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Title: The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

Abstract

The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10{sup 14} ions/(cm{sup 2} s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used tomore » irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3]
  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22597714
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; BEAM CURRENTS; BEAM PROFILES; COPPER; DEUTERIUM; DEUTERIUM IONS; ELECTROSTATIC LENSES; FIRST WALL; HELIUM; HELIUM IONS; HYDROGEN; ION BEAMS; IRRADIATION; MONOCRYSTALS; NEODYMIUM LASERS; NEUTRONS; PLASMA; THERMONUCLEAR REACTORS; TUNGSTEN; WISCONSIN; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Garrison, L. M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov, Egle, B. J., Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, Zenobia, S. J., Kulcinski, G. L., and Santarius, J. F.. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4959201.
Garrison, L. M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov, Egle, B. J., Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, Zenobia, S. J., Kulcinski, G. L., & Santarius, J. F.. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4959201.
Garrison, L. M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov, Egle, B. J., Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, Zenobia, S. J., Kulcinski, G. L., and Santarius, J. F.. 2016. "The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4959201.
@article{osti_22597714,
title = {The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions},
author = {Garrison, L. M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov and Egle, B. J. and Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 and Zenobia, S. J. and Kulcinski, G. L. and Santarius, J. F.},
abstractNote = {The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10{sup 14} ions/(cm{sup 2} s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4959201},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 8,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}
  • The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ionmore » gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10 14 ions/(cm 2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.« less
  • Cited by 2
  • This paper describes the results of a study of the properties affecting the performance of carbon--carbon composites as plasma-facing materials in magnetic fusion reactors. A composite has already been chosen for the protective limiter of the rf antenna in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and composites are being considered for divertor applications in the Compact Ignition Tokamak. In direct comparison with results for POCO AXF-5Q graphite, the composites were able to survive more severe high heat flux conditions, released less water vapor and gases during the thermal outgassing tests, and retained less tritium during exposure to tritium gas and plasma.
  • Intense magnetized hydrogen and deuterium plasmas have been produced with electron densities up to 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} and electron temperatures up to 3.7 eV with a linear plasma generator. Exposure of a W target has led to average heat and particle flux densities well in excess of 4 MW m{sup -2} and 10{sup 24} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. We have shown that the plasma surface interactions are dominated by the incoming ions. The achieved conditions correspond very well to the projected conditions at the divertor strike zones of fusion reactors such as ITER. In addition, themore » machine has an unprecedented high gas efficiency.« less