accelerators. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4958649.
Döpp, A., Guillaume, E., Thaury, C., Gautier, J., Ta Phuoc, K., and Malka, V.. 2016. "3D printing of gas jet nozzles for laser-plasma accelerators". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4958649.
@article{osti_22597835,
title = {3D printing of gas jet nozzles for laser-plasma accelerators},
author = {Döpp, A. and Guillaume, E. and Thaury, C. and Gautier, J. and Ta Phuoc, K. and Malka, V.},
abstractNote = {Recent results on laser wakefield acceleration in tailored plasma channels have underlined the importance of controlling the density profile of the gas target. In particular, it was reported that the appropriate density tailoring can result in improved injection, acceleration, and collimation of laser-accelerated electron beams. To achieve such profiles, innovative target designs are required. For this purpose, we have reviewed the usage of additive layer manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, in order to produce gas jet nozzles. Notably we have compared the performance of two industry standard techniques, namely, selective laser sintering (SLS) and stereolithography (SLA). Furthermore we have used the common fused deposition modeling to reproduce basic gas jet designs and used SLA and SLS for more sophisticated nozzle designs. The nozzles are characterized interferometrically and used for electron acceleration experiments with the SALLE JAUNE terawatt laser at Laboratoire d’Optique Appliquée.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4958649},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 7,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • In this work we optimize the contour of supersonic nozzles to produce long and stable gas jets suitable to be used in loose focus laser-plasma applications. The nozzle design method takes into account the inclusion of a boundary layer that increases the length of the usable gas jet. Two 8 mm supersonic nozzles were characterized, one with a Mach number of 3 and another with a Mach number of 6, using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer performed with a He:Ne 4 cm expanded laser beam. The experimental results confirm that the inclusion of the boundary layer produces an 8 mm constant longitudinalmore » density profile for the nozzle with a Mach number of 6 (NM6) and a 4.5 mm constant longitudinal density profile for the nozzle with a Mach number of 3 (NM3).« less
  • he wakefield generated in a plasma by incoherently combining a large number of low energy laser pulses (i.e.,without constraining the pulse phases) is studied analytically and by means of fully-self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The structure of the wakefield has been characterized and its amplitude compared with the amplitude of the wake generated by a single (coherent) laser pulse. We show that, in spite of the incoherent nature of the wakefield within the volume occupied by the laser pulses, behind this region the structure of the wakefield can be regular with an amplitude comparable or equal to that obtained from a singlemore » pulse with the same energy. Wake generation requires that the incoherent structure in the laser energy density produced by the combined pulses exists on a time scale short compared to the plasma period. Incoherent combination of multiple laser pulses may enable a technologically simpler path to high-repetition rate, high-average power laser-plasma accelerators and associated applications.« less
  • The operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators are discussed. Beamstrahlung limits the charge per bunch at low plasma densities. Reduced laser intensity is examined to improve accelerator efficiency in the beamstrahlung-limited regime.
  • The wakefield generated in a plasma by incoherently combining a large number of low energy laser pulses (i.e., without constraining the pulse phases) is studied analytically and by means of fully self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The structure of the wakefield has been characterized and its amplitude compared with the amplitude of the wake generated by a single (coherent) laser pulse. We show that, in spite of the incoherent nature of the wakefield within the volume occupied by the laser pulses, behind this region, the structure of the wakefield can be regular with an amplitude comparable or equal to that obtained frommore » a single pulse with the same energy. Wake generation requires that the incoherent structures in the laser energy density produced by the combined pulses exist on a time scale short compared to the plasma period. Incoherent combination of multiple laser pulses may enable a technologically simpler path to high-repetition rate, high-average power laser-plasma accelerators, and associated applications.« less
  • Plasma-based accelerators are discussed in which high-power short pulse lasers are the power source, suitably tailored plasma structures provide guiding of the laser beam and support large accelerating gradients, and an optical scheme is used to produce time-synchronized ultrashort electron bunches. From scaling laws laser requirements are obtained for development of compact high-energy accelerators. Simulation results of laser guiding and wakefield excitation in plasma channels, as well as laser-based injection of particles into a plasma wake, are presented. Details of the experimental program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on laser guiding, laser wakefield-based accelerators, and laser triggered injection are given.